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•^^^^^k^k^ri^ ^ 

SECOND edition; 


hictonr eoablea m to f oca at th« tffecUt when experience preaenta the causes aJone." — BouifOBRouc. 






Entered according ta act of Congress, in the yevr eighteen hundred and forty .three, by 


in the Office of the Clerk of the Southern District of New York. 

f<^ ^^ry^^^m ^\^^^^^\ 


No. 144 Na«aa Street, New Yorfc. 







Is bounded north by North Hempstead, east by Oyster Bay, 
south by the Atlantic ocean, and west by Jamaica ; area about 
100 square miles, or 64,000 acres, and centrally distant from New 
York city 23 miles. The town originally extended north to the 
waters of the Sound, including the present territory of North 
Hempstead, which was taken from it in 1784, making the line of 
separation, nearly through the centre of Hempstead plains. 

The first effectual attempt by the English to settle Queen's 
County, was made in this town in 1643, by emigrants from New 
England, the most of whom had resided a few years at Wethersfield 
and Stamford, in the jurisdiction of New Haven. A good part of 
the first settlers, it is supposed, were natives of Hemel Hemp- 
stead, a town in England, distant about 20 miles froniLondoiTT 

The colony of New Haven had, in 1640, by their agent, pur- 
chased Rippowams of the Indians, and called the place Stamford. 
The church at Wethersfield having become unhappily divided, the 
minority party were persuaded to remove to Stamford, they agreed 
to repay the price which had been given for it, and to settle twenty 
men upon it by the last of Nov. 1641. 

From thirty to forty families were settled there during the year, 
among whom were the Rev. Richard Denton, Capt. John Under- 
bill, Andrew Ward, Jonas Wood, Thurston Raynor, Matthew 
Mitchell, William Raynor, Robert Coe, Richard Guildersleeve, 


Robert Fordham, Edward Raynor, Robert Jackson, John Ogden, 
John Karman and others, whose naipes it is now impracticable to 
ascertain, the records of Stamford being at this time very in- 
complete. What particular reasons induced the removal of 
these individuals to Long Island, will probably never be known ; 
but in 1643, a committee was sent over by them, who succeeded 
in making a purchase from the natives, the conveyance for which, 
however, has not been discovered.* 

In the spring of 1644, the company crossed the Sound, landed 
at Hempstead Harbor, and began the settlement on the present 
site of the village of Hempstead. The materials for building, 
except timber, were at that time almost entirely wanting, and their 
first habitations were therefore, doubtless, of the very rudest con- 
struction. It was impossible to avoid a qualified subjection to 
the Dutch government, their plantation being within the undis- 
puted limits of New Netherlands. 

They consequently took early measures to obtain the public 
sanction of Governor Keift to their further proceedings. The 
design, it seems, met the cordial approval of his excellency and 
council, and a patent or ground-brief was obtained, bearing date 
Nov. 16, 1614, and is as follows : — 

" Know all men whom these presents may in any wise concern, that 1, Wil- 
liam KieA, (or Kierst,) Esq., governor of the province called New Neiher- 

* Several of the first settlers here were persons of considerable distinction 
in New England. Thurston Raynor had been a delegate from Weathersfield 
to the first general assembly, under Gov. Haynes, and was, as well as Mr. Guil- 
dersleeve, a magistrate for Stamford. Underbill had been greatly distinguished 
in the military affairs of New England ; Ward, Coe and Mitchell were also 
commissioners for Stamford ; the former a judge of the first court hold in 
New Haven in 1636, and the last called, in the history of that period, a " cap- 
ital manJ''* These were among the most influential men ; and the historian of 
Connecticut, af\er mentioning Raynor, Mitchell, Ward and others, says : — 
"They were the civil and religious fathers of the colony, who assisted in 
forming its free and happy constitution ; were among its legislators, and some 
of the chief pillars of the church and commonwealth, who, with many others 
of th^ same excellent character, employed their abilities and their estates for 
the prosperity of the colony." "They were (says the Rev. Mr. Alvord) 
among the earliest inhabitants of New England, coming, as we have seen, 
through Weathersfield from Watertown, in Massachusetts, and from that noted 
company who arrived with John Winthrop and Sir Richard Saltonstall." 


lands, with the council of state there established, by virtae of a commiasioa 
nnder the hand and seal of the high and mighty lord^, the States-General of 
the United Belgic Provinces, aiid from his Highness, Frederick Hendrick, 
Prince of Orange, and the right honorable the Lords Bewint Hibbers of the 
West India CompaSy, have given and granted, and by virtue of these we do 
give and grant, unto Robert Fordham, John Sticklan, John Ogden, John Kar- 
man, John Lawrence, and Jonas Wood, with their heirs, executors, adminis- 
trators, successors or associates, or any they shall join in association with 
them, a certain quantity of land, with all the havens, harbors, rivers, creeks, 
woodland, marshes, and all other appurtenances thereunto belonging, lying and 
being upon and about a certain place called the Great Plains, on Long Island, 
from the East River to the South Sea, and from a certain harbor now commonly 
called and known by the name of Hempstead Bay, and westward as far as 
Matthew Garritson's Bay ; to begin at the head of the said two bays, and for 
to run in direct lines that they may be the same latitude in breadth on the south 
side as on the north, for them, the said patentees, actually, really, and perpetu- 
aUy to enjoy in as large and ample manner as their own free land of inherit- 
ance, and as far eastward, in case the said patentees and their associates shall 
procure one hundred families to settle down within the said limit of five years 
aAer the date hereof: giving and granting, and by virtue of these presents we 
do give and grant unto the said patentees and their associates, with their heirs 
and successors, full power and authority upon the said land, to build a town or 
towns, with such fortifications as to them shall seem expedient, with a temple 
or temples to use and exercise the reformed religion, which they profess, with 
the ecclesiastical discipline thereunto belonging ; likewise giving and granting, 
and by virtue of these presents we do give and grant to the patentees, their 
associates, heirs, and successors, full power and authority to erect a body poli- 
tic or civil combination among themselves, and to nominate certain magistrates, 
one or more under the number of eight, of the ablest, discreetest, approved 
honest men, and him or them annually to present to the Governor of this Pro- 
vince, for the time being, for the said Governor-general for the time being, to 
elect and establish them for the execution of government among them, as well 
civil as judicial ; with full power to said magistrates to call a court or courts 
as oflen as they shall see expedient, and to hold pleas in all cases civil and 
criminal, make an officer to keep their records of their proceedings, with 
power for said magistrates and ihe free inhabitants to make civil ordinances 
among themselves, also to make an officer to execute warrants, process of 
injunction, and likewise to take testimony of matters pending before them, 
and give the first sentence for the deprivation of life, limb, stigmatizing, or 
born-marking any malefactor, if they in their conscience shall adjudge them 
worthy ; and to cause the execution of said sentence, if the party condemned 
make not his appeal to the chief court, holden weekly in the fort Amsterdam, 
in which case he shall be conveyed thither by order of the magistrates of the 
town of Hempstead, who shall have power to sit in our said court, and vote in 



sach causes. And if the said patentees cannot, within five years, procure 100 
fiunilies to settle on said lands, that they shall enjoy " ratum pro rata^^ land 
according to the number they shall procure ; reserving, from the expiration of 
ten years — to begin from the day the first general peace with the Indians shall 
be concluded — the tenth part of all the revenue that shall arise from the ground 
manured with the plow and hoe, in case it be demanded before it be housed, 
(gardens and orchards, not exceeding one Holland acre, excepted.) Given 
under my hand and seal of this province, this 16th of Nov., 1644, stilo novo, 

William Kieft. [ l. s. ] 

The first division of land, as appears by the records, took place 
in 1647 ; which shows that the following persons were then free- 
holders of the town : 

Richard Denton, 
Robert Ashman, 
Robert Coe, 
John Karman, 
Jeremy Wood, 
Richard Guildersleeve, 
William Ray nor, 
Benjamin Coe, 
John Ogden, 
Samuel Strickland, 
John Toppin, 
Jonas Wood, 
John Fordham, 
William Lawrence, 
Henry Hudson, 
Thomas Ireland, 
Richard Valentine, 
William Thickstone, 
Nieholaji Tanner, 
William Smith, 
Edmond Wood, 
John Smith, jr., 

Richard Denton, jun., 
John Hicks, 
Samuel Denton, 
Thomas Armitage, 
Simon Sering, 
Terry Wood, 
Thomas Willet, 
Henry Pierson, 
Joseph Scott, 
Henry Whitson, 
Richard Lewis, 
Thomas Stephenson, 
John Coe, 
William Scott, 
John Storge, 
William Williams, 
%Jaroes Smith, 
William Rogers, 
Richard Ogden, 
Robert Jackson, 
John Foucks, 
John Lawrence, 

Daniel Denton, 
William Washburne, 
Nathaniel Denton, 
Thomas Sherman, 
Francis Yates, 
John Ellison, 
Abraham Smith, 
William Shadding, 
Thomas fibster, 
Roger Lines, 
John Lewis, 
Christopher filsster, 
Samuel Clark, 
John Hudd, 
Thomas Pope, 
Daniel Whitehead, 
Robert Williams, 
Edward Raynor, 
John Sewell, 
John Smith, sen., 
Samuel Baccns, 
John Stricklan. 

The first white child bom in the town Jan. 9, 1645, was Caleb 
Karman, son of Jolin, who was entirely blind, but became an useful 
man, and the ancestor of a numerous progeny. 

Among the things which early engrossed the minds of the plan- 
ters here, as elsewhere, was the establishment of religion and the 
founding of a church. The following on this subject is from the 
town records : 


^ These Ordres made At A Generall court Held att Hemsteede September 
y^ 16. 1650 And conaented anto by a full Town meeting held October y* 18. 

Forasmuch As the Contempt of Gods Word And Sabbaths is y desolating 
Sinn of Cioill States and Plantations, And that the Publick preaching of the 
Word by those that are Called there unto is the Chiefe and of dinarie meanes or- 
dayned of God, for the Conuerting Edifying and saucing ofy^ Soulesofy« El- 
lect, through the presence and Power of the Holy Ghost thereunto promised ; 
It is therefore ordered and Decreede by y« Authority of this generall Court ; 
That All persons Inhabiting in this Towne or y^ Limitts thereoff, shall duly 
Resort and repaire to the Publique meetings and Assemblies one the Lords 
dayes Andon Publique days of fastings and thanksgiyings appointed by Publique 
Authority bothe on the forenoones And AAernoones And who have Already 
and shall with out Just and necessary cause Approved by the particular court 
soe offende, hee or they shall forfeit for the first offence five Guilders, for y« 
Second Offence ten Guilders, and for the third offence twenty Guilders, And 
for After time ; yf any manner of person or persons shall remaine refractorie 
pervers and obstinate hee shall be Lyable to the further Censure of the Court, 
Eyther for the aggravation of the fine or for Corporall punishment or Bannish- 
ment And for the due Execution of y^' Aforesaid Orders It is Agreed and Con- 
cluded that yf any person shall in forme the magistrates or the particular Court 
concerning the neglect and contempt of the Aforesaid Ordre by any person or 
persons soever informing shall have one halfe of the fine Allowed unto him, 
And the other halfe shall be conuerted to Public Use. 

By Ordre from the Magistrates 
was Subscribed by mee Daniel Dentonius 


It may seem somewhat strange and perhaps inconsistent with 
the strict principles, and reUgious discipline of those sober puri- 

* This strictly puritanical proceeding, bearing so close an analogy to the order 
adopted at Hartford a few months before, leaves little doubt that the one was 
made a precedent for the other ; the apparent severity of which is, however, 
somewhat excused, when we consider that it was the result of a popular vote, 
and no objection being entered upon the record, it is reasonable to suppose that 
it was unanimous. 

The opinions and prejudices of the people were more favorable to the policy 
of Connecticut, than that of New Haven colony ; and it is probable that the 
rule which had been adopted in the latter, allowing none hut free burgesses (or 
church members) to vote in town meetings, occasioned dissatisfaction at Stam- 
ford and induced the planters to remove to this place, where it was considered 
not only the right, but the duty of every man to exercise his electorial privi- 
lege on all public occasions. 


tans, that it should have been judged expedient to tolerate the sale 
of intoxicating liquors, and to issue licenses for that purpose. 
Yet such was the case, and we find it ordered by the town, that 
one half the money received on the sale of beer, wine or strong li- 
quors, without Kcense, should be appropriated to pay the public 
expenses, and the other half for the education of poor children. 

Although it is believed that the most pacific relations generally 
prevailed between the planters, and their Indian neighbors, it was 
not always so, as collisions sometimes took place, when it was 
found necessary to concert measures to prevent their recurrence, 
as they would only serve to exasperate both parties, and lead to 
more serious consequences. The governor on one occasion thought 
it advisable to convene the sachem, and head men of the Massa- 
peague tribe, and some others, at the village of Hempstead, on the 
12th of March, 1656, when the following articles were propounded 
and finally ratified : 


Articles of agreement, Betwixt the Governor of y« New Netherlands and 
Tackpausha, March y« 12th, 1656 : 

I. That all injuries formerly passed in the time of the Governor's predeces- 
sors, shall be forgiven and forgotten, since y® year 1645. 

II. That Tackapousha being chosen y® chiefe sachem by all the Indian 
sachems from Massapege, Maskahuong, Secatoug, Meracock, Rockaway and 
Canorise, w^ y® rest, both sachems and natives, doth take y® Governor of y® 
New Netherlands, to his and his people's protector, and in consideracon of that, 
to pat under y^ 8^ protection, on thiere lands and territoryes upon Long Island, 
soe far as y^ Dutch line doth runn, according to the agreement made att Hart- 

IIL The Governour doth promise to make noe peace with the Indians that 
did the spoile at y^ Manhatans the 15th of September last, but likewise to in- 
clude the sachem in it. 

IV. That Tackapausha shall make noe peace w*» y® s^ Indians, w*** out y« 
consent and knowledge of the Governor and the sachem doth promise for him- 
selfe and his people to give noe dwelling place, entertainment nor lodging to 
any of y« Governors, or thiere owne enemy es. 

y. The governor doth promise betwixt this date and six months to build a 
house or forte upon such place as they shall show upon the north side, and the 
house or forte to be furnished with Indian trade and commodityes. 

Yl. That the inhabitants of Hemsteede, according to their Patent shall en- 
joy their purchase with out moUestation from y® sachem or his people, either 
of person or estate : and the sachem will live in peace with all y® English and 


Dutch w^ in this jurisdiction. And the goyernor doth promise for him selfe 
and mil his people to life in peace with the s' sachem and all his people. 

Vn. That in case an Indian doe wrong to a christian in person or estate, 
and complaint be made to the sachem, hee shall make fall sattisfaction ; like- 
wise yf a Dntchman or Englishman shall wrong an Indian, the go?emor shall 
make sattisfaction according to Equity." 

On the 4th of July, 1647, the following was agreed to and signed 
by the Indians at Hempstead. 

" Know all men by these presents, that we the Indisns of Massapege, Me- 
rioke, and Rockaway, whose names be hereunder written, for ourseWes and 
all y* rest of y« Indians that claims any righte or interest in the purchase 
7< Hempsteede bought in y® yeare 1643, and wth in the bounds and limmits of 
y whole tracht of land concluded upon w^^^ y« Governor of Manhattans, as it 
is in this paper specified, doe by these presents, ratify and confirme to them 
and thiere heires and successors fore?er, to enjoy wtb out any molestation or 
trouble from us, or any that shall pretend any claime or tytle unto itt, the Men- 
toake sachem, being present att the confirmation. In witnesse whereof wee 
whose names bee here underwritten have hereunto subscribed.** 

" The mark (vrr) of Takapasha, the Sachem of Messapeage. 

The mark ( Ceu) ^^ Wantagh, the Mantaoke Sachem. 

The mark ( jD ) of Chegonoe. 

The mark ( Crr) of Romege. 

The mark (Ew*«) of Mangwanh. 

The mark (t)) of Waakeatis. 

The mark (N* ) of Rumasuekaman. 

The mark (4) of Ocraking. 

The mark (M) of Worotum. 

** In the presence of Richard Gil- ^ 
dersleeve, John Seaman, John > Scripsit per me. 

Hicks. y John Jamks, Clerk.*** 

* On the records of the town is a copy of a letter, which for its loyal tone, 
is quite remarkable. It is as follows : 

*' Hemsteede, ffeb. 27, 1658. 
" To the Right Honl Peter Stuy vesant. Governor, &c. 

*' After the remembrance of our submissive and humble respects, it hath 
pleased God, after a sickly and sad Sommer to give us a seasonable and com- 
fortable autumns, wherewith wee have beene (throw mercy) refreshed ourselves 
and have gained strength of God, soe that wee necessarily have been employed 
in getting winter foode for our cattell, and thereby have something prolonged 
our wonted tyme of chosing magestrates, for y* vr^ wee hope yo' honour will 
hold us excused : and now accordinge to our accustomed manner, wee have 
▼oted and put upon denomination our former magestrate Mr. Gildersleeve, and 

Vol. II. 2 


On payment of the balance due for the lands first purchased, 
which was made payable by instalments, the following curious re- 
lease was executed by the natives. 

" We, the Indians under written, do hereby apknowledge to have received 
of the magistrates and inhabitants of Hemsteede, our pay in full satisfaction, 
for the tract of land sould unto them, according to agreement, and according to 
patent and purchase. The general boundes is as followeth : — beginning at a 
place called MatiagarreU^s Bay^ and soe running upon a direct line north and 
south, from sea to sea ; the boundes running from Hempsteede Harbour, due 
east, to a pointe of treese, adjoining to the lande of Robert Williams, where 
wee left markt treese, the same line running from sea to sea ; the other line 
beginning at a markt tree standing at the east end of the greate plaine, and run- 
ning a due south line, at the south sea, by a markt tree, in a neck called Mas- 
Jcachoung. And wee doe, further engage ourselves to uphold this our present 
act, and all our former agreements, to bee just and lawful. And wee doe binde 
ourselves to save and defend them harmlesse from any manner of claime or pre- 
tence, that shall bee made to disturb thicre right. Whereunto we have sub- 
scribed, this eleventh day of May, Anno 1658, stilo novo. 

" Waantanch, Tackapausha, 
Cheknow, Martom, 

Sayasstock, Pees- Roma.'* 

" Subscribed by Wacombound, Montauk Sachem, after the death of his 
father, this 14th of Feb. 1660, being a general town meeting at Hemsteed. 

" John James, Clarke 

From the terms of this instrument, it is probable that the ori- 
ginal contract and purchase in 1643, contained the same general 
boundaries as are set forth in the patent of Gov. Kieft. 

The following extracts from the records of proceedings of the 
town meetings, or general court, are well worthy of being pre- 
served : — 

March 28, 1658, stilo novo, — " This day ordered that Mr. Gil- 
dersleeve, John Hicks, John Seaman, Robert Jackson, and Wil- 
liam Foster, are to go w*** Cheknow, sent and authorized "by 
y* Montake Sachem, to marck and lay out y* generall bounds of 

with him William Shadden, Robert Forman and Henry Persall — all of them 
ItDOwing men, of honest life, and good integrity ; therefore wee desire yor ho- 
noar too appoynt twoe of them, and always according to our duty, shall pray 
the most highe God to bless and preserve yo' honour, wt)i much health and 
prosperity, in all yo' noble designs — wee humbly take or leave. 

Ever honoured s*"* your Loyall, true and obedient servants, the Inhabitants 
of Hemsteede. John Jeamks, Clk." 


Ye lands, belonging to ye towne of Hemsteede, according to y* ex- 
tent of y limits and jurisdiction of y* s^ towne, to be known by her 
markt trees and other places of note, to continue for ever. And in 
case Tackapausha, Sagamore of Marsapeague, w^^ his Indians, 
doth come according to their agreement, then to lay out the said 

April 12, 1658. — "Ordered by the townsmen of Hemsteede, 
that all y« fences of y* frontiere lotts that shall runn into y* field, 
shall be substantially made by y« 25th of this monthe of Aprill, and 
any person found negligent, shall forfeit 5 shillings to the towne. 
And whoever shall open the towne gates, and neglect to shut them, 
or to put up the barrs, shall pay the like sum, one half to the towne, 
and the other half to the informer." — " Also, William Jacoks and 
Edward Raynor to be cow-keeps for the year ; the people to be 
ready, at the sounding of the horn, to send out their cows, and the 
keeper to be ready to take charge of them sun half an hour high ; 
and to bring them home half an hour before sunset, to water them 
at reasonable hours, and to be driven beyond East Meadows, to 
prevent damage in the corn-fields. To be allowed 12 shillings 
sterling a week, from 11th of May to 10th of Aug., and then 15 
shillings a week till the 2dd of Oct. The first pa3rment to be made 
in butter, that is, for each cow one pound of butter, at 6d a pound, 
and the remainder in wampum." 

*' At A Court Holden at Hemsteede y® 13th uf April 1658 Present 

Mr. Richard Gildersleeve Magistrate 

mr. John Hicks Robert Forman Richard Willets Assistants. 

Whereu we judge by wofall Experience that of Late there is A Sect that 
hath Taken sach ill effect Amongst us to y« Seducing of certaine of y« Inhabi- 
tants, Whoe by giuing heede to Seducing Spirits under the notion of being In- 
spired bye y^ Holy Spirit of God, have drawne Away w^^ their Eror and Mis- 
guided lighte those w^ together w^^ us did worship God in Spiritt and in 
truth, And now unto our griefe doe seperate from us, And unto the great dis- 
honner of God and y® violaoion of y® Lawes Established and the christian or- 
dre, w^ love peace & concord that ought to be observed, have broke the Sab- 
bath, And neglected to Joine w^b us in the true worship and Seruice of God as 
fformerly they have doun ; Bee itt therefor ordered that noe manner of person 
or persons whatsoever shall henseforthe giue any Entertaynraent or have Any 
Conners w(i> those people whoe are called by us quakers, or shaii lodge then 
in theire houses, (except they are permittede for one nights lodgeing in tho 


parish, and soe to depart Quietely w^ out dispute or debate the uext morning,) 
and this is to bee obserued in the town and to the Uttermoste boundes thereof. 

Teste John James, Clerk." 
" Hemsteede y« 18 of April A 1658. 

At A court Holden this presente day, stilo novo ; Present mr Richard Gil- 
dersleeve magistrate, mr John Hicks mr Robert Forman mr Richard Willets. 
Forasmuch as Mary Shott the wife of Joseph Shott, together with the wife of 
Francis M. haue contrary to the law of God and the Lawes Established in this 
place not onely absentede themselues from the publick worship of God, But 
haue prophaned the Lords day by goeing to a conventicle or meeting in the 
woods where there were 2 quakers ; the one of them as namely the wife of 
Francis Weeks being there. And the other being met vf^^ all near the place, 
whoe upon Examination haue Justifyed they Act, saying they did know no 
transgression they had doun For they wente to meete the people of God ; bee 
it therefor ordered that each party shall paye for this offence twenty Guilders 
and Ail eost and charges that shall Arise herefrom. 

Teste John James." 

July 10, 1658. " The town deputed Mr. Richard Gildersleeve to 
go down to the Manhattans to agree with the governor concerning 
the tythes, which are not to exceed 100 sheeples of wheat, and to 
be delivered, if required, at the town harbor ; and the charge of his 
journey to be defrayed by the town. Town agreed to pay the 
herdsman that attended their cattle, 12 shillings sterling a week in 
butter, com and oats, at fixed prices. Six bushels of corn allowed 
by the town for killing a wolf ; the price of com 2^. 6d. a bushel, 
wheat 4^., pork 3d. a pound, butter 6d. a pound, lodging 2d. a night, 
beer 2d. a mug, board 5s. a week, victuals 6d. a meal, and labor 
2s. 6d. a day." 

Jan. 14, 1659. " Whereas there hath formerly an ordre been 
made ag* the Sinn of drunkennesse, and that wee finde by daylie 
Experience, that itt is practised in this place to y® dishonnor of God, 
and th^efor wee doe Againe renin e y* same, and doe ordre that 
Any that have formerly or shall hereafter transgress shall pay for 
y* first fault 10 guilders, for the second 20 guilders and for the 
third to stand to the determinacion of y* court according to y* first 
ordre-'* " Test. John James." 

" At a town meeting, March 14, 1659, there was granted unto John Roads 
•f Rttsdorp, one great hollow, containing about two acres, the which he is to 
secure in a sufficient fence, and possess it for seven years, paying yearly eigh- 
teen pence the acre, with the tythe, the which he is to pay at Hempstead.^' 

" At the aforesaid town meeting it was granted unto Thomas Jacobs, one 


hollow, containing one and a half acre, upon the terms aboTe specified ; likewise 
unto Thomas Ellison one and a half acre lying by the Island of Trees. And 
there is granted onto Robert Williams, by general vote of town meeting, six 
acres of meadow land, formerly in possession of Roger Lines, that, paying all 
rates and duties belonging thereunto, he shall enjoy the said meadow for him, 
his heirs and assigns for e^er. Also, the same day was let to Robert Williams 
the town barn for this ensning year, for the sum of fifty- three shillings, to be paid 
in com at the usual prices, and the yard is to be common both to the house and 
bam/' In 1659 the town licensed John Smith to keep an ordinary , and to sell 
therein meat and drink, and to lodge strangers in such a manner as not to be 
offensive to the laws of God or man, *' It was voted and agreed at the same 
town meeting, that any person absenting himself or herself from public worship 
on the Lord's day, or other public days, should, for the first offence pay five 
shUiings^ for the second ten, for the third twenty, and af\er that be subjected to 
corporal punishment^ or hanishment^ " At a town meeting, held November 
26, 1684, it was concluded by a major vote, that Left. John Jackson, Justice 
Searing and Jonathan Smith, sen., should go to New York to meet the Indians, 
and there to agitate concerning their lands, and also to endeavor at the pur- 
chasing of a patent for the town ; and also the ending the difference concerning 
the bounds between our neighboring town, Jamaica, and us, with full power to 
make a final end. There is also granted unto Robert Williams three acres of 
the town land, lying in the bevil, for the sum of three pounds, to be paid in such 
corn, as, by the blessing of God, the land shall produce.''* t 

About this period. Cow Neck was enclosed by a post and rail 
fence, which extended from Hempstead Harbor to the head of the 
creek, dividing said neck from Great Neck, near where the mill 
of John T. Mitchill now stands ; and every person was entitled 
to put in a number of cows or cattle to pasture, in proportion to 

* The town records contain the following curious paper, bearing date May 
26, 1659, signed by Thomas Armitage, who was of Lynn in 1635, from whence 
he went to Sandwich, and thence he came to Long Island in 1647, and was 
one of the first settlers in Oyster Bay. 

In the document referred to, he states that his son Manassah, then a student 
at Cambridge, had fraudulently obtained his deeds and other valuable writings^ 
and with having forged a deed of gift of his lands ; he therefore desires that 
the facts should be made known and recorded in all the New England colonies 
in order to guard the public against the impositions of his son. Several affida- 
vits on the contrary are recorded, showing that the father had been heard 
to say, that having married a young wife, and intending to deprive her of his 
estate, he had conveyed all his lands to his son Manassah. The son graduated 
at Harvard in 1660, and the Farmers' Register states, that he died before 1698. 


the number of standing gates or pannels pf fence made by him ; 
and afterwards, in the distribution of lands, the shares of indi- 
viduals were adjusted by the same rule, in consequence of which, 
this valuable neck of land came to be divided among a compara- 
tively small number of proprietors, and the several portions were 
called gate-rights, in reference to the rule of division above men- 
tioned. The lands about Rockaway were enclosed in like man- 
ner by a fence extending from Rockaway landing to Jamaica Bay, 
and were used for pasturing of horses, cattle and sheep.* 

A division or allotment of the lands upon Cow Neck was agreed 
upon March 8, 1674, with the exception of 200 acres, given to 
Capt. Matthias NicoU, on condition that he would assist the town 
(he being a lawyer) in defending their common rights. 

In 1683, Governor Dongan required the town to take out a new 
patent, the fees for which was considered a prerogative of his 
office. With very great reluctance, and with no inconsiderable 
anxiety to avoid expense, the following proceedings took place : — 

Town meeting, ffeb. 16, 1683. — " Mr. Seaman, Mr. Jackson, 
and Mr. Tredwell are chosen by the major vote of the towne, to 
go flowne to Yorke, in order to y* getting a pattain for y* whole 
bounds of y* towne, and according to y« first purchase and 
y* draaft drawne." The object not being effected, it was voted 
March 31, 1684, " that those who go down to Yorke in respect of 
getting a pattent, that they get it as reasonable as they can, for the 
good of themselves and the rest of the inhabitants, and also upon 
as good terms." Again, "April 4, 1684, Mr. John Jackson, Mr. 
Symon Searing, and Mr. John Tredwell, are chosen to goe downe 
to Yorke by y* Governor's order, and to see to y* getting of a 
pattaine for the towne, giving these our deputies full power to 
acht for us and in our behalfes as fully and amply as if we were 

* Nov. 18, 1659, it was resolved by the town, that if any one should suffer by 
the Indians, and the sachem did not cause satisfaction to be made according to 
the agreement of 1656, the town should prosecute them, until compensation bo 
made, first acquainting the governor with their grievance. The town at the 
same time agreed to pay Thomas Langdon six bushels of corn, for killing ten 
wolves, and ordered that no reward should be paid for any number less than 
ten ; nor should any dog, bitch, or whelp be sold to the Indians, under the pen- 
alty of fifly guilders. 


personally present, proyided that our lands shall be assured to uss, 
our heyrcs and successors for ever, to be our free land of inheri- 
tance, we rendering and paying such acknowledgement as shall 
be agreed unto between the Governor and our deputyes." Again^ 
Dec. 12, 1684, ** Justice Searing and Nathaniel Percall to goe and 
to request y* Goyemor ffor a pattent for the towne, and to gitt it. 
on as reasonable termes as they can, and what these oure depu- 
tyes do, shall be as authentick as if wee was personnally preasent 
ourselves." Being still unsuccessful in agreeing upon the terms 
of the patent, it was again voted, April 3, 1685, that John Jack- 
son, John Tredwell and Jonathan Smith, go to York for the pro* 
curing of a patent, in which they attained the object of so much 

We subjoin a copy of this instrument, as a fair sample of other 
and numerous patents issued by Governor Dongan, who was at 
the time a freeholder of the town, as was also his secretary, John 

" Thomas Doogao, lieatenant-goTernor and ?ice-admiral under bin Royal 
Highness, Jamea, Doke of York, of New York and its dependencies in Ame- 
rica, to an whoop theae preaenta ahall come, aendeth greeting : whereaa there 
ia a certain town in Queena county, called and known by the name of Hemp- 
stead, upon Long laland, aitnate, lying and being on the aouth aide of the Great 
Plaina, having a eertain tract of land thereanto belonging, the bounda whereof 
begin at a marked tree, atanding at the head of Matthew Garriaon'a Bay, and 
00 ronniog from thence upon a direct aouth line due aouth to the main aea, and 
from the aaid tree a direct north line to the Sound or East River, and ao round 
the pointa of the necka till it cornea to Hempstead Harbor, and ao up the har- 
bor to a certain barren aand-beach, and from thence up a direct line till it comea 
to a marked tree on the eaat aide of Cantiagge Point, and from thence a south 
line to the middle of the plaina, and from thence a due east line to the utmost 
extent of the Great Plaina, and from thence upon a straight line to a certain 
tree marked in a neck, called Maskachoung, and ao from thence up a due aouth 
line to the south sea, and the aaid aouth sea is to be the aouth bounds from the 
eaat line to the weat line, and the Sound or Eaat River to be the northerly 
bounda, aa according to aeveral deeds or purchaaea from the Indian ownera, 
and the patent from the Dutch governor, William Kieft, relation thereto being 
had doth more fully and at large appear. 

** Now, Know Ye, that by virtue of the commission and authority unto me 
giren by hia Royal Highneas, James, Duke of York and Albany, lord proprie- 
tor of thia province, in conaideration of the premiaea and the quit-renta here- 
inafter reaerred, I have given, granted, ratified and confirmed, and by theae 


presents do give, grant, ratify and confirm onto Captain John Seaman, Simon 
Searing, John Jackson, James Pine, senior, Richard Gildersleave, senior, and 
Nathaniel Pearsall, as patentees for and on the behalf of themselves and their 
asf ociates, the freeholders and inhabitants of the said town of Hempstead, 
their heirs, successors, and assigns for ever, all the before recited tract and 
tracts, parcel and parcels of land and islands within the said bounds and limits, 
together with all and singular the woods, underwoods, plains, meadows, pas- 
tures, quarries, marshes, waters, lakes, causeways, rivers, beaches, fishing, 
hawking, hunting and fowling, with all liberties, privileges, hereditaments and 
appurtenances, to the said tract of land and premises belonging or in any wise 
appertaining, to have and to hold the said tract of land and premises, with all 
and singular the appurtenances before mentioned and intended to be given, 
granted, ratified and confirmed unto the said Captain John Seaman, Simon 
Searing, John Jackson, James Pine, senior, Richard Gildersleave, senior, and 
Nathaniel Pearsall, the said patentees and their a^^sociates, their heirs, suc- 
cessors and assigns, to the proper use, benefit and behoof of them, the said 
patentees and their associates, their heirs, successors and assigns for ever, to 
be holden of his said Royal Highness, his heirs and assigns, in free and com- 
mon soccage, according to the tenor of East Greenwich in the county of Kent, 
in his Majesty's kingdom of England. Provided always, that neither this pa- 
tent, nor any thing herein contained, shall be construed or intended to the pre- 
judice of infringement of any right, claim or pretence, which his Royal High- 
ness, James, Duke of York, his heirs and successors, now hath or hereafter 
may have, to a certain tract of land within the bounds of this said patent, com- 
monly called or known by the name of Hempstead Little Plains, and all the 
woodland and plains between the said Little Plains and the bay, which lies be- 
twixt Rockaway Meadows and the said Meadows, bounded on the east with 
Foster's Meadow River, and on the west with Hempstead west line, and like- 
wise one entire piece of land containing seven hundred acres, lying and being 
on Cow Neck. And I do hereby likewise confirm and grant unto the said pa- 
tentees and their associates, their heirs, successors and assigns, all the privi- 
leges and immunities belonging to a town within this government. Yielding, 
tendering and paying yearly and every year at the city of New York, unto 
his Royal Highness, or tu such office or oflices as by him shall be appointed, to 
receive the same, twenty bushels of good winter wheat, or four pounds in good 
current money of New York, on or before the twenty-fiflh day of March. In 
testimony whereof, I have caused these presents to be entered upon record in 
the secretary's office of the said province, and the public seal thereof have 
hereunto affixed and signed with my hand, this seventeenth day of April, in 
the thirty-seventh year of his Majesty's reign, and in the year of our Lord one 
thousand six hundred and eighty- five. Thomas Doicoait. 

" J. Spragg, Secretary." 

The people were well pleased with the result, having taken 
pains to conciliate his excellency, by presenting him 200 acres of 



land, at the west end of the plains, Dec. 7, 1683, and on the 24th 
of April, 1684, 200 acres more, which extended from the north 
side of the plains to Success pond. They also gave to Mr. Spragg 
100 acres, and a further quantity of 150 acres, Nov. 23, 1684, 
upon the south side of tlie plains, beyond Foster's Meadows. 

Oct. 6, 1685, Paman, sagamore of Rockaway, Tackapousha 
and others, sold Rockaway Neck, extending from the west bounds 
of Hempstead to Rockaway inlet, to one John Palmer, a merchant 
of New York, for the consideration of £30, which he again sold, 
Aug. 23, 1687, to Richard Com well of Cornbury, (bay side,) and 
thus occasioned no inconsiderable trouble to the town, the said 
lands being considered as within the general limits of the purchase 
made by the town in 1643, but which the Indians asserted was 
not so intended by them, in the sale and conveyance aforesaid. 

In order to realize an amount sufficient to liquidate the price of 
the last patent, and the expenses incident to obtaining it, an as- 
sessment or tax of two and a half pence per acre, was levied 
upon all lands held in 1685 by individuals in the town. 

The number of taxable inhabitants at that period was 160, the 
number of acres assessed 16,563, and the amount raised thereon 
£177, equal to $442 50. 

The following list, copied from the town books, exhibits the 
names of the freeholders, with the number of acres held by each, 
from which it will be perceived how large a proportion of the same 
family names, are still found in the town and its vicinity. 





Robert Dinge 


Henery Lininton 


Edmaod Titas 


Richard Osborn 


Sam TituB 


Obediah Velantine 


Hanah Hudson 


Widow WilHs 


William Gripman 


Hope Willis 


John Brick 


Harman Johnson 


Sam Raynor 


Barnes Egberson 


John Serion 


Jacob Peterson 


Simon Serion 


John Bedell 


James Pine, sen. 


Thomas Cheesman 


Nathaniel Piiie 


John Smith, Rock. 


Solomon Simmons 


Abraham Smith 


William Smith 


Edward Sprag 


Richard Denton 


Jeremiah Smith 


Vol. U. 




Joseph Langdon 


John Smith, bio. 


William Jecoks 


John Carman 


Thomas Seaman 


Calib Carman 


John Smith, jr., Rock 


Ben. Carman 


Daniel Bedel 


Moses Embree 


John Williams 


Henry Johnson 


James Pine 


Abraham Frost 


Elias Dorlon 


Thomas Willis 


Aron UnderduDk 


Robard Miller 


Widow Valentine 


William Johnson 


Benj. Simmons 


Ephraim Valentine 


John Morrell 


Robard Bedell 


Richard Elison 


Jer. Wood, jr. 


Edward Heare 


William Valentine 


Christopher Dene 


Robard Bedel 


William Jones 


Sam. Pine 


Samuel Embre 


Thomas Oakle 


Timothy Halsted, jr. 


Jonathan Burg 


Cap. Jackson 


Joseph Ginins 


Samuel Denton 


Joseph Williams 


Isaac Smith 


Richard Valentino 


John Cornwell 


John Bates 


Edward Cornwell 


John Bates, jr. 


Joseph Baldin 


John Elison 


Jona. Smith, sen. 


Mr. Beachman 


John Smith, Nan. 


Col. Thos. Dongan 


Joseph Smith 


Mr. Sprag 


Joseph Wood 


Edward Avery 


Jerimiah Wood, sen. 


Richard Combs 


Josias Stare 


Elias Bayly 


Richard Stites 


John Woley 


John Tounsand 


Thos. Daniels 


John Dozenboro 


William Thorn 


John Burland 


Robard Hobs 


William Eager 


Robard Hobs, jr. 


John Hawkins 


Thomas Huching 


Sam Alin 


Nathaniel Peasal 


William Ware 


Thomas Peasal 


John Hubs 


Henry Moles 


Christopher Yeumans 


Cornelias Barns 


Elias Burland 


John Foster 


Waiiam Wetherbe 


Cap. Seman 


John Pine 


Sam. Seman 


Joshua Jecocks 


John Coe 




Jonathan Semans 


John Smithy Rock. 


George Baldin 


Peter Toton 


Richard Minthom 


John Soman, jr. 


Thomas Gildersleve 


William Thickston 


Jonathan Smith 


Daniel Peasal 


Thomas Southard, sen. 


George Peasal 


Thomas Rushmore 


Heniry Willis 


John Champain 


Ben. Budsal 


Goodm. Smith, sen. 


William Davis 


John Carl 


Joseph Mott 


John Mot 


John Tredwel 


Thos. Elison, sen. 


Tim. Halsted, sen. 


John Elison, sen. 


Jftmes Rile 


Richard Gilderslieve 


Adam Mot 


Rich. Gilderslieve, jr. 


Harman Flower 


Richard Toton 


Joseph Petet 


Arthur Albertus 


Sam. Smith 


John Johnson 


Peter Smith 


James Beats 


Thomas Southard, jr. 


William Lee 


John Southard 


Thomas Ireland 


John Robinson 


Pptpr TnVinRAn 


Heniry Mandiford 


Whole number of acres, 


It has been seen that the Rev. Richard Denton was a prominent 
and leading man among the first English settlers of Hempstead 
in 1644, and it is quite probable that many of those who accom- 
panied him here, had belonged to his church in the mother coun- 
try, and were determined to share his fortunes in a new region. 
Many of these emigrated with him to Watertown, Mass. ; thence 
to Weathersfield, Conn., — from there to Stamford, and finally to 
Long Island, where most of them spent the remainder of their 
lives, and their posterity are still found amongst us. 

Mr. Denton was born of a good family, at Yorkshire, England, 
in 1586, and was educated at the university of Cambridge, where 
he graduated in 1623, and was settled as minister of Coley Cha- 
pel, Halifax, for the period of seven years. The same intolerant 
spirit which led eventually to the act of uniformity, that de- 
prived so many protestant clergymen of their homes, urged the 
removal of Mr. Denton from the place of his ministry, and he 
probably arrived in New England, with Governor Winthrop, in 


He was first engaged atWatertown; but in 1635, he with 
others commenced the settlement of the town which they called 
Weathersfield, in the jurisdiction of Connecticut. He removed 
in a few years, and in 1641 is found among the proprietors of 
Stamford, in the jurisdiction of New Haven, where he was the 
owner, of a valuable real estate, which, on his removal to Hemp- 
stead in 1644, he sold to his successor, the Rev. John Bishop, and 
became the first pastor of Hempstead.* 

His salary here was jC70, paid in such articles of necessity as 
were most useful, and at moderate prices. He returned to Eng- 
land (says the Rev. Mr. Heywood, his successor at Halifax) in 
1659, and spent the remainder of his life at Essex, where he died 
in 1662, aged 76. The cause of his departure from America is 
involved in mystery, particularly as he left behind him his four 
sons Richard, Samuel, Nathaniel and Daniel, the last of whom 
was chosen first recorder or clerk of the town, and subsequently 
co-operated with his brother Nathaniel in the settlement of Ja- 
maica, and was among those who in 1664 aided in the plantation 
of Elizabethtown, N. J. 

He had a good education, and wrote a History of New York, 
which he published in London in 1670, and contains much inter- 
esting information in relation to the country at that period. 

• " Among those clouds," says Cotton Mather, (meaning the ministers who 
came early to New England) " was our pious and learned Mr. Richard Denton, 
a Yorkshire man, who, having watered Halifax, in England, with his fruitful 
ministry, was by a tempest there hurried into New England, where, first at 
Weathersfield, and then at Stamford, his doctrine dropped as the rain, his 
speech distilled as the dew, as the small rain upon the tender herb, and as the 
showers upon the grass. Though he were a little man, yet he had a great 
soul ; his well accomplished mind, in his lesser body, was an Iliad in a nut 
shell. I think he was blind of an eye, yet he was not the least among the 
seers of Israel ; he saw a very considerable portion of those things which eye 
hath not seen. He was far from cloudy in his conceptions and principles of 
divinity, whereof he wrote a system, entitled Soliliquia Sacra, so accurately, 
considering the four-fold state of man, in his created purity, contracted de- 
formity, restored beauty, and celestial glory, that judicious persons, who 
have seen it, very much lament the churches being so much deprived of it. 
At length, he got into heaven beyond clouds, and so beyond storms ; waiting 
the return of the Lord Jesus Christ, in the clouds of heaven, when he will 
have his reward among the saints." 


The first house for religious worship in this town, which was of 
the presbyterian order, was raised in 1645, but not completed be- 
fore 1648. It was twenty four feet square and stood a few rods 
north-east of the Burly Pond, so called in the village of Hempstead. 

It was built by the whole of the inhabitants and was used both 
as a church, and a town house for the transaction of public busi- 
ness, and was occupied for the latter purpose long after it ceased 
to be used as a church. It remained, with occasional repairs, till 
1T70, when it was disposed of and removed to North Hempstead. 

Nov. 10, 1660, it was ordered that the townsmen should repair 
the meeting house and make it comfortable to meet in, and that 
arrangements be made for the entertainment of young Master 
Fordham. The building finally being much out of repair and 
withal too small for the increased number of the congregation, 
" At A Jenerall townd meeting held in Hempsted the 7th day of 
Janeuary in the yere of our Lord 1677 It was agreed on by the 
major vote that they should bild a meting house." This was con 
firmed at a town meeting held " the first day of Eaperell in the 
yere of our Lord 1678 and mr semans and John Smith (bleu) was 
chosen to go to agree with Joseph Carpenter to bild a meting hous. 
the dementions of the house is as followeth, that is, 30 feet long 
and 24 wide and 12 feet stud with a lentwo on Ech side." 

The new building was completed the ensuing year, 1679, and 
stood where the highway now is, a few rods south of the present 
episcopal church. This was also in a few years found of too 
small dimensions, and was accordingly enlarged in the year 1700.* 

In the year of Mr. Denton's departure, 1659, application was 

* The Rev. Mr. Jenaey, speaking in regard to this church in a letter of June 
27, 1728, says, '* it is an ordinary wooden building, 40 feet long and 26 wide — 
the roof covered with cedar shingles and the sides clapboarded with oak ; witb- 
io it is not ceiled overhead, but the sides are boarded v^ith pine. There is no 
pulpit, but a raised desk only, having a cloth and cushion of silk ; a large table 
stands before the desk, where the justices and leading men sit, when they come 
to church. There are no pews, except one fur the secretary clerk ; the rest of 
the church is filled with open benches. There is no fence around it and the 
burial place is at some distance from it.'* The episcopal cemctry did not then 
exist. ^ It stands in the open road, near a smaU brook, which runs between it 
and the parsonage house.*' 


made by the town to the Rev. Mr. Wakeman of New Haven, to 
become their minister, but whether he accepted the invitation is 
uncertain, as his name does not appear on the records ; and in 
1660, the Rev. Jonah Fordham^ son of the Rev. Robert Fordham 
of Southampton, who had accompanied the Rev. Mr. Denton to 
Hempstead in 1644, was "settled here, where he remained highly 
respected and useful for several years. He was so much esteemed 
by the people that in 1663 the town voted that he should have al- 
lotments with the other inhabitants and also a £200 estate, if he 
pleased, which according to the rule of valuation then adopted, 
amounted to 300 acres, with woodland in proportion. 

Mr. Fordham continued here nearly twenty years, and returned 
to Southampton after the death of his father, and labored in the 
ministry there, probably till the arrival of the Rev. Mr. Taylor in 

* The Rev. Josiah Fordham, who preached a while at Setauket 
after the death of Mr. Brewster, was his son, and whose sister 
Temperance was then married to the second Richard Woodhull. 
The said Josiah Fordham was the great-grandfather of the com- 
piler of this work. 

In relation to the parsonage house, the town records furnish the 
following authentic information : 

'* At a town meeting Jan. 4, 1682, Robert Marvin and Richard Valitin, was 
chosen by mager vote of the town forthwith to hyer carpinters to build a par- 
sonage hons according to the dementiuns all redy agreed and recorded in the 
town boock, and they are to agre with carpinters to complcat all the carpinters 
work. // is understood that the hous above mentioned is to be a town hous.'*'* 

This house was completed the ensuing year, and occupied 
nearly the same site as the present rectory. Having been im- 
proved for the purpose of its erection for one hundred years, it 
was sold and removed in 1793, at which lime the present Epis- 
copal parsonage was finished. 

Rev. Jeremiah Hohart was called, by the town, to be their min- 
ister on the 6th of May, 1683, and gave him a three acre (home) 
lot, where it should be most convenient, and fifty acres of wood- 
land, to be taken up where he thought proper — his cattle to have 
liberty of commons, and himself to have the use of all the par- 


sonage land and meadows, as long as he should continue their 

Mr. Hobart was son of the Rev. Peter Hobart of Hingham, 
Mass., and grandson of Edmund Hobart, who came from Hing- 
ham, Norfolkshire, Eng., in 1633, and was one of the founders of 
Hingham, Plymouth county, aforesaid. He had children Ed- 
mund, Peter, Thomas, Joshua, Rebecca and Sarah. 

His said second son Peter was educated at the university of 
Cambridge, Eng., and ordained by the Bishop of Norwich in 
1627; came to New England with his wife and four children, 
June 8, 1635, and had, in all, fourteen children, eight of whom 
were sons, and six of these graduated at Harvard. He died Jan. 
20, 1670. Joshua, above named — settled, as has been seen, at 
Southold — and his son John removed in 1681 to Pennsylvania, 
married into a Swedish family, and settled on the spot now called 
Kensington, a part of the city of Philadelphia. His son Nehe- 
miah settled in Newton, Mass., and died Aug. 25, 1712. His son 
Enoch was father of the late Right Rev. John Henry Hobart of 
New York, and died Oct. 27, 1776. The Rev. Jeremiah Hobart 
was bom at Hingham, Eng., and came with his father to Boston 
in June, 1635. 

He graduated, as did his brother Joshua, at Harvard in 1650; 
his brothers Gershom and Japheth graduated in 1667, of whom 
the first, bom 1645, was the minister of Groton, Mass., and the 
latter, who went out as surgeon of a ship, was lost at sea. 

Mr. Hobart preached several years without orders, but was or- 
dained as successor to the Rev. Thomas Gilbert of Topsfield, 
Mass., in 1772, when, on account of a charge of immoral con- 
duct, he was dismissed Sept. 21, 1680. His wife was Dorothy, 
daughter of the Rev. Samuel Whiting of Lynn, Mass., and sister 
of the Rev. Joseph Whiting of Southampton, L. I. 

He was settled here subsequent to his call, Oct. 17, 1683, and 
so satisfactory were his labors, that the town made him a further 
donation of 100 acres of land ; but the process of collecting the 
salary of £70, by voluntary contributions, was so ineffectual; that 
he was obliged in 1690 to invoke the interposition of the court of 
sessions. The result was the imposition of a tax for his future 



C4, •■ • • 

He removed in 1696, in consequence of many of his people 
turning quakers, and others being so indifferent on the subject of 
religion, that they would do nothing toward his maintenance, ex- 
cept upon compulsion ; and he became the minister of Jamaica, 
where he remained a short time, and went from thence to East 
Haddam, Conn., where he was installed Nov. 14, 1700, and died 
March 17, 1717, aged 87, on Sunday, having preached in the 

His daughter Sarah was the mother of the celebrated David 
Brainard, who died at Northampton, Mass. in 1747. His brother 
Joshua Hobart, was the father of the Rev. Noah Hobart, of Fair- 
field, Conn, the father of the Hon. John Sloss Hobart, formerly 
judge of the supreme court of this state. 

The parsonage above mentioned was ordered to be built on the 
town lot, to be 36 feet long, 18 wide and 10 feet between the joints, 
to be a comfortable house to dwell in, and when the said Jeremiah 
Hobart should see cause to leave it, then it should return to the 

To show how the salary was raised, we subjoin the following 
from the town books.: 

May the 24 ; 1682. We under Righten dwo Ingeage Ech and Every of as 
to give these under Righten eumee to Jeremy Hubard yearly during the time 
we liue under ministry and to Pay it in Corn or Cattel at Prise as it Pasis Cur- 
rant amongst us. 

Robert Jackson, 
John Sirring, 
Henry Johnson, 
James Ryle, 
Richard Minthorne, 
William Jecocks, 
Robert Bedell, sen. 
Abraham Frost, 
Harman Flower, 
Thomas Higain, 
Richard Tottun, 
John Spreag, 
John Ellison, sen. 
George Hix, 
John Smith, R. jun. 
Joseph Willits, 
James Pine, jun. 

Jeames Pine, s. 

Samuel Pine, 

John Waskeate, 

Harman Johnson, 

John Carman, sen. 

John Bedell, 

Daniell Bedell, 

Richard Ellison, sen. 

Robert Williams, 

Jeames Beat, 

William Valentine, 

Richard Osborne, 

Peter Mason, 

Charles Abrahams, 

Richard Gildersleeve, jr. 

Richard Gildersleeve, sen. William Hicks, 

Robert Mamin, John Maruin, 

John Pine, 
John Tred well, 
William Wetherbe, 
William Smith, 
John Smith, (b) 
John Carman, jr. 
Jeremy Wood, jr. 
Richard Valentine, sen. 
John Karle, 
Joseph Pettit, 
Francis Champin, 
Henry Linington, 
Thomas Ireland, 
Peter Johnson, 
Joseph Langdon, 


ThoiBAB Sonthard, sen. Joseph Smith, Samuell Denton, 

Daniell Peanall, Jeremy Smith, Moaes Emory, 

Abraham Smith, Timothy Hallated, Richard Vallantioe, jr. 

Joshua Jecocks, Thomas Rushmore, Adam Mott, jr. 

Cornelius Mott, Edward Reyner, Josias Star, 

J(Aii Mott, Jeremy Wood, Jooas Wood, 

Robert Bedell, Mathew Bedell, Samuel Emery, 

Caleb Carman, Samnel Rayner, Rock Smith, 

Joseph Sutton, Simon Sirring, George Hulit, 

John Jackson, Joseph Jennings, John Smith. 

Aug. 1, 1683, town voted that Jeremy Wood should have ten 
shillings a year '' for looking after y^ opening and shutting of the 
window shutters belonging to y^ meeting house, and to look care- 
fully after the hour-glass.^ 

Oct. 30, 1702, the assembly qf the colony, ordered Maj. Jackson 
to acquaint the town of Hempstead, '^ that a public school, was de- 
signed to be erected among them, and to enquire what encourage- 
ment they would give the same." 

For several years after the departure of Mr. Hobart, the church 
had no regular preaching and consequently fell into a state of great 
indifference. An important and radical change was about to take 
place, destined to produce a revolution in the church, namely, the 
introduction of episcopacy. The people were without a pastor, 
and the ¥ray was clear for the contemplated movement, in which 
a few prominent individuals only, probably, were concerned. 

During the administration of Governor Fletcher, a law had been 
passed in 1683, for settling a ministry in the counties of Richmond^ 
Westchester and Queens j which was intended by the governor and 
his party to faciUtate the establishment of a branch of the English 
church in this province. By the same law, Hempstead and Oyster 
Bay were made one precinct or parish for settling and maintaining 
a minister. 

This act was artfully drawn, and when the question arose, 
whether it extended to ministers of any denomination whom the 
people might employ, his excellency with his accustomed hbe- 
rality, declared that episcopalians only were intended. The con- 
dition of this church in 1702, presented a fair opportunity for build- 
ing up an episcopal society upon the ruins of the presbyterian, 
whose existence had been coeval with the settlement of the town. 

Vol II. 4 


The church edifice, parsonage house and glebe, were town pro- 
perty, being at all times regulated and controlled by the people in 
town meeting, and therefore by management and cunning they 
might be made to subserve the views of those, however few in 
number, who could, without exciting suspicion, introduce an epis- 
copal minister into the parish. 

The society for propagating the gospel (or rather episcopacy) in 
foreign parts, had been incorporated, by a charter from King Wil- 
liam, June 16, 1701, and it appears that no time was lost, by those 
interested, to procure aid from that society, for Hempstead.* 

In answer to memorials sent to England, (by whom does not 
appear,) the British society sent out the Rev. John Thomas to 
Hempstead, appointed Thomas Gildersleeve schoolmaster, (which 
included the office of catechist,) and transmitted also a large num- 
ber of common prayer books and catechisms for distribution, the 
better to reconcile the people to the services of the episcopal 
church. Mr. Thomas arrived in 1754, having previously been 
engaged as a missionary in Pennsylvania, but from his own ac- 
count, was treated with little attention or kindness by any portion 
of the inhabitants, and of course relied principally, if not entirely 
upon the countenance and support of Lord Cornbury, whom he 
represents, on all occasions, as a paragon of the Christian virtues.! 

* The Rev, Dr. Humphreys^ who was secretary of the society from its for- 
mation in 1701, to 1728, in a history of its proceedings published by him, among 
other things, says, '* that applications were made by the inhabitants of West- 
chester, and earnest memorials, were sent from the inhabitants of Jamaica and 
Hempstead in Long Island, for ministers to be sent to them.^^ Their wishes, 
says he, were complied with, and missionaries sent to those places. 

That these earnest memorials, emanated from the town meetings, or from 
any considerable number of the inhabitants, can hardly be pretended, the records 
being silent on the subject. They probably proceeded from a/eu?, in the con- 
fidence of Lord Cornbury, and made for the express purpose, of bringing in a 
form of religion, to which the people were strangers, and to which it seems by 
the letters of the missionaries themselves, they were almost unanimously op- 

' t The people could not fail to perceive the consequence intended, and likely 
to be produced, by this measure, and lost no opportunity of expressing their 
dissatisfaction. That the governor was actuated by great zeal for the success 
of the church, is satisfactorily proved by his acts, but it is equally evident that 


In what temper Mr. Thomas was received, will best appear 
from his own declarations, made in confidence, to the parent soci- 
ety. March 1, 1705, he says, " after much toil and fatigue I am, 
through God's assistance, safely arrived, and have been two months 
settled at Hempstead, where I met with civil reception from the 
people. They are generally independents or presbyterians, and 
have hitherto been supplied, ever since the settlement of the towm, 
with a dissenting ministry. 

" The prejudice and bias of education, is the greatest difficulty 
I labor under. The country is extremely wedded to a dissenting 
ministry, and were it not for his excellency my Lord Combury's 
most favorable countenance to us, we might expect the severest 
entertainment here, 'that dissenting malice and the rigor of preju- 
dice could afflict us with. 

" All we of the clergy want the influence of his lordship's most 
favorable aspect. Government is our great asylum and bulwark, 
which my lord exerts to the utmost, when the necessities and in- 
terest of the church call for it. His countenance (next to the 
providence of heaven) is my chiefest safety. I have scarcely a 
man in the parish truly steady and real, to the interest and promo- 
tion of the church, any farther than they aim at the favor, and 
dread the displeasure of his lordship. This (he adds) is the face 
of affairs here, according to the best observation I could make, in 
the short time I have lived here."* 

he was zealous no further, than he could make it the instrument of his own 
selfish purposes, and not as a means of increasing social kindness and Chris- 
tian charity. 

• In his letter of May 26, 1705, he says : — *^ My path here is very thorny — 
an my steps narrowly watched. I am obliged to walk very singuly. I have 
brooght some few of the honestest, best inclined to religion, and soberest 
among them, to the holy communion, and hope in time (if God enable me) to 
have a plentiful harvest among them." Again, June 27, 1705, " The people 
(he says) are all stiff dissenters — not above three church people in the whole 
parish, all of them the rebellious offspring of forty-two (1642.) Brother Ur- 
quhart and myself belong to one county, and the only English ministers upon 
the island. 

** We are the first that broke the ice among this sturdy obstinate people, 
who endeavor, what in them lies, to crush us in embryo ; but (blessed be God) 
by the propitious smiles of heaven, and the favorable countenance of my 


" The gall of bitterness (he says) of this independent kidney y 
is inconceivable, not unlike that of Demetrius and his associates, 
at the conceived downfall of the great Diana of the Ephesians. 
We have a great .work to go through, unruly beasts (with Daniel) 
to encountre, but we trust that the great God, whose cause we 
stand for, will enable us to go on. 

** The fathers of these people came from New England, and I 
need not tell you how averse they of that country are to our 
church discipline. The people being generally very poor, and 
utterly averse to the service of the church of England, 

"The inhabitants transported themselves here from New England 
and have been, ever since their first settlement, supplied by a min- 
istry from thence. I have neither /)M//>i^, nor any one necessary , 
for the administration of the holy eucharisty and only the beat of a 
drum, to call the people together."* 

"His Excellency, Lord Combury, (he continues) is a true 
nursing father to our infancy here ; his countenance and protec- 
tion is never wanting to us, who being by inclination a true son of 
the church, moves him zealously to support that wholly. 

" If it had not been for the countenance and support of Lord 
Combury and his government, it would have been impossible to 
have settled a church on the island." In 1717 he says, " I have 
been a considerable time in these parts, rowing against wind and 
tide ; iirst in Pennsylvania, against the quakers, and here about 

lordship^s govern ment, we keep above water, and (we thank God) have added 
to our churches.*^ 

* ** Common prayer hooks, (he observes,) are very much wanting to be given 
away, for though they cannot be prevailed upon to buy, (were they to be sold) 
yet being given away, they might in time be brought to make use of them. My 
Lord Cornbury is very countenancing and assisting to me, and it is by an order 
from him, that this building (a gallery in the church) ^Xa forward; he is trtdy 
one very good, friend; we want nothing that the countenance of government 
can make us happy in. 

The inhabitants of this county are generally independents, and what are not 
BO, are either quakers or of no professed religion at all ; the generality averse 
to the discipline of our holy mother, the church of England, and enraged to 
aee her ministers established among them. Their prejudice of education is 
oar misfortune, our church their bugbear, and to remove the averseness imbibed 
with their^r^^/^'nctp^^, must be next to a miracle,^* 


twelve years against rigid independents. I have always observed 
tliat the PIOUS fraud of a caressing well modelled hospitality, has 
captivated and inclined their affections, more powerfully, than the 
best digested discourses out of the pulpit."* 

Little is known of Mr. Thomas^ beyond what is disclosed in his 
correspondence with the society, but that he was better than his 
creed, and a most worthy man, there is every reason to believe. 
Yet hie seemed neither to suspect or fear, that he, like others, was 
influenced by the prejudice of education. 

Mr. Thomas speaks, in one of his letters, of having married his 
wife at Brookhaven ; her name, however, is not mentioned, and 
she was probably a second wife. His last words are, '^ my heart 
is umrm and sound, though lodged, God knows, in a crazy y broken 
carcase. Pray tell the society, (says he,) that, like Epaminondas, 
I shdll fight upon the stumps, for that purest and best of churches, 
as long as God indulges me with the least ability to do it." Where 
he died is uncertain, but it is stated, in the society's report of Feb. 
16, 1627, that a gratuity of £50 was voted to his widow.t 

* In one of Mr. Thomases letters, written in 1722, he says ; ** my last sum- 
mer's sickness has produced a small dissenting meetiug-house in one part of 
my parish, but I thank God, it is only the scum that is concerned in it ; the 
people o^ figure and substance, being entirely of the churches side. The eat 
in the fable, transformed to a woman, could not, at the sight oiKmouse, forget 
her ancient nature, so it is with some of these people." 

Had the people known in what language they were represented by their good 
pastor, it is hardly to be supposed, that even the countenance of xYi^ pious and 
S4tint4ike Combury, could have shielded him from the severest resentment of 
this *' sturdy obstinate people.*^ 

The small meeting-house referred to, was erected at Foster's Meadows 
in the year 1721, which was used by the presbyterians till the Revolution, when 
it was destroyed by the British, who exhibited on all occasions, a marked hos- 
tility to dissenting churches every where. 

t Mr. Thomas had a son John, born here in 1705, and settled in Westches- 
ter. His wife was Abigal, daughter of John Sands, who came from Block 
Island to Sand's Point in 1716. The marriage took place Feb. 19, 1729. 
He was not only first judge of Westchester county, but a member, also, of the 
colonial assembly. He was a warm whig, and took an active part in the 
scenes which preceded the revolutionary war, whereby he became an object 
of the enemy's resentment, and being taken a prisoner, by a British party from 
Long Island in 1777, was confined in New York, where he died, in the course of 
that year, leaving two sons John and Thomas, and daughters Margaret, Sybil], 


The Rev. Robert Jenney succeeded Mr. Thomas, and with him 
the records of the episcopal church commence. He had been a 
chaplain in the British navy from 1710 to 1714, from thence to 
'17 was in the service of the society as assistant to the Rev. Mr. 
Evans, of Philadelphia, and afterwards to the Rev. Mr. Vesey, of 
New York ; from 1717 to '22 was chaplain to the fort and forced 
at New York, and was then appointed missionary at Rye, where 
he remained till his removal here in 1725. It is clear, from his 
correspondence with the parent society, that at his arrival, the 
parish had not become much better disposed towards the church ; 
yet he conducted with great prudence, and took much pain% to 
reconcile the people to opinions. and ceremonies, to which, by pre- 
vious education sftid practice, they were unaccustomed.* 

The presbyterians being excluded from the church which they 
had contributed to erect, unless by compliance with the doctrines 
and forms, now in a measure established, held their meetings in 
the old meeting house, under such preaching as could be procured 
for the moderate allowance which it was in their power to con- 
tribute. Dr. Jenny (as he was afterwards called,) continued here 

Glorianna, and Charity. He was buried in the yard of Trinity church, which 
had been destroyed by fire the year before. His widow died Aug. 14, 1782, 
and was interred at Bedford, Westchester county. John married Phcebe 
Palmer, and had six children. Thomas, better known as General Thomas, 
married Katherine, daughter of Nicoll Floyd, of Brookhaven, and his sister 
Margaret, married his wife^s brother, Charles Floyd of Smithtown. Sybill 
married Abraham Field, Glorianna married James Franklin, and Charity mar- 
ried James Ferris of Throg's Neck, Westchester county ; some of whose de- 
scendants reside there and in the city of New York, one of whom is the Hon. 
Charles G. Ferris, late member of congress from that city. 

• ** June 27, 1728, he says ; " The Church's right to all this, (the parsonage, 
&c.,) is hotly disputed, and I am ofVen threatened with an ejectment ; first, by 
the heirs of one Ogden, from whom the purchase was made ; secondly, by jthe 
presbyterians, who plead, from the purchase having been made by them, before 
any church was settled here, and from their minister having been long in pos- 
session of it, that it belongs to them ; thirdly, by the makers, who are a great 
body of people, and argue that it belongs to them, and ought to be hired out, 
from time to time, as the major part of the freeholders can agree. The body 
of the presbyterians live here, in the town spot, but they are so poor and few, 
that it is with difficulty they can maintain their minister, and we daily expect 
he will leave them." 


till 1742 when he resigned, removed to Philadelphia and became 
the rector of Christ Church, where he died at the age of 69, Oct. 
17, 1745, having lost his wife in this place Dec. 23, 1738, aged 64. 

He speaks in one of his letters, of having been informed that 
the town had beea settled some time before it had any minister. 
This is a strange mistake, as the Rev. Mr. Denton was well known 
to have arrived with the first settlers, and was followed very soon 
after his removal, by the Rev. Mr. Fordham. He mentions also a 
great controversy that arose between the independants and presby- 
terians, after the building of the second church, of which, how- 
ever, there is no evidence, aside from the mere report, circulated 
nearly 50 years after the period mentioned. And still less correct 
is the assertion of their " covenanting with one Denton to be their 
minister," more than 20 years after his departure from America, 
and who had then been in his grave many years.* 

The new church was placed on ground granted by the town for 
the purpose and also for a burial ground, April 2, 1734, and stood 
a few rods south of the present episcopal church. Its charter of 
incorporation in 1735 was intended to secure the parsonage and 
other church lands, in perpetuity to the episcopalians, and these 
have been exclusively held and enjoyed by them ever since. 

Rev. Samuel Seabun/y succeeded to the rectorship in 1743. 
His father, John Seabury, died here aged 86, Dec. 17, 1759, and 
is supposed to have been the son of Dr. Samuel Seabury, a noted 

* la describiag the church bailt in 1734, Mr. Jenny says, *' It is 50 feet long 
uid 36 wide, with a steeple 14 feet square ; that the Rev. Mr. Yesey and his 
people had contributed about J^50 ; that Gov. Cosby and lady had named it St, 
George^Sy and appointed St. George^s day for the opening it, when his Excel- 
lency and Lady and his son in law and Lady attended ; also Mr. Secretary 
Clark, Ch, Justice De Lancy, the Rev. Mr. Vesey, some of the clergy and a 
Urge company of Gentlemen and Ladies from the city, and other parts of thd 
province. At which time a collection was made, in which the Governor and 
others were remarkably generous. The Governor also presented the church 
the King's arms, painted and gilded ; the Secretary gave a crimson damask set 
of fiiroitare for the communion, pulpit and desk, and Mr. John Marsh of the is- 
land of Jamaica, gave a silver hason for baptism, and to crown all the Governor 
presented his Majesty^s Royal Charter of Incorporation, by the name of the 
^ Rector and Inhabitants of the Parish of Hempstead in Queens county on Long 
Jslandiin communion of the church of England as by Law established,^* 



physician and surgeon of Duxbuiy, Plymouth colony, Mass., in 

Mr. Seabury was born in 1706, and -graduated at Harvard in 
1724. He was at first a congregational clergyman, but turning 
episcopklian, he settled as the first minister of St. James' Church 
at New London, Conn., in 1728, where he remained thirteen yean^ . 
and removed to this place in 1742, where he died June 16, 1764t :Ji 
aged 58. His widow, Elizabeth, survived him more than thirty ■ 3 
years, and died at the age of 87, Feb. 6, 1799. . , ^ 

There have been, perhaps, few better men than Mr. Seabury ; 
he discharged every duty of his sacred functions with the greatest 
diligence and most indefatigable labor, leaving behind him a cha- 
racter held in high estimation, and an example worthy of all imi- 

His brother, Capt. David Seabury, was very remarkable for his 
great bodily strength and humorous temper. He also died here 
Nov. 11, 1750. Mr. Seabury left four sons, Samuel, Adam, Na- 
thaniel and David, and three daughters, Mary, Jane and Eliza- 

Adam was a physician, and died here March 23, 1800 ; Natha- 
niel was an innkeeper, and lived at Newark, N. J., where he died ; 
David became a merchant in New York, and died aged 92, in 
1842. Mary married Jonathan Star of New London, Conn. ; Jane 
died young, Feb. 28, 1774, and Elizabeth married the late Dr. 
Benjamin Tredwell of North Hempstead. 

Samuel, the eldest son, was born at New London in 1728, gra- 
duated at Yale in 1748, and went to Scotland for the purpose of stu- 
dying medicine, but turning his attention to theology, he took or- 
ders in London in 1753, and on his return settled in the church at 
New Brunswick, N. J. In 1756 he removed to the church at 
Jamaica, L. I., from whence he went to Westchester in Dec. 1766, 
where he was rector of the church and teacher of a classical school 
till the British troops entered New York in 1776, when, being a 
royalist, he took refuge in that city, where he remained till 1783. 

In 1784 he went to Europe, and was consecrated bishop in 
Scotland, being, it seems, the first American citizen who attained 
to that title. On his return to this country he settled in his father's 
parish at New London, presiding, of course, over the diocess of 


Connecticut and Rhode Island till his death, Feb. 25, 1796, aged 
68. His wife was Mary, daughter of Edward Hicks of New 
York, whom he married Oct. 12, 1756.* 

Rev. Leonard Cutting, who succeeded Mr. Seabury, was a na- 
tive of a small town near London in 1731, and graduated at Pem- 
broke College, Oxford, 1754. In him it has been said were happily 
blended the polished habits of a gentleman, with much classical 
knowledge and deep erudition. He came to America in 1750, for 
some years was rector at New Brunswick, N. J., and in 1756 was 
appointed tutor and professor of classical literature in Kings Col- 
lege, N. Y. 

He settled ^ere in Aug. 1766, and taught a classical school of 
distinguished reputation for nearly twenty years. Many of his 
students rose to much celebrity, among whom may be mentioned 
the late Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill, Edward Griswold, Esq. and Dr- 
Richard Kissam of New York. He tendered his resignation in 
1784, and went to the southern parts of the United States, where 
he died. 

Rev. Thomas Lambert Moore, was bom in the city of New 
York, Feb. 22, 1758, and was educated at Columbia College, but 
did not graduate, that institution being broken up by the order of 
the committee of safety in April, 1776, when the college edifice 
was converted into a military hospital, and consequently no public 
conunencement was again held therein, till 1786. His father was 
Thomas, and his grandfather the Hon. John Moore^ one of his 
majesty's privy council in the colony of New York* 

He married in 1781 Judith, daughter of Samuel Moore of New- 
town, L. I. and sister of the late Right Rev. Benjamin Moore, 
Bishop of New York. Thus uniting two families of the same 
name, not otherwise related. Shortly after his marriage he went 
to England for episcopal orders. He was ordained deacon by 

* The children of Bishop Seabury were Violetta, bom in 1756, and married 
Charles Nicoll Taylor ; Abigal, born in 1760, and married Colin Campbell, an 
attorney; Mary, horn in July, 1761, died unmarried ; Samuel, bom Oct. 1765, 
married Frances Tabor of New London ; Edward, born in 1767, married Miss 
Otis of New York ; Charles, born at Westchester, in May, 1770, became an 
episcopal clergyman, and settled, as has been seen, in Caroline Church, Se- 
taaket, L. I. 

Vol II. 6 


Bishop Lowth of London, in Sept. 1781, and priest by Bishop 
Porteus of Chester, in Feb. 1782. In July, following, he returned 
to America, and began preaching at Sctauket and Islip, L. I. as a 
missionary of the society for propagating the gospel in foreign 

He preached for the first time in this parish Nov. 7. 1784, and 
was settled as rector March 6, 1785. Here he remained till his 
decease Feb. 20, 1799. The Right Rev. Richard Channing Moore, 
Bishop of Virginia, who died Nov. 12, 1841, and John Moore, for- 
merly a resident here, were his brothers. His widow survived 
him 33 years and died at New York, Oct. 18, 1834. One of his 
sisters is the wife of Stephen Hewlett of this town, and another 
was the mother, of the late Rev. Dr. Bedell of Philadelphia. 
/uf/^' Rev, John Henry Hobart, the next in succession, was a descend- 
ant of the same Rev. Peter Hobart of Hingham, Mass, who was 
the father of the Rev. Jeremiah Hobart, pastor of the presbyterian 
church in this place, in 1683. He was a son of Enoch Hobart, 
and born at Philadelphia, Sept. 14, 1775. He was educated at 
Princeton and graduated in 1793. 

He commenced life as a merchant, but soon after relinquished 
the pulpit and became a student of theology, under the late Bishop 
White. In 1795 he was employed as a tutor in his alma mater 
and received ordination in 1798. 

The next year he became rector of Christ Church, New Bruns- 
wick, from whence he removed to this place, June 1, 1800. Here 
according to the account given by himself, he past some of his 
happiest days. 

He married a daughter of the Rev. Bradbury Chandler of Eliza- 
belhtown, then deceased, a man of considerable eminence, and dis- 
tinguished for his ably conducted controversy with the Rev. Dr. 
Chancey, and an eloquent memoir of Dr. Samuel Johnson, first 
president of Kings College. In Dec. following his settlement 
here, he was called to be assistant minister of Trinity Church, N. 
Y. which he accepted. This situation furnished a more extended 
sphere of usefulness, and one better suited for the display of his 
extraordinary eloquence. In 1811 he succeeded the Right Rev. 
Benjamin Moore, as Bishop of the diocess of New York. In 1823 
he went to Europe, and during that year visited England^ Scot- 


land^ Switzerland^ Ron^Cf Venice and Geneva, and returned to 
New York in 1824. 

While on a journey to the western part of his diocess, he was 
taken suddenly ill, and died at Auburn, Sept. 12, 1830. His body 
was brought to the city, and interred under the chancel of Trinity 
Church, where an appropriate monument was erected to his me- 

Rev. Seth Hart, was born at Berlin, Conn. June 21, 1763, grad- 
uated at Yale in 1784, and married Ruth Hall of Cheshire, Conn. 
where she was born April 8, 1770. He preached first at Wood- 
bury, Conn, after which he was six years settled at Wallingford, 
from whence he removed to Hempstead, as the successor of Mr. 
Hobart, in Jan. 1801. He was a man of engaging manners, and 
possessed a mild, sociable disposition. He was an excellent clas- 
sical scholar, and devoted many of the first years of his settlement 
to the business of instruction, in which he acquired a high repu- 
tation. He exerted himself with great zeal for the prosperity of 
the church, which greatly prospered under his ministry. A very 
severe attack of paralysis in 1828, disabled him from discharging 
the more active duties of his profession and occasioned his resig- 
nation the following year. His death took place March 16, 1832, 
aged 68, and that of his widow Nov. 3, 1841, aged 71. 

The Rev. William H. Hart, late of Richmond, Virginia, and 
now of Fishkill, N. Y. is his son, and his only daughter Elizabeth, 
who married William J. Clowes, Esq. died at Hartwood, Sullivan 
ca N. Y. Dec. 24, 1840, aged 32. His son Edmund, died un- 
married, Aug. 22, 1838, and his son Benjamin H. Hart, is a far- 
mer in Dutchess county. 

In 1822, the rebuilding of St. George's church was com- 
menced, and was completed the ensuing year, being consecrated 
by Bishop Hobart, Sept. 19, 1823. The cost, which exceeded 
95000, was the voluntary contribution of individuals. It is a 
large and handsome edifice, and has a lecture room connected 
with it, built in 1840. 

Rev. Richard D. Hall, the successor of Mr. Hart, is the son 
of Mr. Parry Hall of Philadelphia, where he was bom May 1, 
1789, and after completing his education, and qualifying himself 
for the ministry, he officiated several years in different places of 


his native state. His settlement took place here in 1829, where 
he was highly esteemed as a pious and faithful minister. He re- 
signed the rectorship in 1834, removed to his native city, and 
has for several years officiated as rector of St. Mary's church, 
Hamilton ville, on the west side of the Schuylkill. 

His first wife was Mary Douglass of Philadelphia, whom he 
married in April, 1815, but whose death occurred in 1817. On 
the 2d of March, 1824, he married Sarah Lucas of New Jersey, 
who died, leaving a son in 1828 ; and Oct. 12, 1831, he married 
in Philadelphia, a lady of the same name as that of his first wife. 

Rev. William M. Carmichael, D. D., the successor of Mr. 
Hall, as rector of this church, and the ninth regular pastor thereof, 
including the Rev. Mr. Thomas, is the son of the late James Car- 
michael, Esq., of Albany, where he was bom June 28, 1804. He 
graduated at Hamilton College in 1826, and married Harriet, 
daughter of the late Dr. Plunket Glentworth of Philadelphia, a 
gentleman of talents and reputation. Dr. Carmichael was settled 
at Rye, Westchester county, in 1832, where he remained till his 
removal to this church, in the year 1834. 

His former parishioners, as a testimony of their great esteem 
for his character and services, while rector there, afterwards pre- 
sented him with an elegant piece of plate, which was accompa- 
nied by expressions of the warmest respect and gratitude of the 
donors. Here he has labored assiduously, and with eminent suc- 
cess, in promoting the interest of the church and congregation. 
Among other improvements mainly attributable to his exertions, is 
a fine organ in the church, and the erection of Trinity Chapel at 
Far Rockaway.* 

* The town records show, that on the establishment of episcopacy here, sus- 
tained, as it was, by the patronage of the government, affairs both civil and 
religions fell into the same hands, and the church exercised very extensive 
influence not only in this town, but in Oyster Bay, which constituted one parish. 
The justices and vestry perfectly harmonizing with the church, as by law es- 

At the annual parish meetings, as they were called, vestry-men, church- 
wardens, and all other civil officers, were chosen, assessments made for the 
support of the rector, the maintenance of the poor, and for all other town pur- 
poses. The vestry-men were, ex officio, overseers of the poor, and had the 


Notwithstanding the difficulties which the presbyterians experi- 
enced, opposed and thwarted as they were, as well by the govern- 
ment, as by those who had thus monopolized the church erected in 
1679, with the parsonage house and lands ; they were yet able to 
sustain themselves, and in 1762 actually completed a church of 
their own, upon a part of the old burying ground, and for most of 
the time enjoyed religious service, till 1772, when the Rev. Joshua 
Hart was permanently engaged, and continued to officiate till the 
enemy obtained possession of Long Island in 1776. After which, 
the church shared the fate of other dissenting churches, and was 
used during the war for military purposes. Another dissenting 
church, which had been erected in 1721 at Foster's Meadows, was 
taken possession of by the British, and entirely destroyed. 

To those who had so long struggled against such fearful odds, 
these misfortunes were of course, most severely felt, yet at the 
return of peace, the society rallied, and having put their meeting- 
house in repair, were supplied by a succession of clergymen, 
among whom were Mr. Hart, Mr. Keteltas, Mr. Sturgcs, Mr. 
Hotchkiss, Mr. Jones, Mr. Andrews and Mr. Davenport.* 

distribatioQ of all the public moneys, which, aided by '* a power and an arm 
9chieh the people dare not resist,'''' it caDnot surprise any one, that in the course 
of half a century, a sufficient number should be found, willing to surrender the 
parsonage lands into the hands of the episcopal church. 

* It will have been observed, that among the original settlers of the town 
were Robert Jackson and Agnes his wife. Hi9 will bears date May 25, 1683, 
mnd it is probable that he died soon after. He mentions his sons John and 
Samuel, and daughter Sarah« wife of Nathaniel Moore, and Martha, wife of 
Nathaniel Coles. Col. John Jackson, the eldest son, was the owner, it ap- 
pears, of 430 acres of land in the town, in 1685, and a leading man in all pub- 
lie matters. His first wife was Elizabeth Hallet, and his second Elizabeth, 
the eldest daughter of Capt. John Seaman, a man of consideration likewise. 
His sons were John, Samuel and James. The first settled at or near Jerusa- 
lem, and died in 1744 ; issue, Obediah, John, Parmenas, Martha married to 
Peter Titus, Elizabeth married to Col. John Sands, Nancy married to 
John Hewlett, Mary married to Benjamin Sands, Jerusha married to Morris 
Place, Rosanna married to Richard Jackson, and Abigail married to Jacob 

The said Obediah was father of the late Gen. Jacob S. Jackson. John 
was father of Thomas, John, Tredwell, Samuel, Noah, Obediah ; Charity 
married to John Seaman, Mary married to Daniel Underbill. Parmenas, who 


Hempstead ViHagCy is by far the largest in the town, and one 
of the most populous in the county, containing about a dozen hand- 
some streets, mostly built up, having 200 dwellings, and 1400 in- 
habitants. It is about 20 miles east of New York city, and con- 
nected therewith by a turnpike and raibroad, on which stages and 
cars pass several times a day, making it one of the most conve- 
nient and desirable residences on the island. The soil is dry, the 
water excellent, and the air as pure as the ocean breeze. It is, 
in short, the principal place of mercantile and mechanical business 
in this part of the country. 

The public buildings, are tlie churches already mentioned, a 
Methodist Episcopal church, built in 1822, and since enlarged and 
improved, and the Hempstead Seminary, incorporated May 2, 
1836, and opened in 1838, under the regents of the university of 
the state of New York. The situation is commanding, and the 
building, which is 60 by 40 feet, a fine specimen of modem archi- 
tecture. It is in truth the crowning ornament of the village, and is 
alike creditable to the liberality and enterprize of the stockholders, 
who, in its erection, expended more than $10,000. The place, 
likewise, contains some excellent public houses, and one of the 
most spacious hotels and boarding houses upon the island. 

was killed as mentioned ante, page 194, was father of Parmenas and John, the 
former of whom had issue Benjamin Coles, Thomas Birdsall, Noah, Ohediah, 
Mary and Elbert. 

Samuel, son of Col. Jackson, had issue Richard, Townsend, Thomas, Ruth ; 
Jemima married to James Hewlett, Letitia married to Solomon Pool, Mary 
married to John Pratt, and Martha married to Samuel Birdsall. Richard, son 
of John, and grandson of the colonel, married Jane Seaman ; issue Richard, 
Micah, Jacob ; Phoebe married to Gilbert Wright, Mary married to John Tred- 
well, and Jane married to Zebulon Seaman. 

Thomas, son of the above named Samuel, had issue Jacob S., Obediah and 
Samuel T. Jackson. Obediah, son of John of Jericho, had issue John and 
William. His brother John of Brooklyn had issue Hamilton, and daughters 
Christiana, Maria and Cornelia. Samuel, the other brother, died at Brooklyn 
unmarried, leaving a large estate, which descended to the children of his de- 
ceased brothers and sisters. The descendants of the said Robert Jackson 
have become very numerous, and by marriage are connected with most of the 
older families in Queens county. The compiler would willingly extend this 
account, but finds it impossible, for want of the necessary details, which he has 
endeavored to obtain, without success. 


The streets were named in 1834, and one of the principal ones 
is Fulton street, which may be said, literally, to extend to Brooklyn 

A press was for the first time established here May 8, 1830, by 
William Hutchinson, and the Rev. Clement F. Le Fevre, who is- 
sued a weekly newspaper, entitled " The Long Island Telegraph 
and General Advertiser ^^^ the title of which was changed, Nov. 11, 
1831, to that of the " Hempstead Inquirer.^ In April, 1833, the 
establishment was transferred to James G. Watts, on whose death 
the business devolved upon his eldest son, James C. Watts, by 
whom it was conducted till May, 1838, when he sold out to John 
W. Smith, by whom, on the first of August, 1841, it was dis- 
posed of to Charles Willets, its present editor and proprietor.! 

* The following inscription is taken from a grave stone in the town of New- 
port, Rhode Island, the subject of which was a native of this village, a descen- 
dant of James Searing, who settled here about the year 1665. 

** Here lies a Christian minister, sacred to whose memory the congregation, 
late his pastoral charge, erected this monument, a testimonial to posterity, of 
their respect for the amiable character of the Rrv. Jambs Searing, their late 
yenerable pastor. He was born at Hempstead, on Long Island, Sept. S3, 
1704, received a liberal education at Yale College, where he graduated in 1725, 
ordained to the pastoral charge of the Christian church and society, meeting 
in Clarke street, Newport, April 21, 1731, where he served in the Christian 
ministry twenty-four years, and died January 6, 1755, aged 50. He always 
entertained a rational and solemn veneration of the Most High, whom he re- 
garded as the father of the universe, the wise governor and benevolent friend 
of the creation. He was a steady advocate for the Redeemer and his religion, 
by recommending virtue and piety, upon Christian principles, in his publick in- 
structions, and in his own excellent example. His contempt of bigotry, his ex- 
tensive charity and benevolence, and exemplary goodness of life, justly en- 
deared him to his flock, and nof only entitled him to, but gained him, that very 
general acceptance and esteem, which perpetuates his memory with deserved 
repatation and honour." 

f James 6. Watts was a native of New Hampshire, and bom in the town of 
Alstead, May 22, 1792, and for seven years succeeding 1821, was the editor 
and proprietor of the United States Gazette of Philadelphia, a newspaper es* 
tablished about the year 1780, and always ably conducted. The delicate state 
of Mr. Watts' health compelled him to leave that city in 1828, and return to 
New Hampshire, where he pursued a more active business for some time ; bot 
not recovering his health, he came to Hempstead in the hope of receiving bene- 


In this village is the grave of the late Henry Eckford, over 
which a chaste and beautiful monument has been erected. This 
gentleman was bom at Irvine, in Scotland, March 12, 1775, and 
was sent in 1791 to the care of his maternal uncle, John Black, a 
naval constructor at Quebec. When of age, he commenced busi- 
ness in the city of New York, where the superior style in which 
his ships were built excited general attention ; and the models de- 
vised by him, established the character of New York built ships, 
over those of any other part of the Union. During the war of 
1812, he was employed by the government to build a navy on 
Lake Erie, and carried on his operations with more dispatch, than 
was ever before known in this country. In 1815 he was made 
naval architect at the Brooklyn navy yard, where he built the Ohio 
74, one of the finest ships ever seen. 

On the accession of General Jackson to the presidency, in 
1829, he was invited by him to furnish a plan for a new organi- 
zation of the navy, which was prepared accordingly, and satisfied 
all those capable of estimating its value. In 1831 he built a ship 
of war for the Sultan Mahmoud, by whom he was invited to visit 
Turkey. Owing to heavy losses which he had sustained, and a 
series of ill treatment and persecution here, he was induced to ac- 
cept the invitation. On arriving at Constantinople, he was ap- 
pointed naval constructor for the empire, and laid the foundation 
of a ship of the line, but while engaged in this enterprize, he was 
attacked by an acute disease, which terminated his valuable life 
Nov. 12, 1832, aged 57. His remains were brought to the United 
States, and interred here Feb. 22, 1833. His widow, Marion, 

fit, and not being in circumstances to live without eropioymenti took tiie man- 
agement of the Hempstead Inquirer. 

His expectations, and those of his family, were, however, not realized, and 
after struggling for more than a year against the insidious approaches of a pul- 
monary complaint, he sunk into the grave June 23d, 1834, in the 43d year of 
his age, leaving a widow, two sons, and three daughters. Mr. Watts was a 
highly intelligent and industrious man, and was always distinguished for his 
activity and enterprise. His eldest daughter, Mary Ann, became the wife of 
William K. Northall a member of the royal college of surgeons, London, 
and now of the city of Brooklyn, and his daughter, Emma Matilda, wife of 
Elijah K. Bangs, died at Saratoga, June 11, 1843, at the age of 23 years. 


daughter of Joseph Bedell, deceased, died Aug. 28, 1840, aged 

The Long Island Farmer's Fire Insurance Company, incorpo- 
lated April 29, 1833, with a capital of fifty thousand dollars, was 
located in this village, and commenced its operations in a short 
lime thereafter ; of which Nathaniel Seaman was chosen president, 
and Benjamin F. Thompson, William H. Barrolland Morris Sne- 
deker, successively, secretaries. The institution proved a safe 
and profitable one for many years, when, in consequence of 
several considerable losses by fire, and a great reduction of its 
best business, it was thought advisable by a majority of the stock- 
holders, to close its concerns ; and a decree of dissolution was 
pronounced by the court of chancery in Dec. 1842. 

A pretty extensive conflagration, supposed to be the work of an 
incendiary, occurred in the lower part of the village, on the morn- 
ing of the 25th of Aj^l, 1837, which destroyed property in goods 
and buildings, to the amount of $20,000. The premises have 
been since rebuilt, by which its appearance and value have been 
greatly improved. 

Jerusalem is a pretty collection of houses, upon the eastern 
limits of the town, at the head of Jerusalem River, the soil of 
which was first purchased from the Indians by Capt. John Seaman 
and his sons, in the year 1666, for which they soon after procured 
a patent of confirmation from Governor Nicoll. The deed was 
executed by the chiefs of the Meroke and Massapcague tribes. 

The situation of the village is pleasant, and contains about one 
hundred inhabitants, the majority of whom are farmers. A friends* 
meeting-house was built here in 1827, a large proportion of the peo- 
ple being of that denomination. There are besides, several mills 
and manufactories in the immediate neighborhood.* 

* CapL John Seaman^ above mentioned, was a native of Essex, in England, 
who arrived here about 1660, a young man and unmarried. He married Han- 
oah, daughter of Samuel Strickland, a first settler of the town, and afterwards 
% Miss Moore of Newtown. He had four sons and a daughter by his first wife, 
and four sons and seven daughters by his second. His sons were John, Jona- 
lliao, Benjamin, Solomon, Samuel, Thomas, Nathaniel and Richard. The 
tldett daughter, Elizabeth, married, as second wife, to Col. John Jackson ; 
Hannah married William Mott ; the third married Nathaniel Pearsall ; the 

Vol. II. 6 


MeriCf {Moroke, or Merikokey) so called from the tribe of In- 
dians that once inhabited it, and who were a numerous people^ 
is a small settlement, five miles south-east of the village of Hemp- 
stead, in full view of the, bay and ocean, rendering it extremely 
pleasant. It possesses, moreover, from its local position, many 
considerable natural advantages. The methodisls have at thi» 
place a meeting-house, erected in 1830, another a little further 
east, in 1840, and one at the settlement called Newbridge in 1839. 

Raynor*s South, or as it is sometimes called, Raynortown, two 
or three miles west of Meric, was first settled by Edward Raynor,* 
an original proprietor of the town, or his children, in 1659. It isr 
a highly privileged place, on account of its fine landing, its prox- 
imity to the bay, with its extensive fishery, &c. and is exceeded 
by few other places, as the resort of sportsmen at every season. 

East Meadow Brook, a very fine stream, here discharges its: 
contents into the bay, and has upon it sofne of the finest grist 
and paper mills in the county. The presbyterian church wa» 
erected here in 1840, and was dedicated the 29tli of November of 
that year. 

fourth married a Kirk ; the fif\h married Caleb Karman ; the sixth married 
John Karman, junV. ; the seventh died unmarried, and the eighth married 
Thomas Pearsall. Of the posterity of Capt. Seaman, which is very numerous, 
(amounting to many hundreds,) we have been furnished with a very full account^ 
but as it would interest others but little, and would occupy several pages, we 
shall omit the remainder, except to say, that the seventh son, Nathaniel, had 
six sons, Nathaniel, Abraham, Hezekiah, Jacob, Thomas and Samue), the last 
of whom married Martha, daughter of Obadiah Valentine, and had children, 
Willett, Obadiah, Rachel, Valentine, Martha, Phebe, Abigail, Mariam, Samuel, 

Esther and Marmaduke. Of these, Willett, the eldest, married Seiiring, 

and had issue, Elizabeth, Martha, John, James, Valentine, James 2d, Gulielma, 
Mary, Rachel, Willet, Samuel and Benjamin. The fourth son, was the late Dr. 
Valentine Seaman of New York, of whom we shall give a more particular ac- 
count in another place. 

* The said Edward Raynor had a son, Samuel, who had issue Elijah, 
Ezekiel, Joseph and Benjamin. Ezekiel died in 1802, leaving issue Elijah. 
The issue of Joseph were John, Elijah, Benjamin and Thomas. Tlie issue 
of the first named Benjamin were Ezekiel, Lester, Benjamin, Daniel, Menzies 
and Mordecai ; the last but one, being the Rev. Menzies Raynor of New York. 

This gentleman was born here Nov. 23, 1770, and in 1791 was admitted a 
preacher of the methodist connection, in which he was ordained in 1793. In 


Milbum and Hick's Neck, on the west of Raynor's South, con- 
tain a large population, a proportion of which is generally em- 
ployed in the commerce of the bay. The spot called LDtt's Land- 
ing, is the principal depot for manure, lumber, and other building 
materials, for the surrounding country. 

Near Rockawayy about five miles south-west of Hempstead 
village, at the head of Rockaway Bay, has also an excellent and 
convenient landing, which can be approached at high water by 
vessels of 60 tons or more, many of which have been built and 
owned here. It is an active place, and very pleasantly situated. 
The methodist church in the vicinity was erected in 1790, being 
the first of that denomination built within the limits of the town. 
Near to this church is an immense grave, at the head of which 
stands a marble monument, erected to the memory of more than 

1795 he was invited to settle in the epi8coi>al church at Elizabethtown, N. J. 
which he accepted, and was accordingly re-ordained by the Right Rev. Bishop 
Provost of New York. He remained there about six years, when he removed 
to Hartford, Ct., where he was pastor of the episcopal church about ten years, 
daring which time he assisted in organizing societies at East Windsor and 
Glasteabury. Af\er which he became rector of the united parishes of Hunt- 
angtoD and New Stratford, (now Monroe,) in the county of Fairfield, where 
he continued with a good reputation for piety and eloquence, sixteen years. 
About the close of this period, having embraced the doctrines of Universal 
Salvaliony he became pastor of the universalis! church at Hartford, in which 
city he resumed his pastoral labors, aAer an absence of sixteen years, Nov. 1, 
1828. At the expiration of four years he removed, on a pressing invitation, 
to Portland, Maine, where he staid about four years more, when he was called 
to Troy, N. T., where he also continued foiir years. In Aug. 1840, he 
removed to the city of New York, and became pastor of the universalist 
church in Bleecker street. Mr. Raynor married Rebecca, daughter of Dr. 
Daniel fioatecou ofNewhaven, July 5, 1795, by whom he had issue twelve 
children, of whom nine are now living. His son Benjamin Lester, is the au- 
thor of a life of Mr. Jefferson, a work of considerable merit. 

Mr. Raynor has written much, and with acknowledged ability, upon religious 
aubjects. Of some of his works, large editions have been sold. During his 
last residence at Hartford, he edited and published a weekly paper, entitled 
'* The Religious Inquirer^^^ which was continued several years, and was con- 
ducted with distinguished candor and ability. At Portland he also aided in the 
publication of a periodical, called ** The Christian PiloL^^ A few of his nu- 
merous works have been stereotyped, and all bear intrinsic evidence of since- 
xity, moderation, intelligence and industry. 


one hundred unfortunate emigrants, chiefly Irish, who miserably 
perished from on board of the ships Bristol and Mexico, in the 
years 1837 and '8, the particulars of which will be detailed here- 

In a part of Rockaway Bay is Hog Island, which gives name 
to the inlet from the ocean, and contains about 600 acres of upland 
and meadow. Considered as a farm, its situation is very incon- 
venient and lonely. 

Among the most remarkable features in the geography of this 
town is Far Rockaway , long celebrated as a fashionable watering 
place, and has been annually visited by thousands in pursuit of 
pure air and the luxury of sea bathing. Here the ceaseless waves 
of the ocean break directly upon the shore, which unites at this 
place with the main land. The house most frequently resorted to 
in former times, has been removed from its foundation, and its 
place supplied by an extensive establishment, better adapted to 
the character of the place, its eligible location, and the unrivalled 
sublimity and beauty of the unbounded prospect.* 

* The corner stone of the Marine PavUian^ was laid June 1, 1833, with 
pablic and appropriate ceremonieSf and was finished soon after. It is in all 
respects a convenient and magnificent edificCf standing upon the margin of the 
Atlantic ; and has generally been kept in a style not excelled by any hotel in 
the United States. The main building is two hundred and thirty feet front, 
with wings on each side, one of which is bcventy-five, and the other forty-five 
feet in length. The peristyles are of the Ionic order, the piazza being two 
hundred and thirty-five feet long by twenty wide. The sleeping apartments 
number one hundred and sixty ; the dining-room is eighty fiSbt long, and the 
drawing-room fiftyi It was erected originally by an association of gentlemen 
of the city of New York, and the cost, including the land and standing furniture, 
exceeded $43,000. It was sold by the proprietors in May, 1836, for $30,000, 
to Charles A. Davis and Stephen Whitney, Esqs. of New York, and of which 
the latter gentleman is now sole owner. 

The atmosphere here, even in the hottest weather, is fresh, cool and delight- 
ful ; and visiters experience new inspiration and increased vigor by repeated 
plunges in the ocean. One of the best private boarding houses in the neigh- 
borhood is Rock Hall^ originally the family residence of Dr. Martin, and hav- 
ing over one of its fire-places, a painting of a child and dog, very beautifully ex- 
ecuted on the spot, by the celebrated American artist, John Singleton Copley, 
the father of Lord Lyndhurst, Lord Chancellor of England. 


The following lines are so faithfully descriptive of this delight- 
ful place that we cannot forbear inserting them, for the gratifica- 
tion of the reader : 

" On aold Long Island's sea-girt shore, 
Many an hoar I We whird away, 
In listening to the breaker's roar 

That wash the beach at * Rockaway.* 
TransfiiM I 've 8tao<i while nature's lyre 

In one harmonious concert broke, 
And, catching its Promethean fire, 

My inmost soul to rapturcuwaker CaS t' U «- 

! how delightful H is to stroll 

Where murmuring winds and waters meet, 
Marking the billows as they roll 

And break, resistless, at your feet ; 
To watch young Iris as she dips 

Her mantle in the sparkling dew, 
And chased by Sol, away she trips 

O'er the horizon's quiv'ring blue. 

On auld Long Island's sea-girt shore. 

Many an hour I'? e whil'd away, 
In list'ning to the breakers roar 

That wash the beach at ' Rockaway.' 
Majestic scene ! where nature dwells 

Profound in everlasting love, 
While her unmeasur'd music swells 
• ' The vaulted firmament above." 

Trinity Chapel in this neighborhood, was erected in 1838, and 
is a convenient and handsome structure, attached to St. George's 
Church, Hempstead, and in which the Rev. Dr. Carmichael offici- 
ates a portion of his time. It is accommodated with a bell, the 
liberal donation of Joseph Hewlett, Esq. a respectable merchant 
of New York, and a native of this town.* 

* Mr. Joseph Tyler, a celebrated English comedian, formerly kept a board- 
ing house at this place, many years, and where he died in Jan. 1823, aged 
79. Mr. Joseph Holmarif who was likewise an actor of exalted reputation died 
at the house of Mr. Tyler, Aug. 24, 1817, aged 52. His daughter, Miss Uol- 
man, a beautiful and talented actress, became the wife of Maj. Gen. Charles 
W. Saodford, a respectable member of the New York bar. 


Foster^s Meadow^ so called, is a large, but scattered settlement 
on the western part of the town, the soil of which was purchased 
as early as 1647, by Thomas and Christopher Foster, who were 
among the first planters of Hempstead. A considerable stream of 
water, commencing on the south side of the plains, at that period 
discharged its contents into the bay below, but at this time, little 
more than the bed of the stream is perceptible. 

A donation of 200 or more acres of land in this quarter, was 
made by the people of Hempstead, to Mr. Secretary Spragg in 
April, 1 684, some of whose posterity it is supposed are now inhabi- 
tants of the town ; his son Edward having settled here, soon after 
the execution of the said conveyance. 

A presbyterian meeting house was erected in this vicinity in 
1721, but was torn down by the British in 1776, and its materials 
used in the construction of the barracks at Hempstead. The me- 
thodists also built a meeting house here in 1836.* 

The number of inhabitants of Hempstead (which included the 

present town of North Hempstead,) in 1722, was 1951, besides 


In Dunlap*8 History of the American Theatre, it is said of Mr. Tyler, " that 
he was in early life a barber, and consequently was an uneducated man.'* It is 
therefore more to his honor, '* that he could represent the pere noble, on the 
stage, and play the part of the noblest work of God, an honest man, in society.*' 

Of Mr. Holman, Mr. Dunlap says, ** that through all vicissitudes, he sus- 
tained the character of a scholar, the man of honor and the gentleman. He 
was the son of Sir John Holman, Baronet; was educated at the university of 
Oxford ; and by the urbanity of his manners, and the force of his talents, greatly 
contributed to exalt the character of his profession.*' 

* There died in this town in 1830 and in the 90th year of his age, Peter 
Thomas, son of Muses, and elder brother of the well known Isaiah Thomas, L. 
L D. who was for many years one of the most extensive printers and publish- 
ers of books, in all New England, if not in America. He was moreover, the 
author of the History of Printing, and lastly, was the liberal founder, and first 
president of the ** American Antiquarian Society,^'' at Worcester, Mass. where 
he spent the greater part of his life. He was born in 1749, and died April 4, 
1831, aged 82, leaving a character distinguished for integrity, patriotism and 
philanthropy. The father of Peter and Isaiah Thomas, was for a short time a 
resident of Oyster Bay, where his son Peter was born inl741. He was brought 
up in this town where he ended his days. One of his daughters who married 
at Worcester, finally died at Boston. Mr. Thomas was a man of good sense 
and was governed through life by the strictest integrity. 


319 colored slaves. The present number of people in this town 
alone, is now about 8000. 

On the 6th of April, 1784, an act was passed, entitled " an act 
to divide the township of Hempstead into two towns," by which it 
was enacted that all that part of the said township, south of the 
country road that leads from Jamaica, nearly through the middle 
of Hempstead Plains, to the east part thereof, should be included 
in one township, and be thereafter called and known by the name 
of South Hempstead ; and all the residue of the said township of 
Hempstead, should be included in one township, and be thereafter 
called and known by the name of North Hempstead. That the 
inhabitants of either town, should continue to enjoy the right of 
oystering, fishing, and clamming in the waters of both. The 
name of South Hempstead was changed to Hempstead by a sub- 
sequent act, passed the 7lh of April, 1801.* 

* Among the inhabitanUi of Hempstead in 1670, was Thomas Southard d.nd 
his two suns, Thomas and John ; among the sons of the last named Thomas, 
was Abraham, who married a granddaughter of Cornelius Barnes, wh(»se name 
will be found among the early settlers. Abraham Southard removed to Ber- 
nardstown, N. J., in 1751, with eight children, one of whom was Henry, who 
was born at Hempstead in Oct. 1747. He married Sarah Lewis; and took up 
his residence at Baskingridge, N. J., where he was the father of thirteen chil- 
dren, and died at the age of 95 years, May 22, 1842. He was among the ear- 
liest members of the state legislature after the formation of the federal consti- 
tution, and ader serving in that body with honor and usefulness for nine years, 
was elected a representative to congress. He continued in congress, at a pe- 
riod when it was, indeed, a post of honor and distinction, by successive re-elec- 
tions, for the term of twenty-one years, when, in the year 1821, admonished 
by the growing weight of years, he voluntarily retired, having then passed the 
ordinary limit of threescore and ten. A short time previous, his distinguished 
son had been elected a member of the senate, and they had the pleasure of 
meeting in a joint committee of the two houses, the father and son being chair- 
men of their respective committees ; a circumstance probably without a paral- 
lel in our political history. 

The Hon, Samuel L. Southard, son of th& preceding, was born at Basking- 
ridge, N. J., June 9, 1789, and graduated at Nassau Hall 1804. He was 
elected senator in congress in 1821, in 1823 made secretary of the navy, and 
afterwards was attorney general and governor of his native state. 

In 1833 and 1836, he was again elected to the senate, and on the death of 
President Harrison, in April, 1841, was chosen president of the senate,, being 
acting vice-president of the United States. This station he resigned on ac- 


The following brief statement of the expensive and protracted 
controversies, which have existed in relation to the common lands, 
marshes, &c., in this town, comprising probably more than twen- 
ty-five thousand acres, cannot fail to be interesting, and is thought 
material to a full and impartial history of the town. 

The first proceeding in this matter was a bill filed in the court 
of chancery, April 5, 1808, by Samuel Denton, and six other per- 
sons, on behalf of themselves and those similarly circumstanced, 
(who should contribute to the expenses of the suit,) to have their 
rights declared and established, and to be let into the enjoyment of 
the undivided plains, marshes, and beach, according to their re- 
spective interests, to the exclusion of all others ; so that they should 
be enabled to make partition thereof among themselves, according 
to the statute in such case made and provided. 

The principal ground contended for by the complainants was, 
that the inhabitants of the town of Hempstead, previous to its di- 
vision into two towns, whether heirs of, or purchasers from, the 
original patentees, were tenants in common, of all the common 
and undivided land, marshes, &c., within the limits of the town. 

On the other side it was alleged, that the said lands, marshes, 
&c., were the property of the town of Hempstead, as a corpora- 
tion, who had at all former times controlled and governed the 
same, by rules and regulations of town meeting, and had made 
frequent grants and divisions thereof, from time to time, from the 
period of the original purchase, to the time of the filing of tlie said 
bill, of the complainants. After a long and learned argument by 
counsel on both sides, the chancellor dismissed the bill for want of 
proper parties, and upon appeal to the court of errors, the deci- 
sion of the chancellor was affirmed. 

Another bill was subsequently filed, to recover the same pre- 
mises, by persons claiming to be the heirs and legal representa- 

count of his health, a shurt time, before his death, which occurred Jone 36, 
1842, at the age of fifty-five years. He was one of the greatest men of the 
nineteenth century, and it remains for some talented biographer to do justice 
to his memory. One of his sons, the Rev. Samuel L. Southard, is settled in 
the episcopal church at Belleville, N. J., and one of his daughters is the wife 
of the Hon. Ogden HofTman, United Slates attorney fur the southern district of 
New York. 


tives of those who, in 1687, h^ contributed to the expenses of 
obtaining the patent of 1685, from Gov. Dongan, at the rate of 
two and a half pence per acre, for all the lands then held by said 
persons in severalty, being in number 160, according to the list 
hereinbefore inserted. This claim was founded upon the pretence 
that the premises mentioned in said patent, were thereby confirmed 
in fee, to the individuals named therein, in joint tenancy ; that 
John Jackson, the survivor of said patentees, took the whole of 
said lands, and so being lawfully seised thereof, he, by a declara* 
tion or deed in writing, bearing date April 17, 1722, conveyed the 
same to those, and to their heirs and descendants, who had 
paid and contributed as aforesaid, in the year 1687, to the expenses 
of the said patent : and the complainants for themselves, as well 
as for others in whose behalf the said suit was brought, being such 
heirs and descendants, were entitled to said common and undivided 
lands, marshes, &c., in fee simple as tenants in common thereof. 

To this claim the town of Hempstead made answer, and such 
was the opinion of Kent, Chancellor, that the persons named in 
the Dongan patent, like those mentioned in former patents, acted, 
in obtaining the same, not on their own behalf, but as agents, for 
and on behalf of themselves and their associates, the freeholders 
and inhabitants of the town, as a body corporate and politic, and 
that the said complainants had no other or greater right or claim 
to said premises, than what arose from their being inhabitants of the 
town : and his honor therefore decreed that the complainant's bill 
be dismissed with costs, and this decree was affirmed on appeal 
to the court of errors, April 2, 1818. 

Jan. 10, 1821, another bill was filed by the town of North 
Hempstead, in the names of John B. Kissam, supervisor, and 
John I. Schenck, clerk, against the towm of Hempstead, to re- 
cover a part of the common lands, marshes, &c. in the latter town, 
notwithstanding the division of the original town into twp towns 
in 1784 ; upon the principle that said lands, marshes, &c. were 
the common property of the freeholders alid inhabitants of the 
original town, as cestui qui trusts, or otherwise, and consequently 
that the division of the territory into two towns, did not affect the 
Tested and beneficial rights and interests of the freeholders and in- 
habitants of North Hempstead, to a fair proportion of said common 

Vol. n. 7 


property, belonging as aforesaid to the freeholders and inhabitants 
of the original town, and that the rights of the complainants had 
not been lost or divested, by adverse possession or otherwise. 

To which allegations, the town of Hempstead answered, by 
John D- Hicks, supervisor, and Edward A. Clowes, clerk, as 
follows : — 

1. That the plains, marshes, meadows, and beach, mentioned 
m the -pleadings in this cause, together with other parts of the 
said plains, and other meadows and marshes now lying in North 
Hempstead, belonged to the town of Hempstead before the divi- 
sion of that town, and the freeholders and inhabitants thereof, as 


town commons of the said town ; and that the freeholders and in- 
habitants of tlie said town, in town meeting assembled, in their 
corporate or political capacity, were exclusively entitled to the 
same, as common or town property, and had the sole and absolute 
right of regulating and disposing of the same. 

2. That upon the division of the said town, all the said com- 
mon lands, &c. which fell within the bounds of South Hempstead, 
became, and have ever since been, and now are, town conunons 
of the said town of South Hempstead (now Hempstead,) and of 
the freeholders and inhabitants of the said town in town meeting 
assembled, who have the sole right of using and regulating the 
same ; and that the part of the common lands, <fcc. which fell 
within the bounds of North Hempstead, became, and ever since 
have been, and now are, town commons of the said town of North 
Hempstead, and of the freeholders and inhabitants of that town, 
in town meeting assembled, who have the sole and exclusive right 
of using and regulating the same ; and that such has always been 
admitted, treated, and acted upon by the said towns respectively, 
as being their respective rights and titles to the same. 

3. That the town of South Hempstead, (now Hempstead,) since 
the division of the original town of Hempstead, having been in 
the exclusive possession of the common lands, &c. which fell 
within the bounds of South Hempstead, claiming and exercising 
the exclusive right of regulating and controlling the same, such 
possession has been adverse to any right or claim of the town of 
North Hempstead, and has continued, for a sufficient length of 
time, to bar any such right or claim. 


4. That the complainant's bill contains no equity on which a 
decree can be made against the defendants. 

The Hon. Nathan Sandford, chancellqr, decided after a most 
able and elaborate argument, that by the Dutch patent of 1644, and 
the English patent of 1685, the town of Hempstead was invested 
i¥ith power to hold lands, and that they constituted the inhabitants 
thereof a body corporate, capable of receiving and holding the 
lands conveyed. Both patents proceeding, says he, from the sove- 
reign, who had full power to grant the title, and to create corpora- 
tions ; the construction of which patents, was supported by the 
constant practice of the town, from the time they were granted. 
That when the original town was divided, two new corporations 
were established, in the place of one, and each capable of holding 
lands within it own limits. That such division, was in itself an 
assignment to each corporation, of the lands included in each re- 
spectively. The division not only disunited the ancient title, but it 
severed the lands themselves ; it was a partition of all the lands 
into new and distinct portions. Upon the whole case, says his 
honor, '' I am of opinion, that the town of North Hempstead has 
no title to the lands in the town of Hempstead, and diat the suit 
must be dismissed with costs." This decision was likewise af- 
firmed by the court of errors. 


Originally included in that of Hempstead, was as we have 
BOticed, organized into a separate town by the act of April 6, 1784. 
It i^ bounded north by the Sound, east by Oyster Bay, south by 
Hempstead, and west by Flushing. This town possesses of course 
no separate or distinct records, beyond the year 1784, but the orig- 
inal and public records of the town of Hempstead, previous to that 
date, remain here, the clerk of the town having before the divi- 
sion of said territory, resided within the present town of North 

Much, therefore, that relates to ancient matters affecting this 
part of the island is necessarily included in the history of. the for-* 


mer town, but such facts and circumstances as are in their nature 
purely local, have been reserved for this portion of our work. 

In the spring of 1640, a company of emigrants from Lynn, Mass. 
under the direction of Capt. Daniel Howe, and in a small vessel 
owned and navigated by him, landed upon the west side of Cow 
Neck, then called by the Indians Sint Sink, and now Manhassett, 
who under some sort of Ucense or authority from James Farret, 
(the well known agent or deputy of William Alexander, Earl of 
Sterling,) residing at that time in Boston, took formal possession 
of the land at the head of Cow Bay, and proceeded to erect such 
necessary habitations as their condition and circumstances would 
permit. They also entered upon some preliminary arrangements 
with the Indians in the vicinity, for all the lands from Hempstead 
Harbor to the. west side of Cow Neck, and extending from the 
Sound to the middle of the island. All this was done without con- 
sulting the Dutch, and in open defiance to their well known claims 
to the whole territory. 

The government of New Netherlands, were however immediate- 
ly informed of the proceeding, and thereupon sent Mr. Secretary 
Tienhoven, the under-sherifi', a sergeant and twenty soldiers, fully 
armed, to break up the settlement, arrest those engaged in this con- 
temptuous intrusion, and convey them, with all convenient speed 
to the city of New Amsterdam. On their arrival, they found only 
eight men and one woman, the rest with their leader Capt. Howe, 
having retired from the danger which threatened them. Six of 
these, Job Sayre, George Wells, John Farrington, Phillip Kirt- 
land, Nathaniel Kirtland and William Harker were conveyed to^ 
and imprisoned in the Fort Amsterdam. 

On their examination the next day. Gov. Kieft was so well satis- 
fied of their having been deceived or mislead by Howe, Tomlins 
and Knowles, the principal men in the expedition, that he dis- 
missed them upon their signing an agreement to quit the place for 


These same persons, afterwards associated with those who the 
same year commenced, as we have seen, the settlement of South- 
ampton. The Dutch government having forwarded a statement of 
these proceedings to Boston, and at the same time complaining of 
the invasion thus made upon its territory, Mr. Farret at once de- 


oied that any authority was derived from him for what had taken 
place, and to make his disapprobation more apparent, forthwith 
drew up the following protest, which he caused not only to be re- 
corded, but published also : 

" Know all men by these presents, that whereas Edward Tomlyns and Tim- 
othy Tomljms, together with one Hansard Knowles and others, have lately 
entered and taken possession of some part of the Long Island, in New Eng- 
land, which was formerly granted by Letters Patent of our Sovereign Lord, 
King Charles, to the Right Hon. William Earl of Stirling and his heirs : I, 
James Farret, by virtue of a commission under the hand and seal of the said 
Earl to me made for the disposing and ordering of the said Island, do hereby 
protest and intimate, as well to the said Edward Tomlyns and others, the said 
intruders, as to all others whom it may concern, that neither they, nor any of 
them, nor any other person or persons, (not claiming by or from the said Elarl,) 
have or shall have, or enjoy any lawful right, title, or possession of, in, or to 
the said island, or any part thereof; but that the said Earl, his heirs and as- 
signs, may and will at all times, when they please, implead or eject, either by 
course of law or lawful force, if need be, all the said intruders, their servants, 
tenants, or assigns ; and may and will recover against them and every of them, 
all damages and costs in this behalf sustained, or any color of title, or pretence 
of right, by grant from the governor of New England, or any other notwith- 
standing. In testimony whereof I have made and published this protest and 
intimation before John Winthrop, one of the magistrates and council of the 
Blassaehusetts, in New England aforesaid, and have desired that the same be 
recorded there, and in other jurisdictions in these parts, and have published and 
showed the same to the said Edward Tomlyns in presence of the witnesses. 
Dated at Boston the 28th of 7th month. An. Dom. 1641, in anno Regis Domini 
Nostri Caroli Anglie, docimo septimo. " James Farret." 

^ The above named James Farret, gentleman did make this protestation 
the 5^th of the said month in the year aforesaid at Boston, in the Massachu- 
setts aforesaid : 

Before me — John Winthrop." 

Most of the lands in this town, and particularly the necks ad- 
joining the Sound, were at first reserved as a common pasturage 
for cattle. Grants and allotments of portions of the soil, began 
afterwards to be made upon Madnans (now Great) Neck. The 
land about what is now called Westbury, was next settled by the 
Seaman, Titus and Willis* families, whose descendants are at this 

* Hemy Willis^ the common ancestor of the families bearing that name upon 
the island, was born at Westbury in Wiluhire, England, Sept. 14, 1628, where 


time numerous, both on Long Island, in the city of New Yoilc, 
and other places. 

That part of Cow Neck lying on the head of Cow Bay, and 
next to Great Neck, was called Little Cow Neck, and in the de- 
vise from Matthias Nicoll to his son William, is called Little 
Neck, or Cow Neck, which, with the settlement on the east side 
of Great Neck, is now known as Manhasset. 

All the rest of Cow Neck, extending as far east as Hempstead 
Harbor, was, up to the year 1676, enclosed by a portion of the 
inhabitants of the town, who were entitled to the pasturage of a 
number of cattle, in proportion to the number of pannels of fence 
made by them, otherwise called standing gates, by which they were 
designated in many subsequent conveyances. 

he married Mary Peace in 1654. On accoant of bis predelictions in faTor of 
the sect called Quakers/he was unable to enjoy the liberty he desired, and 
therefore resolved to try his fortunes in America. He arrived here about the 
year 1670, and made a purchase of land in a part of the town, which he called, 
from the place of his nativity, Westhury. 

His children were Mary, Elizabeth, William, Henry, John, Sarah, Rachel, 
and Esther, most of whom, it is believed, married and had families also. Wil- 
liam, born in England Oct. 16, 1663, married, 1687, Mary, daughter o^ Edmund 
Titus, and had six sons and one daughter, one of whom was Samuel, bom 
June 30, 1704, married Mary, daughter of John Fry, and had issue four sons 
and six daughters. The sixth child was the late Fry Willis of Jericho, born 
April 9, 1744, married Anne, daughter of Thomas Seaman, and had issue 
Thomas and Isaac, the former of whom has in his possession a very full gene- 
ology of the Willis faiAily, and others with whom its members have been allied 
by marriage. 

Edmund Titus, above mentioned, the progenitor of most, if not all, of that 
name in this county, was born in England in 1630, and came from Massachu- 
setts to Long Island in 1650, in company with one William Stites, then up- 
wards of 100 years old, who, it is said, travelled on foot from Seekonk to this 
place, where he lived to the great age of 116 years. The said Edmund Titus 
married Martha, daughter of William Washborne, and settled also at West- 
bury. His issue were Samuel, Phcebe, Martha, Mercy, Hannah, Jane, John, 
Silas, Patience and Temperance. He died July 7, 1715, aged 85. His bro- 
thers were Samuel, John, Abial and Content Titus. The two first of whom 
probably remained at Seekonk. Abial settled in Huntington, and Content at 
Newtown. The children of the former were Abial, Henry, John, Jonathan, 
and two daughters. He died at the age of 96. The descendants of the said 
Content Titus are sometimes called Tetus. 



The number of those who had contributed to the enclosure in 
1658, was sixty, and the pannels of fence 526. In 1659, tha 
town " ordered that noe calves shall be carried downe unto the 
necke, but such as shall have cowes drove with them to sucke, 
and if any shall drive downe calves without cowes to sucke, shall 
fforfiet one half to him that gives the notis." The number of cat- 
tle put in the neck in 1659, was 306. 

After 1670, a part of the neck was allotted to the same indi- 
viduals or their heirs, in the like ratio, except a certain tract on 
Pipe-stave creek, adjoining the land of Mr. Nicoll, which the 
town, it seems, had in 1674 presented to him. 

The records show that, Sept. 16, 1676, John Seaman, Jonah 
Fordham and Thomas Rushmore, were chosen by the town to lay 
out and divide the neck in severalty, among those entitled to shares 
therein, as aforesaid. A large tract on the lower part of the neck, 
became afterwards the property of the Cornell family, who, in f 
1695 or '96, sold the northern portion of it to Capt. John Sands, 
and his brothers Janies and Samuel, who, at that time, removed 
from Block Island and took possession of the said lands, from 
which time the place took the name of Sands' Point. The two 
last named Sands settled here as farmers, but the former conti- 
nued his maritime pursuits, making frequent and profitable voya- 
ges between New York and Virginia. On one of these occasions, 
it is supposed, he brought a quantity of small locust trees, which 
. were planted upon the sides of tlie beautiful cove near which they 
resided, and from which trees thus planted, it is believed that most, 
if not all, of this description of limber upon the north side of 
Long Island, has been derived. This kind of wood has already 
become the prevailing timber between Flushing and Smithtown, 
and is a mine of wealth to its respective owners. It has, indeed, 
become so general, that almost every farmer, in this town particu- 
larly, has his forests of locust, covering a surface of from ten to 
one hundred acres. 

Cow Neck contains about six thousand acres of very fine land, 
with a competent quantity of timber, and has, moreover, many 
other local advantages. 

On its northern extremity is about five acres, which was ceded 
to the United States in 1806, and upon which a light house was 


erected in 1809, at an expense of 88,500. It is of hewn stcme, 
ef an octagon form, and eighty feet in height.* 

Upon the shore near this place, was formerly a large rock called 
Kidd's Rock, from an opinion that the notorious freebooter, Kidd, 
had made here, as in other places, valuable deposits of the pre* 
cious metals, and parties of adventurers have occasionally thrown 
away their labors on this spot, in the vain hope of enriching them- 
selves with the pirate's treasures. It is almost needless to add, 
that none were ever discovered. 

Plandome, so called, is that part of Little Cow Neck, or Man- 
hasset, which is the present residence of the Hon. Singleton 
Mitchill. It was included in the purchase made by Matthias 
NicoU, first English secretary of the colony, and for which he ob- 
tained a patent from Governor Lovelace in 1670. His first pur- 
chase contained two hundred acres, the whole. of the said Little 
Neck being estimated at seven hundred. Mr. NicoU afterwards 
made a further purchase of two hundred acres, for which he pro- ' 
cured a cpnfirtnation patent from Governor Andros, Aug. 29, 1677. 
In this patent, the premises are bounded north by a river called Lit- 
tle Neck Gut, br Pipe-stave Creek ; west by Howe's Harbor ; east 
by a swamp that leads into said creek ; and south by a fence that 
encloses the whole neck. To the lands included in this patent, 
the town of Hempstead gave Mr. Nicoll two hundred acres more, 
by which his estate upon this neck was increased to six hundred. 
Mr. Nicoll died in 1690, and the said lands were sold in 1718 to 
Joseph Latham for JC2,350, equal to 85,875. 

A patent was issued by Gov. Dongan to Capt. Thomas Hicksy 
Nov. 25, 1686, for land on the north-east part of Cow Neck ; and 
another, Dec. 13, of the same year, to John Cornwell, for 100 
acres, which premises are now owi^ed by Cornwell Willis. John 

* This structure was erected by Noah Mason, who was thereaAer appointed 
keeper, in which situation he remained till his death, Feb. 27, 1841. He was 
bom at Uxbridge, Mass., 1757, and at the age of nineteen years entered the 
revolutionary army as a volunteer, and in which he served three campaigns. 
He was present at the battle of Rhode Island, and with General Gates at the 
capture of Burgoyne, in which he was severely wounded. He was always 
esteemed as a person of strict integrity, and practiced industry and economy, 
throogh a long life of eighty-four years. 


ornwell was probably a son of Richard Comwell, or Comhilly an \ 
nglishman who at an early period, made large purchases of land 
^om the Indians about Rockaway, during the Dutch government. 
"The above named John Comwell gave half an acre of land on 
Cow Neck for a burial ground, which has ever since been used 
T)y his descendants, and by the Sands family. This same gentle- 
man, with his sons Richard and Joshua, procured another tract in 
this district, from Thomas Willet, in 1702, for the sum of £600.* 

* In the list of the freeholders of the town of Hempstead, in 1686, will be 
found the name of Adam Mott, the common ancestor in America of a great 
Dumber of families inhabiting Long Island and other parts of the state. He 
was born in England in 1606, and in 1636 sailed for Boston with his wife Sarah 
and children, John, Adams, Joseph, Elizabeth, Nathaniel and Mary. He 
was admitted freeman at Hingham, Mass., in 1637, where he remained several 
years, when he came to New Amsterdam. How long he continued here, is 
■Dcertain. He is next found at Newtown, on Long Island, from whence he 
removed to Hempstead in 1665, where he died in 1686, at the age of 80 years. 

His son Adam was born in England in 1629, and was about 36 years old at 
his settlement here. His children by his first wifePhebe, were Adam, James, 
Charles, John, Joseph, Gershom, Elizabeth, Henry and Grace, and by his 
second wife Elizabeth— ^probably a daughter of John Richbill — he had issue 
Riehbill, Mary, Ann and William. 

The said William was born Jan< 30| 1674^ married Hannah, daughter of 
John Seaman, and died June 31, 1740, and his widow June 24, 1759 ; — issue 
Elizabeth, William, Hannah and Martha. The last named William was born 
Aug. 6, 1709, and married Elizabeth Valentine, by whom he had ten sons and 
two daughters, of whom none led issue but William, Henry, Samuel, Joseph 
and Benjamin. He died March 25, 1786, and his wife previously in Nov. 1780. 

His son John was born in 1755, and died without issue Nov. 11, 1823 ; Sam- 
ael born in 1751, and died April 1, 1791. He married Sarah Franklin, by 
whom he had issue Williani, born Jan. 11, 1785, Walter born Dec. 4, 1786, 
Samuel born Feb. 7, 1789, and Sarah born Sept. 25, 1791. William, son of 
William, and brother of John and* Samuel, was born Jan. 8, 1743, and mar- 
ried Blary, daughter of William Willis, Dec. 2, 1789 ; she lived to an ad- 
▼aneed age, and died Aug. 6, 1842. Their children were William W. Mott, 
born Feb. 28, 1791, who died by an accident in early life ; James W. Mott, 
born June 18, 1793, and first married Abigail, daughter of Walter Jones, and 
for his second wife Lydia, daughter of Obediah Townsend ; Robert W. Mott, 
born Oct. 10, 1796, and married Harriet, daughter of the late Dr. James Cogs- 
well, of New York, by whom he has issue Harriet, wife of William H. Onder- 
donk, Esq. Henry Mott, above named, son of William, was born May 31, 
1757, married Jane, daughter of Samuel Way, in 1784, and died in 1840. 

Vol. I. 8 


During the Revolutionary war, bands of marauders were accus- 
tomed to land upon these shores during the night, and attack de- 
tached farm houses, rifling the inhabitants of their money and 
other valuables, which they compelled them to surrender, at the 
peril of their lives ; then availing themselves of the speed of their 
boats, reached their lurking places among the small islands in the 
Sound or on the main shore, before an alarm could well be given. 
Indeed, so great were the apprehensions of these sudden attacks, 
that many of the inhabitants had the windows and doors of their 
houses secured by bars of iron, in order to prevent surprise ; and 
it became usual for numbers to pass the night in the woods and 
other secret places, to avoid personal violence, which in various 
instances, was wantonly and cruelly inflicted. In some cases ^fe 
was taken without the least provocation, or in revenge for their 
disappointment in not finding money, as they expected. In one 
instance, wHich is worthy of record, Mr. Jarvis, who resided on 
Cow Neck, aided by an old lady living in the house, succeeded in 
beating ofi" one of these gangs, with the loss of several killed and 
wounded, on the part of the assailants. The n?ght not being quite 
dark, the villains were seen and fired upon by the man from the 
windows, who was furnished with loaded muskets by the brave 
old lady, as fast as he could effectually discharge them. 

Three miles easterly of the churches at Manhasset, is the vil- 
lage of Hempstead Harbor, pleasantly situated at the head of a 
beautiful bay ; and posscssiTig an abundant water power, which 
has mainly contributed to make it a place of very considerable 
manufacturing importance. The dwelUngs are probably 40, and 
the population 250. 

The first grist mill on this part of the .island, it is believed, was 
erected here about a century since l^y Hendrick Onderdonk,* and 

He was the father of Dr. Valentine Mott, of whom a more particular notice 
will be taken hereafter. 

* The said Hendrick Onderdonkwas born here Dec. 11, 1724, and married 
Phebe, daughter of Col. Benjamin Tredwell, and sister of the late Dr. Ben- 
jamin Tredwell. Her mother was a daughter of Maj. Epenetus Piatt, and sis- 
ter of Dr. Zophar Piatt, of Huntington. His wife was born July 13, 1730. 
His death occurred March 31, 1809, and that of his wife Dec. 19, 1801. 
Their children were Benjamin, Gertrude, Andrew, Sarah, Henry, Maria, John, 




he and his son Andrew afterwards built a paper mill also, which 
was, it is presumed, the first established in this state. Hugh 
Gaine, a noted printer and bookseller in the city, was connected 
with these gentlemen in the manufactory, of paper, which has 
been continued at this place ever since. 

Harbor Hill, in the immediate neighborhood, is one of the high- 
est eminences upon Long Island, being 319 feet above tide water, 
the prospect from whose summit, is truly grand, extensive and 

Montrose, a little below the head of the harbor, is a highly plea- 
sant and convenient place, and is equally well calculated for a 
country residence or for manufacturing and commercial purposes. 
Along the shores are numerous and never failing springs of water, 
gushing out from the bottom of the hills, affording a power for al- 
most any amount of machinery, that may be required. 

The scenery from- the high grounds in the vicinity, is highly in- 
teresting. The minute grouping of landscape and water, hill and 
dale, foliage and flower, with an infinity of light and shade, pre- 
sent altogether to the admirers of nature, a picture truly delightful. 
At this place is the noble mansion of Joseph W. Moulton, Esq. au- 
thor of some very valuable contributions to the early history of 
this state, and other works of high merit ; besides the more beau- 
tiful and romantic residence of Mr. Cairns. 

The Friends' meeting house at Manhassct, was first erected in 
1720, on land given by Joseph Latham for that purpose, and was 
rebuilt in 1810. The episcopal or " Christ Church,^^ was com- 
pleted in 1803, in which the Jiev. Seth Hart, oflSciated several 
years, while rector of St. George's Church, Hempstead. After 
him the Rev, Eli Wheeler, was employed, in connection with Zion 
Church at Little Neck, and for many years past the Rev, James 
P. F, Clarke, son of the late James B. Clarke, Esq. of Brookljm, 
has been settled as rector. 

William, Samuel and Benjamin, second. Of these, Sarah, born March 26, 
1*58, married David R. F. Jones, Sept. 20, 1785, and is still living, at an ad- 
vanced age. John, born Aug. 23, 1763, married Deborah, daughter of Wil- 
liam Ustick, and died Aug. 23, 183d. His widow died April 28, 1837. Their 
children were William, who died 1840, Henry Ustick, now Bishop of Penn- 
sylvania, Benjamin Tredwell, Bishop of New York, and four daughters. 


The reformed Dutch church here was built in 1816, of which 
the Rev. David S. Bogart was pastor, as he was at the same time, 
of the church at Woolver Hollow, where he commenced bis la- 
bors in 1812, In 18$i5 he removed to New York, and was fol- 
lowed by the Rev, Henry Hermancey who continued about nine 
months, and was followed by the Rev. James Otterson, Jan. 22, 
1824, who removed in nine years thereafter, to Freehold, N. J. and 
was succeeded by the Rev. John Robb from Scotland, who left at 
the end of two years, when the vacancy was supplied by tlie Rev, 
William R. Gordon^ now of Flushing. 

This gentleman is the son of Robert Gordon of the city of New 
York, where he was born March 19, 1811, his father dying when 
he was quite young. He, graduated at tlie New York university 
in the first class, July 17, 1834, and at the divinity school of the 
reformed Dutch church. New JBrunswick, in 1837. In the fall of 
the same year he accepted a call to this church, and was settled in 
November Next year he married Matilda, daughter of the late 
Minne Onderdonk of this town. His dismission took place in the 
spring of 1842, since which he has aided in organizing a nenf re- 
formed Dutch church in the village of Flushing, with flattering 

One of the most interesting natural curiosities in this town, is 
the beautiful collection of water at Lakevilley formerly known as 
Success Pond. It was called by the Indians Sacuty which by a 
simple deflection in sound, might have been and probably was, 
changed to Success. The water is contained in a deep basin, 
situated upon a high ridge, the summit of which may be discerned 
at a great distance from the ocean. 

The water is very cold, at the same time perfectly clear and of 
great depth. It is about five hundred rods in circumference, be- 
ing surrounded by a high bank, and is altogether a romantic and 
beautiful object. It was stocked with the yellow perch by the 
late Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill, who, in the third volume of the Me- 
dical Repository, says : " In 1790 my uncle Uriah Mitchill, she- 
rifi* of Queen's county, 'and myself, went to Ronkonkoma Pond 
in Suffolk county, a distance of forty miles, in a wagon, for the 
purpose of transporting alive some of the yellow perch from thence 
to Success Pond. We took about three dozen of those least in- 



jured by the hook, and put all but two into Success Pond in good 
condition ; and in two years thereafter, they had so multiplied as 
to be caught by the hook in every part of the Pond." 

The reformed Dutch church at this place was erected in 1731 
at '32, repaired in 17i36, and taken down some years after the 
building of the church at Manhasset. It was one of the collegi- 
ate churches of Queens county, and was supplied by the same 
ministers who officiated in the churches of Jamaica, Newtown, 
and Wolver Hollow. The county courts were held in this church 
in 1784. 

Great Neck, formerly called MadnarCs Neck, extends from 
Lakeville to the Sound, and lies between Cow Bay, formerly 
How^s Bay, and the peninsula of Little Neck, containing about 
4000 acres of land of a superior soil. It was patented in 1666 
by Governor Nicoll to Thomas Hicks, one of the early inhabitants 
of Flushing, who sold a portion of it during the same year to 
Richard Comwell, subject, however, to any previously vested 
right thereto in the town of Hempstead. On this neck are nume- 
rous and conunanding sites for building, upon which several hand- 
some residences have been erected ; among others, that of Robert 
W. Mott, Esq. possesses peculiar charms, and from its position, 
its beautiful grounds and fine water prospect gently commingling, 
may well be considered a sort of a rural paradise. 

Hyde Park, so called, is in the south-west part of the town, 
and was the former properly and residence of the Hon. George 
Duncan Ludlow, one of the judges of the supreme court of the 
colony, as well as of his brother Col. Gabriel Ludlow, who com- 
manded a regiment of American royalists during the Revolutionary 
war. In consequence of the adherence of these gentlemen to the 
cause of the enemy, and their active co-operation in the measures 
of the British ministry against the colonies, their estates were for- 
feited to the country. 

The mansion which had been erected by Judge Ludlow was 
destroyed by fire in 1817, during its occupation by the notorious 
William Gobbet.* 

* In the ficinity of Hyde Park is the former residence of Edward Gris- 
wold, Esq. He was born on the 11th of August, 1766, being the son of Jo- 
Beph Griawold, a wealthy distiller in the city of New York. Hia claasical 


The open grounds south of Hyde Park, were anciently called 
Salisbury Plains, where a race course was established by Got. 

education vns acquired ander the instruction of the Rev, Leonard Cutting, of 
Hempstead. At the age of seventeen he commenced the study of the law, 
and was admitted to the bar before the age of twenty years. His uncommon 
industry and assiduous attention to business secured him in a short time a pro- 
fitable practice, and his office was filled with students desirous of deriving ad- 
vantage from his uncommon stores of legal knowledge. One of these vras 
the late John Wells, whose death took place at Brooklyn, on the 6th of Sept. 
1823. As a commercial lawyer, Mr. Wells was acknowledged to stand nnri- 
valled at our bar. He was an orator of the first order. He had, (says his 
biographer,) a masterly manner of clothing a long chain of connected ideas in 
the choicest language ; and perhaps no individual in this country ever reached 
the same elevation, and occupied so large a share in the public eye upon the 
mere footing of professional eminence and worth. Mr. Griswold was distin- 
guished for his good sense, his great analytical powers, a clear discrimination 
of legal principles, and their application to facts in any particular case. His 
retirement from the active duties of his profession took place many years 
since, yet his advice and assistance continued to be anxiously sought after, 
even by the most eminent of the profession ; and such was the deference shown 
to his opinions, that his authority was generally considered quite satisfactory. 
More than forty years ago he visited Paris, where he married a lady of fortune, 
by whom he had an only child, now the wife of General Berthemy, possessing 
an important military station in the kingdom of France. Mr. Griswold again 
visited Paris in 1810, where he found the late Col. Burr, and to whom he 
loaned the sum of two thousand francs at one time, to relieve him from penury 
and distress. It was Mr. Griswold^s intention to have remained in France, 
and was negotiating for a country seat about twenty miles from Paris, but 
which was for some cause broken oflf, and he returned to his farm in North 
Hempstead, where he speni the remainder of his life, and where he died sud- 
denly by an attack of apoplexy, Feb. 26, 1836. Col. Burr entertained the 
most profound respect for the talents and legal acquirements of Mr. Griswold, 
and said he was the only person he ever saw who. loved the black-letter lore 
of the common law, for Us own sake. Mr. Wells, too, in llie full zenith of his 
reputation, spoke of the professional habits and acquirements of his early tutor 
and friend in terras of the highest respect. The example alone of such a man 
must have been of very great advantage to his pupil, and in one respect at 
least there was a remarkable similarity between them. This was a most pow- 
erful and singular habit of mental abstraction, which enabled them to sit down 
in the midst of their families or a crowd of company, separate themselves from 
the sports, the business, or the noise around them, and, insulated and deaf to 
every thing that was passing, pursue their studies, equally unconscious of any 
thing like interruptioo, as if in the deepest retirement of the closet. 


^^Ticoll in 1665, and was supported by the public authorities, many 

^ears, for the purpose, as declared by his excellency, " of improv- 

i ng the breed of horses,'' an argument yet made use of to justify 

^e practice of horse racing. His successor, Gov. Lovelace, also 

cippointed, by proclamation, that trials of speed should take placd 

in the month of May of each year, and that subscriptions be taken 

up of all such as were disposed to run for a crown of silver, or the 

Talue thereof in wheat." 

This course was called New Market, and continued to be pa- 
tronized for the sports of the turf, more than one hundred years ; 
when the place was abandoned for another, considered more con- 

North Hempstead Is the shire town and seat of justice for the 
county, the court-house having been erected on its southern bor 
der, a part of the great plains in 1788, four years after the division 
of the town, and five years subsequent to the Revolution. 

Westbury, called by the Indians WallagCy extends from the 
neighborhood of the court-house to the east line of the town ; the 
population of which is essentially agricultural, and many of the 
inhabitants members of the society of friends, who, as they are 
divided in sentiment, have also two houses for religious worship. 
The edifice occupied by the Hicksite party, so called, is of con- 
siderable antiquity, while the other has been erected only about 
sixteen years. 

There is a good deal of variety in the appearance of this part of 
the island. A ridge of hills, being a portioh of the spine of Long 
Island, passes directly through it from west to east, dividing it into 
sections entirely different in many respects. On the south side of 
the high grounds, the surface is almost level, having only a slight 
declination southward toward the ocean ; while the north side de- 
clines more abruptly toward the Sound, the general surface of 
which is not only undulating, but inclining to the distinction of, 
rough and hilly. 

Indeed, all that portion of the island situated between the village 
of Flushing on the west, and Huntington on the east, and between 
the hills and the sound, deserves particular notice, for the pecu 
liarity of its general features. 

This tract is indented, for half its width between the ridge and 



■ • 

^, ^Sound, by seven large bays or harbors, called by the several 
V names of Flushing Bay, Little Neck Bay, Manhassett Bay, (for- 
;,n\frly Cow Bay,) Hempstead Harbor, Oyster Bay, Cold Spring, 
^md Huntington Harbor. These sheets of water occur in regular 
> '^ff^cpession, being from four to six miles in length, and having in 
■ V /k^r general form a wedge-Uke shape, with mouths or entrances 
from one to three miles wide ; and are, in almost every case de- 
fended by a sand-beach, a sort of natural break-water, formed by 
the continual action of the tidal currents, and leaving, in some in- 
stance!^ onljr a passage way or channel for vessels. The distance 
froni tfaisi^eBt siie of Flushing Bay to the east side of Huntington 
HarfaKM^in a direct line is about twenty-eight miles ; while, fol- 
lowing thfe ^uidentations of the coast produced by these bays, will 
make the distance upwards of eighty miles ; forming an extonsive 
water-front, presenting a great variety of surface, abounding in 
fine scenery, in which the cultivated field, the forests, the vsFaters 
of the bays, the broad expanse of the Sound, whitened with the 
sails of commerce, the mill, the farm-house, and the country resi- 
dence, alternately attract the attention, and delight the eye, of the 
admirer of the beautiful and picturesque. 

The territory, therefore, bordering on the Sound in this town and 
Oyster Bay, may be said to consist of a succession of promonto- 
ries, formed by the bays before mentioned, containing from two to 
forty square miles each. The villages and settlements at the 
heads of the bays, are connected by a turnpike road which ranges 
across the head of the necks^ and from which the headlands formed 
by these promontories upon the 90und, vary in distance from two 
to six miles. 

Over this surface are to be found residences of a surperior order, 
inhabited by a class of men, who may be fairly reckoned among 
our most valuable citizens, independent farmers, living upon their 
own estates, and devotfng a close attention to their improvement, 
as well as the encouragement of arts and industry in those around 

So long as this description of men are prosperous, and exercise 
the influence that justly belongs to them, all that is valuable in 
our pubUc institutions will be preserved, our liberties be secured, 
sound morals more generally prevail, and just conceptions of our 


political and social duties and obligations, and save the character 
of all classes of our people from degradation. 

The larger portion of the population in this part 6f the island^ 
being engaged in the cultivation and improvement of the 0oil, and 
the advantages of their situation being somewhat remarkable, there 
must be of course, a large surplus of produce, beyond the heme con- 
sumption. This is consequently susceptible of a cheap and ex- 
peditious conveyance to the markets of Brooklyn and New York,* 
where the best prices, the legitimate reward of industry, i/unme-» 
diately realized. ' 

The average size of farms in this district is from seteaty, to three 
hundred acres, and exceeding fine crops of Indian com, wheat, rye, 
oats and gtass are annually produced. The system in general 
pursued by the farmers here, as in other places, is a rotation of dif-> 
ferent crops, while the increased facilities for conveying manure^ 
from the city of New York, have multiplied to a great extent, the 
free use of ashes, bone^ lime, &c. 

The science of horticulture might, and doubtless will be, here- 
after, extensively cultivated in this portion of Loiig Island, to sup- 
ply in some good degree the inmiense necessities^ of the two great 
cities, a few miles distant. The time must soon come when this 
mode of using the soil, will be found vastly more profitable than 
that heretofore practiced, and in which the labor and expense are 
less, compared with the income to be derived. With the excel- 
lence of her soil and her local position, in regard to the commercial 
metropohs of the union, Long Island ought to furnish nearly all 
the vegetables, and fruits, required by the half million of soulsy 
which that city and Brookl}m must soon contain. 

Having mentioned above that Mr. Cobbcrt, a celebrated political ^nier, an<! 
probably one of the most able and prolific of his day, reaidckl for a time in this 
town, and in order to gratify the readers of this work, we have collected tbef 
fbUowing particulars respecting him, which we presume will satisfy ail, that 
he was one of the most extraordinafy men of the age in which he lived : 

William Cobbet was the son of a farmer at Farnham, in Sorry, (Eng.) where^ 
he was born in 1763. The incidents of his early life are detailed by himself id 
the ^ Life and Adventures of Peter Porcupine^'* published in 1796. It contains 
a Tery interesting account of his sotf education, carried on tmder dircumstan-' 

Vol. II. 9 



068 which woald have discouraged ahnost any other individual ; and with an 
ardor and perseverance never surpassed by any one. In 1782, while on a visit 
to Portsmouth, he first beheld the sea, and longed to be a sailor. In the May 
following he obtained a situation as copying-clerk to a gentlemen of Gray^s 
Inn ; after which he went to Chatham and enlisted in a regiment of foot, des- 
tined for Nova Scotia. He came to New Brunswick and was soon raised to 
the rank of sergeant major ; and here he formed acquaintance with his first 
wife. The account given by himself of his courtship and marriage it. one y€ 
the most beautiful moral pictures ever drawn. While at Chatham he bliid JQt^ 
many books, and applied his attention assiduously to English grammar, haTiii|;«' 
he says, copied Lowtlf s Grammar several times, the better to impress it upon 
his recollection. He finally committed it to memory, and used to repeat it over 
every time he was posted as sentinel. 

In 1792 he went to France, where he completed his acquaintance with the 
French language. He sailed from thence to New York, where he arrived 
the same year. He soon after opened a bookstore in Philadelphia, and in 1794 
made his first appearance as a public writer, by an attack upon Dr. Priestly. 
He established a paper under the assumed appellation of " Peter Porcupine^^ 
in which he espoused the conduct of England in opposition to that of France, 
and was also the author of many abusive attacks upon individuals, as well as 
upon the republican institutions of the United States. These papers were af- 
terwards collected in twelve volumes, and published. Being convicted of a 
gross libel upon the professional character of Dr. Rush, he was fined five 
thousand dollars, and which among other things, drove him from the country 
in 1800. 

He next established the Register in England, which was continued during 
his subsequent life, and so great was his popularity as a writer, at one time, that 
Mr. Windham declared, in his place, in the house of commons, that Cobbet de- 
served a statue of gold to be erected to his memory. With the profits of his 
numerous publications, he purchased an estate at Botley, in Hampshire, where 
he introduced and encouraged several improvements in husbandry, and even 
met with some success in cultivating Indian corn. In 1805, he became a radi- 
cal, and proved no small annoyance to the ministry in power. In 1810, he was 
convicted of a libel, and sentenced to imprisonment in Newgate for two years, 
and to pay a fine of one thousand pounds sterling ; the whole of which is said to 
have been raised by a penny subscription, among his political friends. In 1816, 
he changed the form of his Register to a two-penny pamphlet, and soid the 
amazing number of one hundred thousand weekly. 

The suspension of the habeas corpus act, again drove him from the conntry, 
and he arrived in America in 1817, taking up his residence at Hyde Park, in 
the town of North Hempstead, Long Island, where he remained till the house 
in which he resided was consumed by fire, the following year. It was here 
that he composed some of the best and most popular of his many publications — 
among which, is his English Grammari one of the best practical works of the 
kind, extant. 





He mixed but little in society while here, and was generally distant and re- 
senred in his manners : he consequently made few acquaintance, and no friends. 
His deportment toward his immediate neighborhood, was aristocratic and un- 
soeiable, although professing great liberality and benevolence. He found but 
little coQDtenaBce among American democrats, and returned to England in 1819, 
when he took a warm and decided part in favor of the persecuted Queen Caro- 
line, wife of King George IV. 

In 1822, he was elected to the house of commons, for the borough of Old- 
ham, and was a member at the period of his decease, June 25, 1833 ; but it can- 
not be said that his parliamentary career added any thing to his reputation ; and 
it is qaite evident that his great popularity was upon the wane. In one re- 
markable feature, he resembled that great apostle of liberty, Thomas Paine — 
that of addressing himself in his writings, to the common sense of the people. 
In this way he made a strong lodgment in their minds, as an able and efficient 
champion of the rights of the common class of citizens against the encroach- 
ments of prerogative, and the exertions of arbitrary power. 


Is bounded north by the Sound, east by North Hempstfead, 
south by Jamaica, and west by Newtown, being centrally distant 
from New York city, about twelve miles, and containing an area 
of twenty-five square miles, or 16,000 acres. 

The ancient records of the town are entirely wanting, in con- 
sequence of their destruction by fire in 1789 ; and this circum- 
stance has subjected the compiler to much inconvenience, and no 
small difficulty in obtaining many very important facts, in relation 
to its early settlement and subsequent progress. 

By diligent research, it is satisfactorily ascertained that the first 
planters here, were Englishmen, who had probably resided for a 
short time in Holland, and were induced to emigrate to this region, 
in consequence of encouragement received from the agents of the 
province of New Netherlands, that they should here enjoy, to the 
fullest extent, all the civil and religious privileges and immunities 
of their native country. 

It would indeed afford us much satisfaction to be able to give 
the names of the brave pioneers of Flushing, who, relying upon 
the assurances of those, through whose persuasions they left 


Europe, and relying upon the integrity of the Dutch government, 
i^dopted this part of Long Inland as their future residence. 

How well they enjoyed the advantages, which had been pro- 
piised, and to what extent they were allowed to indulge their re- 
ligious freedom, will be fully disclosed in a subsequent part of 
jthis article ; for however much liberty of conscience and freedom 
of opinion were talked about at that period, it will be abundantly 
evident, that its nature was very imperfectly understood, and its 
exercise circumscribed within very narrow limits. I|i short, they 
were subjects, of which few, if any, possessed very correct nor 
tions, and in which scarcely any were sulEciently enlightened to 
appreciate to their full extent. 

The name of Vlishing^ or VlissengeUy was probably conferred 
upon the settlement, by suggestion of their Dutch neighbors, and 
in fond recollection also of tjie many kindnesses which the plant- 
ers themselves had experienced from the people of the town bear- 
ing that name in Holland, from whence they had probably taken 
their departure for America. 

They arrived at New Amsterdam in the spring of 1645, and 
having in the same year located themselves on the site of the pre- 
sent village of Flushing, obtained a patent or ground brief from 
the director general of New Netherlands, the Hon. William Kieft, 
bearing date Oct. 19, 1645, in which Thomas ffarington, John Law- 
rence, John Townsend, Thomas Stilefi, John Hicks, Robert ffiqld, 
Thomas Saul, John Marston, Thomas Applegate, Lawrence 
Dutch, William Lawrence, Henry Sawtell, William Thome, 
Michael Millard, Robert Airman and William Pidgeon were named 
as patentees for themselves, their successors, associates and as- 
signs, who were to improve and manure the land included in said 
patent, and settle thereon, within a short time thereafter, a compe- 
tent number of famihes. The conditions mentioned in the patent 
were fulfilled by the settlers, and the place soon rose into compa- 
rative importance, although the want of any direct conveyance 
from thence to the city, except by water, must have very much re- 
tarded that rapid increase of inhabitants, which, under other and 
more favorble circumstances, might have been expected. 

The natural ei^berance of the soil was most extraordinary, and 


it is therefore very remarkable that the Dutch had not commenced 
^ settlement here long before, as well as in parts of Kings county. 

There is a tradition among the people here, that in a few years 
after the commencement of the settlement, another person of the 
name of Thorne, whether a relation of William is uncertain, 
with his wife and children, left England with the intention of 
settling in some part of this province. It so happened, that 
the vessel, which brought him to America, came through Long 
Island Sound, and being either wind bound or met by the tide, 
cast anchor near Throg's Point. The passengers, with a very 
natural desire of seeing the country and to be once more on 
shore, landed upon the island, where they met and conversed 
withy some of the white inhabitants ; finding them Englishmen 
also, and the land presenting appearances of great fertility, 
Mr. Thome concluded to seek no further for a place of resi- 
dence, but immediately agreed for the neck or point, in the 
eastern part of the town and adjoining the East River, which 
was in consequence, afterwards called Thome's Point. 

This valuable estate continued in the family, till about the 
close of the eighteenth century, when it was sold to a man 
named Wilkins, from which time it has generally been distin- 
guished by the name of Wilkins' Point, and is one of the most 
valuable and handsome farms in the county. Some of the pos- 
terity of Mr. Thome, formerly owned the beautiful farm of the 
late John Titus, since the property of Robert Carter, deceased, 
and were in possession of it long subsequent to the Revolution- 
ary war. 

It seems, that for a great number of years after the settle- 
ment of the town, no safe or convenient road existed by which 
the inhabitants could get to Brooklyn or New York, except 
by the way of the villd^e of Jamaica, owing to the existence 
of swamps, brooks and thick forest, which prevented any di- 
rect communication. 

An individual who kept a small store near the head of the 
bay, had also a canoe which he had purchased from the In- 
dians, capable of carrying a hogshead of molasses, besides three 
or four passengers, and was in the practice of conveying per- 
sons, in good weather, to and fxom ^he city, 


At this ancient period, a building, called the Block House^ 
stood near the site of the late town pond, in which most of 
the public business was transacted, the town records preserved, 
and in which arms and ammunition were deposited. 

In a comparatively short period after the organization of the set- 
tlement here, the people began to experience manifest evidence of 
the illiberality of those who conducted the government of New 
Netherlands ; indeed, the earliest entries upon the council minutet, 
demonstrate that a hostile feeling existed between the administra- 
tion and its subjects, and led eventually, as might have been sup- 
posed, to frequent acts of insubordination, and to no little violence 
and bad temper on both sides. 

On the public records of April 8, 1648, is the following extra- 
ordinary information : — 

" Thomas Hall, an inhabitant of fiUshingen, in New Netherlands, 
being accused that he prevented the sheriff of ffiishengen to doe 
his duty, and execute his office, in apprehending Thomas Heyes, 
which Thomas Hall confesseth, that he kept the door shut^ so that 
noe one might assist the sheriff, demands mercy, and promises he 
will do it never again, and regrets very much that he did so. The 
director and council doing justice condemn the said Thomas in a 
fine of 25 guilders, to be applied at the discretion of the council.'' 
The Rev. Francis Doughty, who, it seems, was in Taunton, 
Mass., at the time of its settlement, came to Long Island in 1644, 
and was the first minister of Flushing, probably a baptist, but af- 
terwards turned Quaker ; and it is believed that all the families of 
that name, in this part of the state, are the descendants of this gen- 
tleman. His salary was at first six hundred guilders, and in 1647, 
an order was issued by the council of New Amsterdam, to assess 
the inhabitants of Flushing for his salary, they having refused to 
pay it voluntarily.* It farther appears, ihat after his decease, an 
action was brought by his son, Elias Doughty, (named in Nicoll's 
and Dongan's patents,) in the year 1666, to recover the arrears of 

* This was the same Francis Doughty who was at Cohasset in 1642, and 
mentioned by Leechford in his '* News from New England,'* as being dragged 
oat of a public assembly, for asserting that Abraham's children should have 
been haptized,^^ which harsh treatment may well account for his leaving that 
colony soon after. 


salary due to his father ; but on its being shown that Got. Stuy- 
▼esant had /orceii the town to sign the articles for the maintenance 
of the minister, " he taking the people into a room one after an- 
other, and threatening them, if they did not sign,*^ the court ordered 
a part only of the amount claimed to be paid. 

At a meeting of the supreme council of New Amsterdam, April 
!3S, 1655, Thomas Saul, William Lawrence, and Edward Farring- 
ton were appointed magistrates out of the Ust of persons nominated 
by the town. 

Tobias Feeke was also appointed scout or sheriff. This indi- 
Tidaal was the son of Robert Feeke, who was at Watertown, Mass., 
in 1530, and who is said to hare married the daughter-in-law of 
Gov. Winthrop. He was also one of the representatives of the 
general court at Boston, and came here in 1650, where he died in 
1668, at an advanced age. The records in the surrogate's office 
in the city of New York, show that adminstration was granted on 
his estate, to Sarah, his widow, then of Flushing, June 19, 1669.* 
A number of individuals entertaining the opinions of the Qua- 
kers, who had now become inhabitants of Flushing, became the 
victims of that odious intolerance so disgraceful to any govern- 
ment, and which, beyond all question, had a principal agency in 
bringing about the overthrow of the Dutch power in 1664. 

These revolting' scenes, in which it was basely attempted to 
drcomscribe and prevent the exercise of religious liberty, by pub- 
Uc authority, took place in this town, and in some other places 
within the Dutch jurisdiction, between the years 1650 and 1664, 
when that arbitrary disposition could no longer be indulged. The 
revolting circumstances which frequently transpired during this 
period in the history of the province, it is now in a great measure 

* To exhibit clearly the scarcity of silver money, in this quarter of the 
world, at that distant period, (1647,) and in the now wealthy village of Flush- 
ittg, it needs only be related, as a well aathenticated tradition, that an old Eng- 
lish shilling having been accidentally picked up in the highway, was considered 
a matter of so mach curiosity, that the public attention was attracted to it, and 
aa inqmry set on foot, to ascertain, if possible, the ownership of an article so 
nre in that era of sheU-money, It was finally ascertained that the man above 
ipoken of^ who kept a store near the bay, had at some time been seen in pos- 
aesskm of a similar piece of money, and who, it seems, exhibited satisfiMtory 
•ridence that the coin foond belonged to him. • 


impossible to describe with any degree of accuracy, from the im- 
perfect condition of the public records which pretend to describe 

In Dec. 1657, the govemor and council had issued an qrder to 
the people of the town, requiring them to cease from giving any 
countenance to or entertaining Quakers, and requiring them to 
apprehend and send to the city any such as should profess and 
preach the doctrines of that heretical sect. The strong and spi- 
rited remonstrance which was returned on the occasion, will be 
found in our article entitled " Quaker Persecutions,'' and is a no- 
ble exhibition of ability and independence. It is signed by Edward 
Hart, clerk, and thirty others, of the principal inhabitants of the 

Tobias Fcekfe, the sheriff, and who, at the request of his fellow- 
citizens, presented the remonstrance to the govemor, was imme- 
diately arrested, and Edward Farrington and William Noble, two 
of the magistrates who had signed the same, were summoned to 
appear and answer for their disregard of the orders which had been 
issued, and the placards of the govemor. 

It was ascertained, says the record, that the said magistrates 
had been inveigled and seduced by the sheriff, and considering 
their verbal and written confession, and their promise to conduct 
themselves in a more prudent manner thereafter, so their fault was 
graciously pardonedy and forgiven, provided they paid the costs 
of the examinhtion, &c.* 

* The followitig is the apologj mttde by the magistrates, on the occasion re- 
ferred to : 

" To the honorable the governor and his coancil, the humble petition of 
William Noble and Edward Farrington, 

Sheweth : — ^That, whereas your petitioners haying subscribed a writing 
offensive to your honors, presented by Tobias Feeke, we acknowledge our of- 
fence for acting so inconsiderately, and humbly crave your pardon, promising, 
for the time to come, that we shall offend no more in that kind. And your pe- 
titioners shall ever pray for your health and happiness. 


William X Noble, 


Edward Farrinotoh. 
Amsterdam, January 10, 16d8." 


The sheriff, it seems, was also persuaded by his apprehensions 
of danger to himself, and from the temper shown by the authorities 
of New Amsterdam, to apologize for the part he had acted in re- 
lation to the said remonstrance, and therefore sent them a paper of 
which the following is a copy : 

" Right hoQorable governor and coancil : — Forasmuch as I have written a 
writing whereat you take offence, my humble desire is, that your honors would 
be favorable and gracious to me, for it was not written in disobedience unto 
any of your laws ; therefore, my humble request is for your mercy, not your 
judgment, and that you would be pleased to consider my poor estate and con- 
dition, and relieve me from my bonds and imprisonment, and I shall endeavor 
hereafter, to walk inoffensively unto yoor lordships, and shall ever remain 
your humble servant to command. 

Jan. 23d, 1658. Edward Hart." 


The decision of the governor and council upon the subject of 
the said petition, was made in the form following : 

" 1658, 23d January : — Being presented, and read, the petition of Edwsfrd 
Hart, clerk of Vlissengen, and considered his promises that he would conduct 
himself more prudently, and the intercessions of several of the inhabitants of 
said village, that he always was willing to serve his neighbors, and that, aa 
one of the oldest inhabitants, he was thoroughly acquainted with their affairs : 
and further, that the sheriff, Tobias Feeke, advised him to draw the aforesaid 
remonstrance of the first of January, and then presented : and further, that he 
has a large family to maintain ; so is it, that the director general and council 
pardoned his fault for this time, provided that he pays the expenses and misea 
of justice." 

As an example of what was done in other cases, we may cite 
the instance of Robert Hodgson. He arrived from England at 
New Amsterdam Aug. 1, 1657, but finding that his preaching 
would endanger his safety, if not his life in that city, he came to 
this town where he was well received, but on going to Hempstead 
he found no quarter, but was apprehended and transported to the 
city where he was imprisoned, and subjected to the most odious 
and disgusting punishments. The people in the city were at 
length so moved by his sufferings, that they offered to pay his fine 
of 600 guilders to obtain his release. 

The vessel in which he arrived, left for Rhode Island on the 3d 
of Aug. 1657, with Humphrey Norton, Mary Clark, John Cope- 
land and Christopher Holden, Quakers, some of whom, on going 

Vol. n. 10 


to Boston, fared little better than Hodgson, and were finally ba- 
nished from that colony.* 

The character of the government and those concerned in it8 
administration, from the highest dignitary to the lowest ministerial 
oflScer, was getting generally unpopular. It was in fact an union 
of church and state in its worst form, or rather the former most 
prevailed ; a sort of religious ostracism^ which left the person ac- 
cused no course but stem resistance, followed by almost certain 
suffering, or unconditional submission of the most degrading de- 
scription, and yelding up the liberty of speaking and writing freely 
upon matters, deemed of the highest import?ince both for this world 
and the next : a species of mental slavery, in the opinion of en- 
lightened freemen the most degraded. Notwithstanding the want 
of firmness and moral courage in some, to meet the crisis with 
manly resolution, there were others, and those neither few in num- 
ber, nor insignificant in influence, who breasted the flood of bigo- 
try and intolerance as became men, conscious of their rights, and 
resolved to defend them at any and every hazard. 

The spirit of disapprobation therefore progressed pari passUy 
with the unjust measures of the governor and council ; and the or- 
dinances passed to restrain the freedom of religious worship, met 
with an opposition unsubdued and unsubduable, particularly in 
this town, where ^ven those who were not Quakers, made common 
cause with those who were, and by their union, in the end, proved 
an overmatch for their opponents. Among the most substantial, 
and not the least respectable of this class, was John Bowne, who 
with his father, Thomas Bowne, came early to this town ; the 
latter being born at Mattock in Derbyshire, England, in May, 
1695, and was consequently now near seventy years old. His 

• Governor Stuyvesant continued to show his implacable hatred of this sect, 
daring the remainder of his official life. Henry Townsend who, (in 1657,) 
resided at Rusdorp, (Jamaica,) had interested himself in getting up a meeting 
for one of the persons who came in the vessel with Hodgson, for which, on 
the I5ih of September, he was sentenced to pay a fine of £% ; and a law was 
also promulgated by placard, fixing a fine of £bQ for entertaining a Quaker a 
a single night, one half of which was to be paid to the informer, whose name 
was to be kept secret, and that the vessel which should bring any Quaker into 
the province, should be confiscated. 


son John was bom at the same place, March 9, 1627, and married 
soon after his arrival here, Hannah, daughter of Robert Field, a 
sister of Ehzabeth, wife of the celebrated Capt. John Underbill. 

The dwelling erected by the said John Bowne in 1661, a view 
of which is here presented, is still standing m the eastern part of 
the village, in a perfect state of preservation, after the lapse of one 
hundred and eighty-two years, being doubtless a very superior 
building in its day. In this house George Fox was entertain- 
ed on his visit to Flushing in 1672, but not being sufficiently 
large, to accommodate all who attended upon his preaching, his 
hearers assembled under the widely extended shade of two vene- 
rable and majestic oaks near by, one of which is still standing, 
and can hardly be less than 400 years old ; the other was blown 
down by a violent gale Sept, 25, 1841. 

Soon after this event, the following poetical production ap- 
peared in the newspapers : 


The ancient Gab lies prostrate now, 
lis limbs embrace the sod. 

Where, in the Spirit's strength and iv 
Our pioQS fsiliera Irud ; 


Where underneath its spreading anoSy 

And by its shadows broad, 
Clad in simplicity and truth. 

They met to worship God. 

No stately pillars round them rose. 

No dome was reared on high — 
The Oaks, their only columns were. 

Their roof, the arching sky. 
No organ^s deep-toned notes arose. 

Or vocal songs were heard — 
Their music, was the passing wind. 

Or song of forest bird. 

And as His Spirit reached their hearts. 

By man^s lips speaking now, 
A holy fire was in their eye. 

Pure thought upon their brow : 
And while in silence deep and still. 

Their souls all glowing were 
With heartfelt peace and joy and lo?e. 

They felt that God was there. 

Those free and simple minded men 

Have now all passM away. 
And of the scenes in which they moved. 

These only relics lay ; 
And soon the last surviving oak, 

In its majestic pride. 
Will gather up its failing limbs. 

And wither at its side. 

Then guard with care its last remains, 

Now that its race is run ; 
No sacrilegious hand should touch 

The forest's noMest son ; 
And when the question may be asked. 

Why that old trunk is there — 
" 'T is but the place in olden time, 

God's holiest altars were."* 

* In addition to the above poetical tribute, the following account was given 
in another publication about the same time, and is from the pen of that close 
observer of all that is valuable or curious in history. Col. William L. Stone, 
editor of the New York Commercial Advertiser. 

" A VsTKRAN GozoB. — The oldest inhabitant of Flushing is no more ! Dor- 


In the council minutes of Sept. 14, 1662, we find the following 
entry: — 

*' Whereas, John Bowne, now a prisoner residing at Vlissengen, on Long 
Island, has dared, in contempt of our orders and placards, those of the director 
general and council in New Netherlands, not only to provide with lodgings 
some of that heretical and abominable sect named Quakers, and even permit- 
ted that they kept their forbidden meetings in his house, at which he not only, 
but his whole family has been present, by which the aforesaid abominable sect, 
who Tillify both the magistrates and the preachers of God^s holy word, and 
who endeavor to undermine both the state and religion, are not only encouraged 
in their errors, but other persons are seduced and lured from the right path, 
mil which are transactions of the most dangerous consequences, from which 
nothing else is to be expected, as calamities, heresies and schisms, directly 
contrary to the orders of the director general and council in New Netherlands ; 
which, therefore, deserves to be punished for an example to others ; so is it, 
that the director general and council in New Netherlands, having heard the 
conclusion of the matter, and the confession of the prisoner, doing justice, in 
the name of their high mightinesses the states general of the United Nether- 

ing the windy aflernoon of the 25th inst. one of the venerable oaks, which for 
so many years have been a prominent object in Bowne Avenue, near the vil- 
lage of Flushing, was prostrated to the ground. To a stranger this conveys 
DO higher occasion for regret than the removal of a noble tree by the operation 
of the inevitable laws of nature : but to those who have passed many a happy 
boor of childhood in gathering the acorns which fell from it, and have made 
it the scene of their youthful sports, it seems like the removal of a venerated 
relative — ^as if one of the few visible links, which in this utilitarian land con- 
nect OS with the past, was severed. 

To the members of the society of Friends these trees possessed an histori- 
cal interest, from the circumstance that beneath them, about the year 1679, the 
dauntless founder of their sect, with that power and eloquence of truth which 
drew to his standard Penn and Barclay, and a host of men like them, preached 
the gospel of redemption to a mixed assemblage, among which might be seen 
many a son of that swarthy family whose wrongs and sufferings elicit to this 
day the active efforts of his followers on their behalf. Some seventy years 
since, these honored trees were threatened with demolition by the owner of the 
adjacent property, but for the sak^ of the venerable past were purchased by 
John Bowne, a lineal descendant of the old worthy of the same name, who 
listened to the preaching of Fox and embraced his doctrines, for which he was 
aAerward sent to Holland in irons, where he was honorably liberated by the 
Dutch Government, and a severe reprimand administered to Stuy vesant. The 
time honored mansion in which he entertained Fox, and accommodated the 
regular meetings of the society for many years, is still standing near, and in 
good repair.** 


lands, and the lords directors of the privileged West India company, depart- 
ment of Amsterdam, condemn the aforesaid John Bowne in an amende of Xr25 
Flanders, and to pay the costs and raises of justice, with the express warning 
to abstain himself, in future, of all such conventicals and meetings, on the 
penalty that, for the second time, he shall pay double amende, and, for the 
third time, to be banished out of this province of New Netherlands. 
Done and condemned, at a meeting of the director general and council in Fort 
Amsterdam, in New Netherlands, Sept. 14, 1662." 

The accused, however, declining to comply with the decision of 
the tribunal before which he was condemned, and the fine not be- 
ing paid for about three months — during which time he remained 
incarcerated in the fort of New Amsterdam — the following addi- 
tional sentence was pronounced : — 

** 1662, 14M December, — ^Whereas, the prisoner, John Bowne, a Quaker, 
declined very obstinately, now during three munihs, in great contempt of the 
authority of the director general and council, to pay the amende, in which he 
was condemned on the I4th of September, by the director general and coun- 
cil, for procuring lodgings for, and frequenting the conventicles of the hereti- 
cal and obstinate sect of Quakers, so is it, that the director general an^ conn- 
cil, for the welfare of the community, and to crush, as far as it is possible, that 
abominable sect, who treat with contempt both the politick magistrates and 
the ministers of God^s holy word, and endeavor to undermine the pulice and 
religion, resolved to transport from this province the aforesaid John Bowne, 
if he continues obstinate and pervicatious, in the first ship ready to sail, for 
an example to others." 

Accordingly on the 8th of Jan. 1662, we find a further proceed- 
ing in the council, the record of which is as follows : 

" Whereas, John Bowne obstinately declines to submit to the judgment of 
the Director General and council, so is it, in conformity to the resolution of the 
14th of December last, commanded to depart from here in the ship the JF*0Xf 
now ready to sail, while it is once more left to his choice either to obey and sub- 
mit to the judgment, in paying the amende imposed upon him, or otherwise at 
sight of this, to depart in the aforesaid ship." 

In a few days from the date of this definitive sentence, Bowne 
and his wife took passage for Europe, and the acccount which has 
been preserved of this extraordinary adventure, states, that the wind 
being adverse, for their arrival speedily in Holland, the ship put 
into Ireland, where Bowne was permitted to land, and pass tlirough 
that country and England also, upon his personal engagement that 


he would make his appearance in due time before the authorities 
of Holland. This promise he most honorably accomplished, and 
was patiently heard before a committee of the West India Com- 
pany ; who finding him a discreet man and stedfast in his religion, 
set him at liberty — ^with the following severe reprimand in the form 
of an episde, directed to Governor Sluy vesant : 

" Amsterdam, April 6, lft63.** 
" Sir : — We perceive from your last letter, that you bad exiled and transpor- 
ted hither a certain Quaker, named John Bowne. Although it is our anxious 
desire that similar and other sectarians may not be found among you, yet we 
doubt extremely the policy of adopting rigorous measures against them. In 
the youth of your existence, you ought rather to encourage than check the 
population of the colony. The consciences of men ought to be free and tin- 
shacUed so long as they continue moderate, peaceable, inoffensive, and not 
hostile to the government. Such have been the maxims of prudence and tol- 
eration by which the magistrates of this city (Amsterdam) have been governed ; 
and the consequences have been, that the oppressed and persecuted from every 
country have found among us an asylum from distress. FoUow in the same 
steps, and you will be blessed.^^ 

We will only add, that Mr. Bowne remained several years 
abroad, visiting many parts of Europe, and returned to America in 
the spring of 1665, his wife having died in London in the month 
of February preceding, and his father Thomas Bowne also, during 
his absence. 

He of course found the country in the possession of the Eng- 
lish, but calling upon the puissant Sluyvesant, now a private citi- 
zen, he expressed his regret for having used so much severity to- 
ward him and his fellow quakers, whom he frankly admitted to be 
among the most valuable citizens. 

The case of Bowne is only one, among many instances, in which 
this bigoted presbyterian, presumed to interfere with the enjoy- 
ment of religious hberty in the province, as will be more fully 
shown in the article, entitled " Quaker persecutions ^^ to which the 
reader is respectfully referred for further particulars, of this reign 
of terror. 

What might have been the future conduct of the director general 
and his pUant council, but for the timely arrival of Col. Nicoll, 
which stopped the swelling tide of resentment and persecution, is 
matter for conjecture only. But an instant and effectual change 


had taken place, and the people had abundant cause for the mo0t 

hearlfell rejoicing. 

By reference to the Dutch patent it will be seen that the paten* 
tees, and their associates, successors, &c. were empowered to 
choose a scout or constable, and the people were assured of the 
fullest liberty of conscience, according to the manner and custom 
of Holland ; yet it turned out, that in direct violation of their char- 
tered rights and privileges, the director general, on the 20th of 
March, 1658, as a pretended punishment for their remonstrance, 
against his very arbitrary measures, abolished all municipal author- 
ity in the tovsm, and substituted, without any color of law or pre- 
cedent, a set of officers, whom he denominated tribunes ; at the 
same time imposing a tax of twelve styvers per morgan, upon all 
the lands of the inhabitants, for the purpose, as he declared, of 
maintaining, what he called an orthodox minister, amongst them ; 
and to make the matter, more insulting to the freemen of the town, 
it was provided, that such as disliked the imposition of the lax, 
might within a given time, dispose of their property and leave the 

It happened as might be supposed, that very few, if any, em- 
braced the latter alternative, for most of the population being either 
quakers or the friends of quakers, resolved to brave the little brief 
authority of the Dutch autocrat, by remaining on the spot, which 
they had chosen, as their permanent home, and to wait patiently for 
some political change, which might better their condition, and re- 
lieve them from the tyranny of their present rulers. 

For the want of any better accommodations, and to avoid the 
penalties denounced by the governor's placards, against holding 
conventicles in private houses, they convened in the woods and other 
secluded places ; but even this precaution was found insufficient 
to guard them against the vigilance of persecution, for all meet- 
ings whatever held by quakers, for religious purposes, were by an- 
other placard, strictly forbidden, under penalties still more exorbi- 

The same illiberal and oppressive course of conduct, in the 
management of affairs, was pusued during the continuance of the 
Dutch government, and ended only with the conquest of the pro- 
vince in 1664. 


Feb. 16, 1666, a patent of confirmation, drawn in the usual 
form, was obtained from Governor Nicoll, and made to the 
following persons, to wit : " John Lawrence, alderman of the 
city of New York ; Richard Comhill, justice of the peace ; — 
Charles Bridges, William Lawrence, Robert Terry, William No- 
ble, John fforbush, Elias Doughty, Robert ffield, Edmund flfaring- 
ton, John Maston, Anthony ffield, Phillip Udall, Thomas Stiles, 
Benjamin ffield, William Pidgeon, John Adams, John Hinckman, 
Nicolas Parcell, Tobias fFeeks, and John Bowne, patentees for, 
and in behalf of themselves and their associates, the freeholders, 
inhabitants of the town of Flushing, their heirs, successors, and 
assigns for ever, all that certain town in the north riding of York- 
shire upon Long Island, called by the name of Flushings situate 
and lying and being on the north side of the said island ; which 
said town hath a certain tract of land belonging thereunto, and 
bounded westward, beginning at the mouth of a creek upon the 
East River known by the name of Flushing Creek, and from 
thence including a certain neck of land called Tews*Neck, to run 
eastward as far as Mathew Garretson's Bay, from the head or 
middle whereof a line is to be run south-east, in length about 
three miles, and about two miles in breadth, as the land hath been 
surveyed and laid out by virtue of an order made at the general 
meeting held at Hempstead in the month of March, 1665; and 
that there be the same latitude in breadth on the south side, as on 
the north, to run in two direct lines southward to the middle of 
the hills, to the bounds between the said towns of Flushing and 

As it had not been customary for the settlers of the towns within 
the Dutch territory to obtain a conveyance for the soil directly 
from the natives, the inhabitants of this town, like many others, 
possessed their lands solely by virtue of the patent, formerly exe- 
cuted by Governor Kieft ; but it was afterwards judged most con- 
sonant with the principles of justice, as well as most pnident, to 
procure, from the original and legitimate proprietors of the soil, a 
deed of confirmation for the premises heretofore enjoyed by them, 
from the time of the organization of the settlement. 

The conveyance executed for the purpose, was made April 14, 
1684, by Tackapoushay sachem of Massapeage, Quassawasco^ 

Vol. n. 11 


Succanemen, (alias Runasuck,) Werah,Cetharum, Nunhaniy Shun- 
shewequanum and Oposum^ chiefs, styling themselves the true 
owners and proprietors of all the lands included within the 
boundaries of Flushing, and which they convey thereby, to 
Elias Doughty, Thomas Willet, John Bowne, Matthias Harvey, 
Thomas Hicks, Richard Cornhill, John Hinchman, Jonathan 
Wright and Samuel Hoyt, as agents for the freeholders of the 
the said town, reserving to themselves and their heirs for ever, the 
right of cutting bulrushes in any part of the said territory. 

A second confirmatory patent was issued by Governor Dongan, 
March 24, 1685, which was therein declared to be made, for the 
purpose of securing to the inhabitants the peaceable enjoyment of 
the premises before granted, and especially for preventing all con- 
troversies that might otherwise afterwards arise, by reason of any 
claim to the said lands, from Tackapousha, Succanemen, Runa- 
suck, or other Indian sachems, and from all persons whomsoever, 
who should assert any title to the said lands or any part thereof. 

The persons named as patentees therein, were Elias Doughty, 
Thomas Willet, John Bowne, Malhias Harvey, Thomas Hicks, 
Richard Cornell, John Hinchman, Jonathan Wright, and Samuel 

* The celebrated George Fox, a man equally distinguished for his moral cha- 
racter, intelligence and courage, visited America in 1672, and, as has been 
above remarked, paid a visit to this town. For the gratification of the gen- 
eral reader, and as well as being a matter of curiosity, we here present a few 
extracts from the private journal of this extraordinary individual. 

Afler spending a few days in the city of Philadelphia, and passing from 
thence through the province of New Jersey — " At length (says he) we came 
to Middletown, an English plantation in East Jersey, where there were some 
Friends ; but we could not stay to have a meeting, being earnestly possessed 
in oar spirits to get to the half yearly meeting of Friends at Oyster Bay in 
Long Island, which was near at hand. We got to Gravesend, where we tar- 
ried all night. Next day got to Flushing. The day following we reached 
Oyster Bay. Several from Flushing and Gravesend accompanied us. Thence 
to Shelter Island and Fisher^s Island ; but could not stay, for the mosquitoes, 
which abound there, and are very troublesome. We returned to Oyster Bay, 
where we had a very large meeting. From Oyster Bay we went about thirty 
miles, to Flushing, where we had a meeting of many hundred people. Mean- 
time Christopher Holden and some other Friends went to a town in Long 
Island, called Jamaica, and had a meeting there. We passed from Flushing 


In 1681 and '82, on the threatened repeal or revocation of the 
edict of Nantes, originally enacted in 1698, for the protection of 
the protestants of France, more than 50,000 people, it is supposed, 
left their native country, taking refuge in England, Holland, and 
other parts of Europe, where they were in general kindly received 
and entertained. Many thousands of these unfortunate individu- 
als found their way to America, by some of whom the town of 
New Rochelle was founded, and a few families came, some years 
after, to this town, where, strange to say, few if any of their pos 
terity can now be discovered. They, as well as the great majority 
of their fellow emigrants, were the most respectable and valuable 
accession ever made to the population of our country. A very 
great number of their descendants have always ranked among the 
most intelligent and virtuous of our citizens. Indeed, it is 
doubtful if a more excellent race of men can be found in any part 
of the world, than they who claim to be descended from those 
who have been designated by the general denomination of Hugue^ 
notSf although less is known of their origin and subsequent his- 
tory, than of almost any other class of our inhabitants. Even the 
name by which they have so long been known, is involved in 
doubt and imcertainty, which it is perhaps, at this day, impossible 
to remove.* 

to Gravesend, about twenty miles, and had three precioas meetings there. 
While we were at Shrewsbury, John Jay, a Friend of Barbadoes, who came 
with us from Rhode Island, fell from his horse and broke his neck, as the peo- 
ple said. Those near him took him up for dead, carried him a good way, and 
laid him on a tree. I got to him as soon as I could, and concluded he was dead* 
Whereupon I took his head in both my hands, and setting my knees against 
the tree, raised his head two or three times with all my might, and brought it 
in. He soon began to rattle in his throat, and quickly afler, to breathe. The 
people were amazed, but I told them to be of good faith, and carry him into 
the house. He beean to speak, but did not know where he had been. The 
next day we passed away, and he with us, about sixteen miles, to a meeting at 
Middletown, through woods and bogs, and over a river, where we swam our 
horses. Many hundred miles did he travel with us af\er this.'* 

* In an old work, of deserved reputation, which we have examined, it is said, 
that the name Huguenot is explained in many different ways. Some, says 
the author, derive the word from hue nos venimus, the beginning of the first 


Fifty or more years since, the aged inhabitants of Flushing 
could point to the former residences of these venerable strangers, 
who have long since passed away like a vision of the night, leav- 
ing few or no memorials behind, if we except the much esteemed 
Lady Apple and Belle Pear trees. Some of the identical trees of 
this description, planted by them in different places, are still found 
in various parts of the town, and which, from their present vi- 
gorous appearance, bid fair to flourish for a century yet to come. 

The introduction of many choice fruits by these respectable 
people, and by others who were encouraged by their example, 
improved, as they have been, by a well adapted soil and climate, 
with the advantage of a convenient and ready market, have given 
rise to the establishment of more extensive nurseries and gardens 
in this town, than can be found in any other part of the United 
States ; accordingly, it has long enjoyed a high and enviable repu- 
tation for the immense variety and excellence of its fruit, plants, 
(Mmamental trees, &c. 

One of the most noble, as well as valuable establishments of the 
kind, in America, was that lately owned by William Prince, now 
deceased, and was begun in 1750 by his father. The grounds 
occupied for the purpose previous to the year 1793, contained 
about eight acres, and in that year were increased to twenty-four ; 

protestation of the apologetical oration, made before Cardinal Lotharingius, in 
the time of Francis II. of France. 

Du Verdier derives it from John Huss, whose opinions they embraced, and 
guenon, an ape, q. d. John Huss* Apes, Others from Hugh Capet^ whose right 
of succession to the crown, the Calvinists maintained, against the house of 
Guise. Again, it has been supposed to take its rise from Huguenot^ a piece 
of money, a farthing in the time of Hugh Capet ; others derive it from Hugon^ 
a gate in the city of Tours, where they first assembled. 

la BarcIay^s Dictionary, Huguenot is said to be a name of contempt given 
to the protestants of France, and had its rise in 1560 ; for at Tours, the peo- 
ple had a notion, that an apparition or hobgoblin, called King Hugon, strolled 
about the streets in the night time ; from whence, as those of the reformed re- 
ligion met in the night to pray, &c., they called them Huguenots, or disciples 
of Hugon. 

Whoever wishes for more information, may consult Jeurieu^s Pastoral Let- 
ters, and Smedley^s History of the Reformed Religion. * 


but, by gradual additions, as the business rendered it necessary, the 
quantity of ground was enlarged, in 1840, to about sixty acres. 

So long ago as 1776, the soil then used for the purpose, was 
filled with the finest well-grown fruit trees, among which were at 
least thirty thousand grafted English cherry trees ; but, as the 
enemy then took possession of Long Island, as well as New York, 
there was, of course, no demand for so valuable an article, for the 
purpose of propagation, and immense quantities were disposed of 
for hoop-poles, the only use which could then be made of them. 

It is a fact honorable to the memory of General Howe, and one 
which deserves to be mentioned, thattwhen the British troops first 
entered this town, he, of his own accord, and from his high seQse 
of propriety, on the 29th of August, 1777, stationed a guard for the 
protection of the garden and nurseries, which was continued so 
long as the same was required for their safety and preservation. 

The green-house alone of this large establishment, contained, in 
1840, more than twenty thousand flowering plants, and the gardens 
were filled with an immense variety of fruit and ornamental trees, 
both indigenous and exotic, herbaceous, flowering, and medicinal 
plants, bulbous and tuberous roots, &c. 

The gardens and nurseries were at that time owned by the said 
William Prince and his sons, who had conducted them for several 
years previous. The senior proprietor, one of the best and most 
amiable men, died at the age of seventy-six years, April 6, 1842. 
He was a Uneal descendant of the celebrated Thomas Prince, (or 
Prence,) who -arrived at Plymouth colony in 1621, and was go- 
vernor there for a period of eighteen years. 

The institution has long been known by the name of the " Lin- 
naean Botanic Garden," and which it still i^etains. 

Great attention has been given by the proprietor, to the cultiva- 
tion of the mulberry tree, which will probably hereafter be- 
come an object of much importance in this country, although at 
present it appears to attract comparatively little attention. 

The first specimen of the Moms Multicaulis plant, now so well 
known in tlie culture of silk, was introduced for the first time into 
the United States, by the Messrs. Prince, in the spring of 1827. 
They imported it from Marseilles, where it had been brought the 
year before, from the Phillipine Islands, with two other varieties. 


the Moms Ovalifolia, and Alba Lascinata. It was then known as 
the Moms Sinensis, and also as the Moras of the Phillipinc Islands ; 
but it was not till some years after, when it had become more dis- 
seminated in France, that it received the name of Moms Multicau- 
lis, or many stalked mulberry. 

The original plant was obtained from Tarascon, near Marseilles, 
and cost five francs, by which its merits may be judged of, consid- 
ering that it came from the very land of mulberry nurseries. 

In the fall of 1827, they received several other varieties to com- 
plete their assortment, and give the public an opportunity of test- 
ing by experiment the superiority of either ; being led to this im- 
putation by a resolution of congress of May, 1826, directing the 
secretary of the treasury to prepare a manual of the best practical 
information, on the growth and manufacture of silk, adapted to 
different parts of the union. 

The grounds occupied by this ancient nursery and garden, were 
disposed of a few years since, and are now owned by Gabriel Win- 
ter, Esq. by whose agency the business is still carried on exten- 
sively, although some part of the grounds, has been converted into 
streets and building lots ; while William R. Prince and his brother 
Alfred Prince, have already an extensive garden and nursery, a 
short distance south of the former, in which they have an almost 
infinite variety of valuable and choice trees, plants, &c. and al- 
ready nearly equals the primitive establishment, which formerly 
belonged to the family. 

The old Bloodgood nursery now owned and conducted by Will- 
comb and King, has long been in high reputation, and is only in- 
ferior in quantity and variety to the Linnaean Garden. 

The establishment of Parsons & Company, called the " Com- 
mercial Garden and Nursey," is also an extensive and valuable col- 
lection, and deserves like the others, the patronage of the public. 
Wiggin's " Floral and Pomological Nursery," covers a considerable 
extent of ground, and is filled with an extensive variety of trees, 
shrubs and plants of the choicest kinds. 

From this brief account, it will be seen that Flushing has not 
only led the way in this description of cultivation, but has obtained 
a rank in horticulture, which is unrivalled by any other place on 
the American continent. It is tme likewise that this species of 


commerce has added greatly, to the wealth and prosperity of the 
town, and will, if continued, insure its pre-eminence for the fa- 

• Cadwalladbr Colden, former lieutenant-governor of the colony of New 
York, was for many years a resident of Flashing. He was the son of the Rev. 
Alexander Colden of Dunse, in Scotland, where he was born February 17, 
1688 ; graduated in Edinburgh in 1705, and devoted himself to medicine and 
the mathematics till the year 1708. The fame of Penn's colony allured him to 
America in 1710, and he practiced physic in Philadelphia till 1715, when here- 
turned to England. Here he formed an acquaintance with many eminent men, 
with whom he maintained a correspondence ever ader. From London he went 
to Scotland, where he married Alice Christie, daughter of a clergyman of 
Kelso. In 1716 he came back to America, with his wife, and practiced medi- 
cine in Philadelphia for two years. In 17)8 he removed to New York, where 
he relinquished his profession, and became a public character. He soon dis- 
tinguished himself as a philosopher and statesman. His writings in several 
departments of science attest his extraordinary industry and ability. His cor- 
respondence with most of the learned men of the age in which he lived, is an 
CTidence of the estimation in which he was held by them. His character as a 
statesman will be found in his political writings, and in his correspondence with 
the ministry of Great Britain at the critical times in which he administered 
the colonial government. He held successively the offices of surveyor-gene- 
ral of the colony, master in chancery, member of the council under Governor 
Burnet, and lieutenant-governor at several periods. He purchased a tract of 
land near Newburgh, which he named Coldenham, and to which he removed 
ia L756. Here he occupied himself with botanical and mathematical pursuits, 
carrying on at the same time a correspondence with Collinson, Linneus, Grono« 
▼ins, and others, in Europe ; and with Franklin, Garden, Bartram, Alexander, 
and others, in America. He wrote treatises upon Gravitation, on Matter, on 
Fluxions, and various other subjects of science. While holding the office of 
lieutenant-governor, he resided most of the time at his farm in Flushing, called 
Spring Hill, where he built a spacious and substantial mansion. His death 
took place here on the 20th of September, 1776, at tbe age of eighty-eight 
years ; and he was buried in a private cemetery on the farm attached to Spring 
Hill. He had five sons and five daughters, a part of whom only survived him. 
His daughter Elizabeth, married Peter De Lancy, Esq. ; Jane married Dr. 
William Farquhar ; and Alice married Col. William Willet. Three of Gov- 
ernor Colden*s sons, Alexander, Cadwallader, and David, were successively 
surveyor-generals, and prominent men in the colony. His son David, to whom 
be devised the farm at Spring Hill, (now the property of the Hon. Benjamin 
W. Strong,) becoming a warm and active loyalist in the revolution, lost his es- 
tate by forfeiture, and he retired to England in 1784, where he died the 10th of 
July of the same year. He was bred to the profession of physic, which how- 


The first building expressly for public religious purposeB* 
is the present Friends' meeting-house in the village of Flushing, 
which, wilh the exception of the old Bowne house, is probably 
the most ancient edifice in the town. It was raised in 1690, and 
still remains in a good state of preservation, being the oldest house 
of worship on Long Island. The dissenting or orthodox portion 
of the society erected another meeting-house in the village a few 
years since. 

An episcopal society was formed here in 1702, under the sanc- 
tion of the British society for the propagation of the gospel in 
foreign parts, and their meetings were for many years held in the 
old town house, sometimes called the guard-house, near the town 
pond in the village. 

In 1746 Capt. Ralph Weutworth made a donation of half an 
acre of land on the west side of the said pond, for the site of an 
episcopal church, and he gave likewise a considerable sum toward 
its erection, which took place a short time thereafter, probably 
before 1750. In 1761, a charter of incorporation was executed 
by Lieut. Governor Golden, by the name and style of St. George's 
Church. In the year 1782, a legacy of £200 was given to the 
church by the Hon. Samuel Com well* of North Carolina, a native 
of this place, and whose father, Samuel Comwell, occupied the 
dwelling lately owned by William Prince the elder. 

In 1762 Mr. Kjieeland was appointed catechist of the church 

ever he never practiced. He waa fond of retirement, was mnch devoted to 
scientific purduits ; and his correspondence with learned men in Europe and 
America is to be found in the publications of the time. His wife was Ann, 
daughter of John Willet, Esq. of Flushing. She died at Coldenham, Orange 
county, in August, 1785. Mr. Golden led one son and four daughters. His 
daughter Mary, married the late Josiah Ogden Hoffman, Esq. ; Elizabeth mar- 
ried Edward W. Laight, Esq. ; and Catharine married the late Thomas Cooper, 

* This gentleman went to the south in early life, and became one of the 
most respectable and wealthy merchants in South Carolina, where he died. 
One of his daughters married the late Herman Leroy of New York, of the 
firm of Leroy, Bayard & McEvers, by whom he had several children ; obe of 
the daughters of the latter married the Hon. David S. Jones, and another 
is the lady of the Hon. Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, late Senator in 
Congress and Secretary of State of the United States. 


at a salary Qf £10 a year. It was, of course, a collegiate institu- 
tion, in connection with the other churches of the same denomina- 
tion at Jamaica and Newtown, the same ministers officiating alter- 
nately in each. 

In 1770 the congregation raised the sum of £126 for repairing 
the church, and in 1803 united with those of Newtown in settling 
the Rev. Abraham L. Clark, who had been rector of St. John's 
Church in Providence, R. I., from March, 1793, to March 14, 
1800, when he resigned. He remained in the joint charge of the 
two churches united till 1809, when he confined his services ex- 
clusively to that of Newtown. 

In the same year this church obtained as third rector, the Rev. 
Barzilla Bulkley, and the corporation of Trinity Church in New 
York gave to tlie society three lots of ground, toward the future 
support of its minister. Mr. Bulkley continued here till his death, 
March 29, 1820.* 

The following summary exhibits the rotation of ministers who 
have officiated in this church from 1702 to 1837, for the most part 
in connection with the churches of Jamaica and Newtown, as 
above stated. 

Rev. Patrick Gorden, from the formation of the society in 1702, 
to 1705. The Rev. William Urquhart, from 1705 to 1707. The 
Rev. Thomas Poycr, from 1709 to 1731. The Rev. Thomas 
Colgan, from 1731 to 1755. The Rev. Samuel Seabury, from 
1756 to 1765. The Rev. Joshua Bloomer, from 1769 to 1790. 
The Rev. William Hanunel, from 1790 to 1795. The Rev. Eli- 
jah Rattoon, from 1797 to 1802. The Rev. Abraham L. Clark, 

* Cadwallader D, Colden, the only son of David Colden, was born at Spring 
Hill in Flashing, April 4, 1769 ; and received the first part of his education at 
a school in the town of Jamaica. In the spring of 1784 he accompanied his 
father \o England, where he attended a classical school near London till the 
close of 1785, when he returned to New York, and entered upon the study of 
the law in the office of the late Richard Harrison, one of the most eminent 
barristers of New York. He completed it with Mr. Van Schaick of Kinder- 
book, and was admitted to the bar in 1791. He practiced his profession at 
Poaghkeepsie till 1796, when he removed to New York, where he was soon 
after made district attorney, and laid the foundation of his future fame. Oq 
the 8th of April, 1793, he married Maria, daughter of the Rev. Samuel Pro- 
Toost, bishop of the diocese of New York. In 1803 he visited France and 
Switzerland for his health, and letumed at the end of 1804. For a young 
Vol. U. 12 


from 1803 to 1809. The Rev. Barzilla Bulkley, frgm 1809 to 
1820. The Rev. John E. V. Thorn, from 1820 to 1826. The 
Rev. Dr. William Augustus Muhlenburgh, from 1826 to 1828. 
The Rev. William H. Lewis, now rector of Calvary free church 
in Brooklyn, from 1829 to 1833. The Rev. John M. Forbes, from 
1833 to 1834. The Rev. Samuel R. Johnson, from 1834 to 1836, 
and the Rev. Robert B. Van Kleek, from 1835 to 1837, when the 
present rector, the Rev. Frederick J. Goodwin was engaged. 

He is a graduate of Boudoine College, Maine, in 1832, and was 
settled here Dec. 8, 1837, where he married Catherine, daughter 
of James Bloodgood, deceased. 

The present church edifice was erected in 1812, enlarged in 
1838, and is a handsome building with a bell, clock and fine toned 
organ. The methodist society have had a church here for several 
years ; but the corner-stone of a much larger and niore convenient 
building was laid, with appropriate ceremonies, Sept. 14, 1842, and 
dedicated on the 29th of December, of the same year. 

A congregation of the reformed Dutch church, was organized 

man at that time to attain distinction at the har, with such competitors as the 
elder Jones, Harrison, Hamilton and Livingston, was no easy task. Mr. Col- 
den made the effort, and by dint of talent and discipline succeeded. In a few 
years ho stood, as a commercial lawyer, at the head of his profession ; and in 
the other branches, among the first. In 1812 he commanded aregimeDt of 
volunteers, and was very active in assisting to raise fortifications for the de- 
fence of the city. In 1818 he was elected to the assembly, and in the same 
year was appointed mayor of New York, at a period when the mayor presided 
in the court of sessions. In 1822 he was chosen a representative in CoDgrese, 
and proved a useful and distinguished member of that body. In 1824 he was 
elected to the senate of this state, which he held for three years. The most 
untiring industry and patient research were peculiar traits in his professional 
character, and marked his proceedings in every thing he undertook. He was 
among the earliest and most efficient promoters, in connection with De Witt 
Clinton, of the system of internal improvement, now the pride and boast of oar 
state. At the completion of that splendid and herculean project, the Erie 
Canal, he composed and published the well known memoir upon the subject. 
He wrote also the life of Robert Fulton, the successful promoter of steam 
navigation, and one of the greatest benefactors of mankind. Mr. Colden died, 
universally esteemed and lamented, at his residence in Jersey City, on the 7th 
of Feb. 1834. He was, in every sense of the word, a great man, and one of 
whose nativity the people of Long Island may well be proud. 


here in June, 1842, and are about to erect a suitable edifice in 
the village of Flushing, for which the necessary arrangements 
have already been made. Theit pastor is the Rev. William R. 
Gordon, who removed here from Manhasset, in the spring of 1842. 

This town is one of the most remarkable on the island, for the 
number of elegant private residences in various parts, some of 
ijfhich are magnificent. The most expensive mansion is that 
erected by the late Hon. Nathan Sanford, upon a somewhat ele- 
vated site in the southern part of the village.* 

The Flushing Institute was incorporated April 16, 1827, and 
owes its origin to the liberality and public spirit of a few individu- 
als, mostly residents of this town. The building is large and ele- 
gant in its architecture, and occupies a very conspicuous situation, 
being in all respects perfectly adapted to the purposes of its 

The school was commenced in 1828, under the direction and 
superintendence of the Rev. Dr. William Augustus Muhlenburgh, 
(former rector of the church here, and one of the most learned and 
competent teachers of classical literature,) which he continued to 
conduct for tlie period of ten years, when he retired to the man- 

* The Hon. Nathan Sandford, was born at Bridgehampton, Long Island, in 
1777, and received his public education at Yale college. Having chosen the 
legal profession, he studied law with the the elder Samuel Jones, father of the 
late Chancellor Jones. He was admitted to the bar in 1799, and such was the 
force of his genius, his industry, and perseverance, that he rose rapidly into no- 
tice, and acquired, in a short time, a respectable and lucrative practice. la 
1811, he was chosen a member of assembly from the city of New York,* and on 
the meeting of the legislature, was elected speaker of the house. He was the 
same year chosen a member of the state senate. He had been, on the acces- 
sion of Mr. Jeflferson to the presidency, appointed attorney of the United States 
for the southern district of New York, which he held about fifteen years. In 
1815, he was elected to the senate of the United States, and in 1821, a delegate 
to the New York state convention, for amending the constitution, where he ex- 
hibited his usual ability and eloquence. In Aug. 1823, he succeeded the Hon. 
James Kent in the office of chancellor of the state of New York, which he held 
till 1826, when he was again elected a senator in Congress, as the colleague of 
the Hon. Martin Van Beuren. At the end of six years, he retired to private 
life, having been in 1825 a candidate for vice president of the United States, 
when the Hon. John C. Calhoun was elected. He had been three times 
aurried, and died upon his farm in Flushing, Oct. 17, 1838. 




agement of another institution, hereafter mentioned, called SL 
PauVs College, 

Since the departure of Dr. MulJenburgh, a female school of 
great excellence has been commenced in the same building, under 
the name of St. Ann's Hall, which was opened in October, 1899, 
by the Rev. Dr. John F. Schroeder, late rector of Trinity Church, 
in the city of New York. 

This school is dedicated entirely to the cause of female educa- 
tion, in which ample provision is made for carrying its pupils 
through all the gradations of literary and scientific knowledge, 
taught in the best seminaries of learning in the United States. 
Its aim is to afford a thorough discipline in all the solid and orna- 
mental branches of education, associating sound learning and ele- 
gant accomplishments with religious motives. It is, however, 
purely an episcopal institution. 

St. PauVs College is located at College Point, being the north- 
west part of Lawrence's Neck, adjoining the Sound. It is one of 
the most beautiful, healthy and commanding situations which 
could have been selected. The comer stone was laid by Bishop 
Onderdonk, Oct, 15, 1836 : and although the main edifice has not 
been completed, sufficient erections have been made for the ac- 
commodation of more than one hundred students, which number 
it has long since obtained. This is likewise an episcopal school, 
and from the high character of Dr. Muhlenburgh, as an able and 
learned instructor, there is every reason to anticipate its continued 
prosperity and usefulness, supplied as it is, also; with competent 
professors and teachers of the various branches of knowledge. 
The government of the school is strictly parental, and the stu- 
dents are, of course, required to reside under its roof, with the 
rector and his assistants. 

St. Thomas* Hall is the title of another literary and scientific 
■ establishment in the village of Flushing, founded by the Rev. Dr. 
Francis L. Hawks, rector of St. Thomas' Church, New York, one 
of the best scholars and most eloquent divines of the age. The 
buildings — some of which were erected in 1838 — are in their ar- 
chitecture of the Gothic order, and sufficiently large for the ac- 
commodation of one hundred and twenty pupils. Able and effi« 
cient teachers have been engaged in all the departments, and the 


course of studies is the most liberal and complete. The chapel 
is a beautiful structure, and this, being an episcopal institution, 
the services of that church are regularly observed. It may be 
said, that with all its appliances and the completeness of its ar- 
rangements, to be one of the most important and interesting foun- 
dations for learning in the state.* 

There are besides several minor schools established here, which 
contribute to the literary character of this ancient and princely set- 
tlement, which may be considered in regard to hcalthfulness, con- 
Tcnience of situation, and facilities of intercourse with the city 
of New York, equal, if not superior to almost any other village in 
the country. 

A mineral spring was discovered here, in the year 1816, upon 
the land of Walter Roe, which for a time attracted much attention 
both from the public and from scientific men. 

It was examined by the late Dr. Samuel L. Mitchell, and found 
to be of the class of waters, called chalybeate, and in its medicinal 
properties, nearly resembling those of Schooley's mountain in New 

The day of its excitement however soon passed away, and for 
many years, nothing more has been heard of this once famous 

In the autumn of 1841, while some persons were employed in 
excavating the ground, in the grading of Linnaeus street, through a 
part of what was once the Linnaean Gardens, a dozen or more 
human skeletons were discovered and exhumed almost entire. 
From the fact of leaden bullets being found among the bones, it 
seems highly probable that the unfortunate individuals whose relics 
they were, had fallen by an enemy in battle — and from the circiun- 
stance that a very considerable British force was stationed here 
during the Revolutionary war, it is no more than reasonable to sup- 
pose, these bones may have been the remains of some of our 

* It may be proper to say that, since the above notice was prepared, this 
celebrated school has been suspended ; but there is every reason to believe 
that it will soon be revived under equally favorable auspices as before. The 
owner of the premises, as well as the people of the town, will, it is presumed, 
hardly consent that an institution of so much importance should fail, for want 
of proper and deserved encouragement. 


countrymen, or of their opponents, who had fallen in a skirmish 
with each other. 

A printing press was originally connected with St. Thomas' Hall, 
from which was issued a weekly paper, edited by the Rev. Dr. 
Hawks, entitled the Church Record, its pages being principally 
devoted to recording the history and policy of the episcopal church 
in America. 

On the 19th of March, 1842, was issued the first number of a 
newspaper, published weekly, entitled the Flushing Journalj of 
which Charles R. Lincoln, is editor and proprietor. This paper 
has thus far been ably and impartially conducted, and bids fair to 
maintain a respectabb rank among similar publications. Several 
books have also been printed at this press, very creditable in ap- 
pearance and execution to the proprietor of the establishment. 

The surface of this town is either level or moderately undulate 
ing ; the soil of a very superior quality, and its agriculture, pro- 
bably, far excels that of any other district upon Long .Island ; 
the farms, which rarely exceed in quantity one hundred acres, 
being generally protected by stone wall, and highly cultivated. 
There are numerous sites for building, of the most enchanting 
character, for all that is desirable in the country, and very many 
have their fronts cither upon the waters of the Sound, or the beau- 
tiful bays connected therewith. The residences at Whitestone, 
Bay side, and upon the east side of Flushing Bay, are perhaps 
the most eligible, while the soil at those places is equally fertile and' 
well cultivated. The mansion of Samuel Lcgget, Esq., at the for- 
mer location, is among the most delightful, and enjoys a rich and 
varied landscape. This gentleman has, with exemplary liberality, 
erected a building for religious worship at Chntonville, in the im- 
mediate neighborhood, which is called Whitestone chapel, and 
is, moreover, free for all denominations of christians. 

Near this place is the farm once owned by Francis Lewis, one 
of the signers of the declaration of American independence, and 
father of the Hon. Morgan Lewis, former governor of this state, 
and major-general in the army of the United States, in the late 

Little Neck, upon the east side of the beautiful bay of the 
same name, is mostly in this town, and contains, among other 




aluable farms, that of the late Wynant Van Zandt, who was a 
ighly respectable merchant of New York, and for several years 
Ln succession an alderman of tlie said city, by whom was built 
Zion Church, near his magnificent residence, (now the property 
of George Douglass, Esq., and who resides upon it,) in 1830. 

The Rev. Eli Wheeler was for several years rector of the said 
church, which is now suppHed by the Rev. Henry M. Beare, and 
"who officiates likewise in Whitestone chap6l. 

Irelandy so called, is another valuable tract of land, nearly in- 
sulated, and lying on the east side of Flushing creek, having on 
its western side a large parcel of salt meadow, containing more 
than one thousand acres. 

Here is the place formerly called Spring Hill, once the pro- 
perty of the Hon. Cadwallader Golden, but now owned and 
occupied by the Hon. Benjamin W. Strong, late first judge of 
Queen's county. 

In the lower part of the said meadow, adjoining the highway 
leading to Newtown, is a singular wooded eminence, which, at full 
tide, is surrounded by water. It contains about seven acres,- and 
would make a fine site, on which to erect a beautiful country resi- 

Strattoris Pointy adjoining the bay, being the south-western part 
of Tew's Neck, formerly called Lawrence's Neck, and now the 
residence of Piatt Stratton, Esq., is highly picturesque, and is 
hardly excelled for its beautiful prospect, by any other in this part 
of the country. 



This town occupies the south-westem part of Queens county, 
and is centrally distant from the city of New York about twelve 
miles. It is bounded east by Hempstead, south by the bay and 
creek, west by Kings county, and north by Newtown and Flushing. 
It has no front upon the ocean, being cut off therefrom by the pro- 
jection of Rockaway beach, a part of the town of Hempstead. 

The name by which the town is designated, has been variously 
accounted for, but the prevalent opinion with those who have 
most examined the subject is, that there was once a family or 
number ot families of Indians who resided near that part of the 
bay and the stream, or creek, south of the Beaver Pond, who 
were called or known as the Jameco Indians ; and that when the 
name was changed from that of Rusdorp — so called by the Dutch — 
the name of Jamaica was adopted, as being a small variation 
from that which was applied to the natives in the neighborhood. 

The certainty of this matter is, however, involved in mystery, 
whieh it is probable will never be explained. 

The first mention of this place in any written document which 
the compiler has been able to find, is contained in an application 
made by Robert Jackson and others of Hempstead, in 1656, to 
the governor and council, for liberty to begin a plantation half 
way their place of residence and Carnarresse, or Canarise, which 
they had agreed to purchase from the Canause tribe in Kings 
county, and had conferred upon it the name of Canorasset. 

A favorable response was given to their application in a few 
days, which was as follows : — 

'* Having seen the request or desire of the inhabitants of the town of Henop- 
stead, and subjects of the province, the governor-general and council have 
consented and granted unto the aforesaid inhabitants, free leave to erect or 
build a town according unto their place limited, named Canarise^ about the mid- 
way from Hempstead, upon such privileges and particular ground-briefs, such 
as the inhabitants of the New Netherlande generally do possess in their lands ; 
and likewise in the choice of their magistrates, as in the other villages or 
towns, as Middleborough, Breuklin, Midwout, and Amersfort. 

** Done at the fort in New Netherland, this Slst of March, 1656, 

"Pbter Stuyve^aict. 

" By order of the governor-general and council of the New Netherlands, 

" CoBif ELIU8 Van Rurvsif, Secret<ny, 


Many of the first settlers preferred the name of Crawford^ but 
that of Jamaica was finally adopted. It is supposed that the name 
chosen did not meet the approbation of the Dutch government, 
and that they conferred upon the settlement the name of Rusdorpj 
meaning a country town or village, which, it is to be lamented, 


was not retained. In the confirmatory deed, afterwards obtained 
from the Rockaway tribe, the following singular phrase occurs : — • 
" One thing to be remembered, that noe person is to cut downe 
any tall trees wherein Eagles doe build theire nests." It is said 
that words of similar import are found in other early conveyances, 
made by the Indians, for lands in this part of the island. 

At the first regular town meeting, Feb. 18, 1757, Daniel Denton 
was appointed ** to write and enter all acts and orders off publick 
concernment to y* towne, and to have a dais work of a man flfor 
y* sayd employment ;" and at the same meeting there was granted 
- to each inhabitant of the place a house lot, upon the north quarter 
of the town, among whom are particularly named Andrew Mes- 
senger, Samuel Mathews, Thomas Wiggins, Richard ChasmorCy 
Richard Harcut, Richard Everet, Henry Townscnd, John Town- 
send, Richard Townsend and John Rhoades. 
The certificate of purchase is in these words : — 

Nov. y«26»h, 1656 — rtylo noro. 
*' These presents declareth y^ wee whose names are under written, being 
tme owners by vertue oflf purchase ffrom y« Indians, and graunt flrom y* 
GoTenor and CounceU, given and graunted y<) 2l8t of March, 1656; I say 
wee are the true owners by vertue off purchase and our associates, our names 
being under written, living at y« new plantacon neare unto y bever pond, com- 
mooly called Jemaica, I say wee, in consideracon off our charge and trouble 
io getting and settling off the plase, have reserved ffor ourselves y^ ffull and 
just sum of 10 akers off planting land a man, besides y^ home Lottos in y* 
nearest and most convenient plase y^ that can bee found, and soe likewise 20 
akers off meadowing a roan, in the convenieniist plase they can finde, and y< 
ahall remaine as theires forever, every man taking his Lott according to thiere 
first right to y« Land. Witnesse our hands, 

Robert Coe, Benjamin Coe, John Townsend, 

Nicholas Tanner, Roger Lynes, Richard Townsend, 

Nathaniel Denton, Samuel Matthews, George Mills, 

Andrew Messenger, John Laren, Robert Rhoades, 

Daniel Denton, Richard Everit, Henry Messenger, 

Abraham Smith, Henry Townsend, Thomas Wiggins, 

Ricbard Chasmore, Richard Sweet. 

Vol. II. 13 


The name of Rusdorp now so generally prevailed, at least in 
transports or conveyances, that the name of Jamaica vsras rarely 
used, probably by requirement of the Dutch government, for the 
sake of uniformity. 

In the division or allotment of lands in 1660, the followipg 
named persons, in addition to the above, are found to be freeholders 
of the town : 

John Baylis, George Woolscy, sen., Joseph Smith, John Everit, 
John Carpenter, Samuel Dean, sen., John Oldficld, Thomas Smithy 
sen., John Rhodes, sen., Thomas Ward, Samuel Mills, John Lud* 
luni, John Wood, Nathaniel Denton, jun., Thomas Oakley, Waite 
Smith, Nehemiah Smith*, Samuel Davis, Fulke Davis, Abel Gall, 
Nathaniel Mills, Alexander Smith, Caleb Carman, Samuel Mat- 
thews, Henry Foster, Jonas Hosstcad, William Ruscoc, Samuel 
Barker, John Speagler, Samuel Messenger, Nicholas Everit, Sa- 
muel Smith, Joseph Thurston, Edward Higbic, Bryant Newton, 
John Rowlinson, Thomas Wcllin, Robert Ashman, John Lynas, 
and Morris Smith. 

In 1660 a more ample patent was obtained from Governor Stuy- 
vesant, incorporating the place by the name of Rusdorp. 

Being characteristically jealous of any powers not derived im- 
mediately from himself, his excellency exerted himself on every 
occasion to concentrate all power in his own person, or in his as- 
sociates, the council, who were, of course, well enough disposed 
to minister to his love of authority ; being entirely indebted to him 
for what importance they possessed. In April, 1660, the gover- 
nor peremptorily ordered the magistrates of this place to refer a 
cause then pending before them, to the council, although, by their 
charter or patent, the justices were invested with power to hear, 
try and determine all cases of the nature then in question. 

In Aug. 1660, it was voted at a town meeting, that the inhabi- 
tants should mow the common meadows by squadrons, as follows, 
to wit : John Townsend and his squadron at the East Neck ; Ro- 
bert Coe and his squadron at the Long Neck ; and Nathaniel 
Denton and his squadron at the Haw Trees, It was ordered also, 
that Daniel Denton should make a rate for paying the BuWs hire 
by the town for the last year. The town also agreed to cast lots 
for the south meadows, for which purpose the meadows were di- 


Tided into four parts, and the inhabitants, as above, into four squa- 

''Feb. 23, 1661, voted to hire Richard Chasmore's Bull for 20 
guilders the year." Jan. 15, 1661, ** ordered y' a rate be made 
ffor y* wolves, one wolve off Abraham's killing, 2 off them y' John 
Townsend's pit catcht, and one bull hired 20*. and 30^. ffor y* 
dark — y« whole is jC4 155." April 14, 1661, "ordered by y* 
towne y^ noe inhabitant off Rusdorp shall ingrosse into his hands, 
2 home lots, and if any doe contrary, they shall sell one of y" to 
such person, as the towne shall approve." 

April SO9 1661, "voted to hire a person to keep the towne's 
cowes and calves for the year, and also to pay Mr. Coe jCll. 17*. 
in good passable wampum out of money lent to the towne by Ni- 
cholas Tanner." May 12, 1661, " whereas the towne are inform- 
ed off one y' milkt other ffolke cowes, being calcht by some off the 
town, they have chosen Willito ffoster to prosecute y* cause to 
y* uttermost, either here or at the Manhattans, and the towne will 
«atisfie him ffor what charge he shall be at about y® business." 

Jan. 30, 1662. " The town doe promis to give Abraham Smith 
30s. ffor beating y* drum a year." 

April 6, 1662. " It is ordered y' those w*^** doe not appeare at 
y* beating of y* drum and goe to burn ye woods, shall pay 2s. 6d. 
to those w*^ goe." The town voted a trooper's coat and a kettle 
to the Indians, in full of their claim for lands heretofore purchased, 
if they would give a discharge to the town — this was accepted and 
the following release executed : — " We whose names are under- 
written doe by these presents confess ourselves satisfyed ffor the 
8 bottles of licker y* was promissd by the town, and alsoe ffor all 
rights and claymes ffor any land y' wee have fformerly sould yt 

Witness our hands this fHvcteenth of Aprill 1662; 

Rockause ; Lurnasowie ; Waumitampac. 

April yM 1, 1662. " The deposition off Samuel Mills testifyeth 
y* Sarah Smith did say (they being talking off ye townsmen mak- 
ing y*rates) y'nowy* towne was ruled by three roges." " The same 
day, ordered by y* town that a ministers house shall bee built 26 
ffeet long and 17 foot wide, according as itt is agreed by covenant 
betwixt y*" towae and Andrew Messenger and his son Richard 


Darling and the towne are to pay £23 in bever pay, y* is to pay, 
wheat at 6s. and Indian corn at 3s. 6d, y® bushel, to bee payd after 
y" work is done." 

The articles of agreement mentioned, are as follows : 

" The towne have hired Andrew Messenger and his son in law 
Richard Darling, to build a house (for y* minister off 26 foot by 
17, and to bee 10 foot high in y** stood, betwixt joint and joint ; y* 
house to bee well clap-boarded, y* sides and ends — the roof to bee 
well and sufficiently shingled w^** 3 foot shingles, 2 chimneys to 
bee made in the house, one below ffor a lower room, and another 
ffor y* chamber ; 2 floores off joice and boards, to bee layd above 
in y* chamber and under foot. — to be well jointed above and be- 
low — above a payrc of stcares, well and stronglie made to goe into 
y« chamber — Chimneys to bee well plastered — 3 windows, large 
and handsome, 2 below and 1 above — the house to bee well braced 
and be done by y* middle of August next. The towne to provide 
nails, hinges, clap boards, and shingles — and alsoe sawn boards 
ffor the inward work — the towne to cart all y* timber and other 
stuff needful ffor the sayd house." 

The town also engaged Goodman Baylie and Samuel Smith to 
get stone for the back of the chimney, hearths and oven, as good 
say they, as the place will afford, and to have 40s. there for. 

Jaji, 29, 1663, the town voted Abraham Smith 30s. a year for 
beating the drum on Sunday, and other meeting days, to be paid 
in tobacco payment , or wheat at 6s. 8d. and Indian com at 4s. a 

The following relating to a minister bears date March 2, 1663 : 
** We whose names are under written doe give unto Mr. Walker 
his heirs and assigns y* house he lives in w*'* y® accommodation be- 
longing to it, upon y* proviso y* iff hee goe away w"* out just 
grounds or cause given by y® towne y* y" y" towne shall have y* 
reffusal off it, paying ffor such labor as he shall expend upon it, 
but iff y® towne shall act soe y* they be y« cause off his going 
away, then y® towne to bring it ffor w' it shall bee worth. And iff 
it soe happen y' Mr. Walker die, his wife shall let ye town have 
y« reffusal, iff shee shall sell it." 

This was signed by Robert Coe and 22 other persons. 

^' At a town meeting Aug. 30, 1663, it was voted and agreed 


by the towne y^ a meeting house shall bee built 26 foot square and 
y* Mr. Coe and Ralph Keeler, shall agree w* George Norton flFor 
y* building off it.** 

This house wars finished in the same year, the Rev. Mr. Walker 
having already been with them one year, upon trial. 

The Rev. Zachariah Walker ^ was the son of Robert, who was 
made freeman at Boston 1634, where the former was bom in 1737. 
He was educated at Harvard, but for some reasons did not gradu- 
ate, and commenced his ministry here in 1 662 at a salary of J&60, 
payable in wheat and Indian com, at current prices. His son 
Robert was afterwards a judge of the superior court of Connecti- 
cut, and died at Stratford in 1772 : one of whose daughters was 
married to the Rev. Mr. Wetmore, and another to John M. Breed, 
Esq. who was at one time, the mayor of Norwich. His son Gen. 
Joseph Walker, was a brave and patriotic officer of the Revolution, 
and died at Saratoga, Aug. 11, 1810. 

Mr. Walker removed to Stratford in 1668, where he organized 
a new congregational society in 1670, of which he was the pastor, 
but removed therefrom, with a portion of his people, to Wood- 
bury in 1678, where he died Jan., 1669, aged 62. He had not 
been ordained during his stay here, and this may have, in part, oc- 
casioned his removal ; for, on the 12lh of March, 1666, as appears 
from the records, the town agreed to give Mr. Walker an addi- 
tional sum of jC5, " provided he should continue with them from 
year to year, and should likewise procure an ordination^ answera- 
ble to the law, thereby to capacitate him not only for the preach- 
ing of the word, but for the baptizing of infants." 

^^ Sept. 14, 1668. — At a tound meeting, the townd voted and 
concluded to take the best and prudentcst corse as may be, for the 
procuring of a minister, as soon as convenient time will admit." 
" March 29, 1669, voted and agreed that Mr. Waters shall goe to 
Greenwiche, to give Mr. Jones an invitation to visit us, that the 
towne may have an opportunity to make an agreement with him, 
concerning the work of the ministry." 

Mr. Jones, however, declined the invitation, and was afterwards 
settled at Huntington, where he died at a very advanced age in 

Rev. John Prudden succeeded Mr. Walker. He was a son of 


the Rev. John Prudden, first minister of Milford, Conn., having 
accompanied the Rev. John Davenport to New Haven in 1638. 
His children were Joanna, Mary, Elizabeth, Samuel, John, Abi- 
gail, Sarah, Peter and Mildred, bom between 1630 and 1654. 
His son John was bom at Milford, Nov. 9, 1645, and graduated 
at Harvard 1668, being a class mate of the Rev. Abraham Pier- 
son, first rector of YaleXJollege. 

He settled here in 1670, and remained till 1692, when he ac- 
cepted a pressing invitation from the church at Newark, N. J., 
where he went as the successor of Mr. Pierson, and continued 
there till June 9, 1699, when he relinquished his charge, and died 
Dec. 11, 1725, aged 80. Dr. McWhortcr says he sustained a 
worthy character as a man of sense and religion, though he does 
not appear to have been a popular preacher. 

" Town meeting, March 9, 1692, Mr. Joseph Smith was chosen 
to go with Nehemiah Smith to y* main, in order to y® procurement 
of a minister ;" and in October following, the town invited the 
Rev. Jeremiah Hobarf of Hempstead to settle with them, and of- 
fered him many inducements, but he then declined. The next 
year they obtained the services of the Rev. George Phillips, of 
Rowley, Mass., who continued with them till his removal to Se- 
tauket in 1697. This year the town resolved to erect a new and 
larger house for pubhc religious worship, for wliich purpose the 
inhabitants were " divided into five squadronSy to procure and bring 
to the spot, timber, stone, lime, and whatever materials were want- 
ed." The next year another efibrt was made, but, as yet, without 
success. In 1696, the Rev. Jeremiah Hobart of Hempstead be- 
came minister of the town, yet it is not known that he was in- 
stalled ; but by his aid and encouragement, measures were so far 
matured that a large stone church was completed in 1700. 

A petition was presented Sept. 26, 1664, to Governor Nicoll, 
by certain inhabitants of the town, for liberty to purchase and 
settle a parcel of land on the New Jersey side of Statcn- Island 
Bay, now known as Elizabelhtown, The names subscribed to 
the said petition were, John Bailey, Daniel Denton, Thomas Beny- 
dick, Nathaniel Denton, John Foster, and Luke Watson. The 
parties to the deed, from the Indians, of the 28th Oct., 1664, are, 
Mattano, Manawame, and Conascomon, of Statcn Island, and 


John Bailey, Daniel Denton, and Luke Watson : — the tract con- 
veyed, is described as " one parcel of land, bounded on the south 
by a river, commonly called the Raritan, and on the east by the 
inver which parts Staten Island and the main, and to run north- 
'^^rard up Arthur Cull Bay, till we come to the first river, which 
sets westward out of the river aforesaid ; and to run westward, 
into the country, twice the length that it is broad, from the north 
to tlie south of the aforementioned bounds. The consideration 
given for this broad tract, was twenty fathoms of trading cloth, 
two made coats, two guns, two kettles, ten bars of lead, twenty 
handfulls of powder, and four hundred fathoms of white, or two 
hundred of black, wampum, payable in one year from the day of 
entry, by the grantees, upon the lands. The whole valued at 
thirty-six pounds and fourteen shillings sterling. One of the 
grantors attests the conveyance, perhaps the first Indian grant 
made with technical form, by a mark opposite to his name. This, 
subsequently, became the common mode of signature ; and the 
iUiterate sons of the American forest, like 4he unlettered noble of 
the European feudal states, adopted as a sign manual, occasion- 
ally, the picture of a bird, or other object, that captivated his fancy. 
Mattano was the only grantor who signed, and his mark was . 
'^^^^^^^^'^ or waved line ;' and, unfortunately for his business cha- 
racter, he had executed a deed, for the same lands, to Augustus 
Herman, therein mentioned. The grant, however, is duly con- 
firmed, probably, in entire ignorance of preceding events, by 
Governor Nicoll, as follows : — 

" Upon perusal of this Petition I do consent unto the Proposals 
and shall give the undertakers all due encouragement in so good a 
Work. Given under my Hand in Fort James this 30th of Sep- 
tember 1664." " Richard Nicoll." 

The place was afterwards called Elizabethtown, in honor of the 
wife of Sir George Carteret, the proprietor of the province. It 
will be seen that the town was careful to make ample provision for 
the support of their minister, as in June, 1676, it was resolved 
that 40 acres^f meadow should be set apart, as a parsonage lot,, 
in the East Neck, for the use of any minister that might have oc- 
casion to use it. Other lands were at the same time appropriated 


to llie Rev. Mr. Prudden, to be his in fee^ should he remain with 
them for ten years. 

This Uberality may probably have induced him again to resume 
his labors, having it seems ceased to preach from 1674 to '76, the 
interval being supplied by the iJcv. William Woodroffej one of the 
ejected ministers, whom Mather calls Woodrop, and who came to 
New England in 1670. He afterwards removed from this place 
to Pennsylvania, where he probably died. 

It should be mentioned that on the 5th of Feb. 1665, a patent of 
confirmation, for such lands as had been purchased at different 
times, was granted by Gov. Nicoll, to Daniel Denton, Robert Coe, 
Bryan Newton, William Hallet, Andrew Messenger, Anthony Wa- 
ters and Nathaniel Denton, for and on behalf of themselves and 
their associates, the freeholders and inhabitants of the said town, 
their heirs, successors and assigns, in which the premises are de* 
scribed as follows : 

** All that certain tract of land, which already hath been, or here- 
after shall be purchased for and on behalf of ye said towne of Ja- 
maca, whether from ye native proprietors or others, within the 
limits and bounds hereafter exprest ; that is to say, ye eastern 
bounds beginning on the east side of ye Little-Plains, to extende 
south-east to Rockaway Swampe ; then north-east from Hemp- 
stead bounds, to runne west as ye trees are mark't, on or about ye 
middle of ye Hills, until it reach lo fflushing creeke (which are 
their north bounds, and divides them from the towne of fflushing) 
according unto an order made at the Generall meeting at the towne 
of Hempstead in the month of March, 1665 ; then to meet New- 
town bounds at ye south west edge of the Hills, ye north-west cor- 
ner beginning at certain mark't trees at ye edge of ye said Hills, 
from whence to runne in a south line to a certaine river, that is, to 
ye east of Plunder's-Neck, and bounded south by the sea." 

On the 5th of November, 1668, the town agreed with John 
Waget to fence the burying-place, of ten rods square, for the sum 
of £4, in current pay ; and on the 6th of March, 1670, they voted 
to give Mr Prudden £40 as their minister, with the^jouse and lot 
then in possession of Mr. Walker ; and also that a convenient pew 
should be built for him to preach in. The price ordered by the 
town, Nov. 7, 1674, to be paid to the Indians for their west pur- 


chase, consisted of one trooper's coat, five guns, three blankets, 
sixteen coats, nine kettles, ten pounds. of powder, ten bars of lead, 
one coat in liquor Sy thirty fathoms of wampum, and a quart more 
of liquor. 

On the 17th of May, 1686, Governor Dongan issued a new pa- 
tent to the town, in which the following persons were named aa 
patentees, on behalf of themselves and their associates : 

Nicholas Ererit, Jonas Wood, Richard Rhodes, 

Nathaniel Denton, William fibster, Thomas Lamberson, 

Nehemiah Smith, John Ererit, Joseph Smith, 

Daniel Denton, Edward Higbie, George Woolsey, 

John Oldfields, Daniel Whitehead, John Baylis, 

William Creed, John Carpenter, Thomas Smith, 

Bryant Newton, John ffurman, Wait Smith, 

Benjamin Coe, Samuel Smith, Samuel Mills. 

The said last-mentioned patent sets forth that an agreement had 
been entered into the 2d of December, 1684, by which it was con- 
cluded and determined *' that the town of Jamaica should make no 
claim to Rockaway Neck ; and that by Rockaway river should be 
-understood the river that runs out of Rockaway Swamp, and to be 
Jamaica's east bounds ; and that the meadows on the west thereof 
should belong to Jamaica." 

** The town being called together in arms on the 8th of October, 
1689, John Baylis, Jr., was chosen captain, Jonas Wood, lieute- 
nant, and Hope Carpenter, ensign." 

The stone church aforesaid was of a quadrangular form, and 
forty feet square, with a pyramidal roof, and balcony in the cen- 
tre, surmounted by a weather-cock of sheet copper. It stood 
nearly in the centre of the present Fulton street, opposite Union 
Hall street, and was built, as we have seen, by presbyterians 
or independents, there being, at the time of its erection, no other 
in the town, and very few in the colony ; their first church, called 
Kings Chapel, in New York, having been built only in 1691. Of 
course there was no apparent occasion for limiting the use of dis- 
senting churches, exclusively to that particular sect. 

A very short time, however, after the completion of the church, 
difficulties arose which kept the parish in a continued ferment for 
^ quarter of a century. 

Vol. II. 14 


In 1702, on account of a fatal sickness having broken out in the 
city, the governor. Lord Combury, with his council and other civil 
officers, took refuge in this village ; and out of respect and deference 
to his excellency, the pastor of the church, the Rev. John Hub- 
bard, gave him possession of the parsonage house, it being one of 
the best, at tliat lime in the place. Shortly after which, it hap- 
pened that Mr. Hubbard, on coming to his church, on Sunday af- 
ternoon, found the Rev. Patrick Gorden, an episcopal minister, in 
possession of the pulpit, and the body of the house filled with the 
governor's friends and some others from the city. With true 
christian forbearance, and with a proper regard for the day, he in- 
vited his people to an adjoining orchard, under whose shade he 
preached to them as if nothing at all had occurred. When the 
governor was about to return to the city, he not only neglected to 
surrender his residence to its original occupant, but meanly deli- 
vered it to Mr. Gorden, who, it seems, had no misgivings, as to its 
propriety or honesty. He was also encouraged to take possession 
of the church and parsonage lands, which produced, as might be 
expected, very great disorder and contention among those, who 
had previously lived in the utmost harmony with each other.* 

* In the episcopal burying- ground is the grave of Samuel Clowes, the first 
lawyer settled upon Long Island, who died Aug. 27, 1760 ; of his wife, Cathe- 
rine, who died Aug. 7, 1740, and of his sod, a lawyer also, who died May 19, 
1759. He was born at Derbyshire, England, March 16, 1674. and was in- 
structed in mathematics by Flamstead, for whose use Greenwich Observatory 
was erected. He came to New York in 1697, accompanied Lord Combury 
to Jamaica in 1702, and was forthwith appointed clerk of the county, which 
he held till 1710, when his professional business compelled him to resign it. He 
was an able and acute lawyer, and was concerned in many very important 
causes. His children were Gerardus, Samuel, John, Peter, Joseph, Aletta, 
Mary, Catherine and Millicent. His son Samuel was born in 1701, and mar- 
ried a daughter of Lieut. Governor Clark. John was a physician, and settled 
in Delaware. Aletta married Edward Willett, and was mother of the late 
Col. Marinus Willett. Gerardus, the eldest, married Sarah, daughter of Maj. 
Thomas Jones, and settled at Hempstead, where he died, 1752, leaving issue 
Catherine, Samuel, Timothy Bagley, aud John. The eldest, commonly called 
Justice Clowes, was born Aug. 30, 1722, and died at Hempstead, May 10, 
1800. His wife was Rebecca Dorlon, who died March 31, 1787. He was a 
justice and judge of the county, and delegate of the prerogative court, for the 
proving of wills, &c. — ^A member of assembly from 1790 to '96. He had 


The presbyterians, having subsequendy obtained the key, locked 
the house, but early next Sunday, some heroic spirits of 
"Oie opposition, broke open the doors, and kept possession of the 
iDuilding till the minister had finished his discourse, and then fas- 
tened it up. Being encouraged and countenanced by tlie civil 
siuthority, with the governor at their head, the presbyterians were 
deprived of the church which they had built, till 1728, when after 
a most protracted and expensive litigation, they were restored to 
their rights. 

Chief Justice I^ewis Morris, afterwards governor of New Jer- 
sey, presided on the trial of the cause which resulted in favor of 
the presbyterians. 

His Honor did not, however, escape the malevolence of the de- 
feated party, who freely vented the severest aspersions upon his 
of&cial conduct ; and out of regard to his own character, and the 
opinion of the world, he thought it necessary to repel the odious 
charge of judicial partiality, by publishing a true statement of the 
case, and the grounds of his decision. 

Cardwell, the sheriff, under the protection and probably at the 
instigation of the governor, was an active agent in this nefarious 
transaction. He seized upon the church land, divided it into lots, 
and leased them out, for the benefit of his own party. 

This man, it seems, sustained a despicable character, and being 
afterwards apprehended for some offence, and thrown into prison, 
hanged himself in despair. 

This very unpleasant and vexatious controversy, so unworthy 

itsae Thomas, Isaac, Samuel, Aletu, Arrabella, Millicent, Mary and Cathe- 
rine. Thomas, born March 27, 1753, died March 11, 1824, leaving issae 
Sarah, Benjamin, Gerardus, John, Mary Anne and Catherine. Isaac, bom 
Oct. 14, 1755, died Sept. 8, 1825, without issue. Samuel, born March 8, 1757, 
and died April 5, 1824, issue Samuel and Elizabeth. Aletta married Mouris 
SimonsoD. Arabella, born Feb. 1763, married John Marvin, and died March 
17, 1814, issue Harry and Samuel. * Timothy Bagley, second son of Gerardas 
Clowes the first, born Aug. 21, 1724, issue Sarah, John, Gerardus and Joseph. 
He removed with his sons John and Gerardus, and daughter Sarah, to New 
Brunswick, where he died. His last named son, Joseph, born Jan. 15, 1759, 
married Hannah, daughter of Theodorus Van Wyck, and died at Hempstead, 
May 4, 1832, issue Timothy, Mary, Theodorus, Edward, Gerardus, John and 
William J. 


the catholic spirit, wl}ich at this day characterizes the christian 
community, may, perhaps, be ascribed in some degree to the pe- 
culiar temper of the times, fostered, if not originally excited, by 
the well known bigotry of Ld. Cornbury, who did more to bring 
disgrace upon the administration of the colony, than all his prede- 
cessor^ together. There was ^ever, probably, a governor of New 
York so universally detested, and who so richly deserved it. 

His behavior was trifling, mean and extravagant, while his des- 
potism, bigotry, injustice, and insatiable avarice, at length aroused 
the indignation of the people, and at the termination of his ad- 
ministration, he was even thrown into jail by his cheated and exas- 
perated creditors, where he remained till he made a partial satis- 

The Rev, John Hubbard was bom at Ipswich, Mass., in 16T7, 
and was the son or near relative of the Rev. William Hubbard of 
that place, the able historian of New England. He graduated 
at Harvard in 1695, and was settled in this town in 1698, where 
he died at the premature age of twenty-eight years and nine months, 
Oct. 5, 1705, and was doubtless the first minister buried in the 
town. A particular account of his death may be seen in the Bos- 
ton News Letter, No. 79, of the date of Oct. 22, 1705. He was 
one of the most excellent and amiable youths, which New England 
produced, and his death was extensively and deeply lamented. 

The Rev, Francis Goodhue was the next pastor, who was also 
born at Ipswich, Oct. 4, 1678, graduated at Harvard in 1699, and 
was settled here the same year of Mr. Hubbard's death. He con- 
tinued here till the latter part of the summer of 1707, when he 
made a visit to New England, and died at Rehobolh, Sept. 15, 
1707, at the age of twenty-eight years and eleven months, about 
the same age of his predecessor. He was a grandson of William' 
Goodhue, of Ipswich, who look the oath of freeman of Mass., Dec. 
7, 1636. His son William, father of the Rev. Francis Goodhue, 
was deacon of the church at Chebacco, (now Essex,) and died there 
Oct. 12, 1712.* 

* The said William Goodhue tbe elder, died about the year 1700 at the age 
of 85. He was one of the most iDtelligent and respectable men of his day, and 
a leading man in the colony of Massachusetts for many years. He sustained 



Rev. George McNish^ was the successor of Mr. Goodhue. He 
ras from Scotland, arrived in Maryland with the Rev. John Hamp- 
'^on in 1704, and settled in the congregation of Monokin and Wi- 
c^omico in 1705, from whence he came to this church in 1712, and 
^ras one of the ministers who composed the first presbytery of 
IfOng Island, in 1716, which, with those of Philadelphia and New 
Castle, were the only presbyteries at that time upon the American 
continent. Having become entitled, by some means, to a grant 
of land in the county of Orange, he has been supposed to have re- 
moved there, but it is now known that he died here in 1730, being 
the second clergyman of this denomination buried in the town. 
He had, however, ceased to labor constantly in the ministry, for 
ten years previous to his death, being infirm and somewhat ad- 
vanced in life. 

Rev. Robert Cross j bom near Bally Kelly, in Ireland, in 1689, 
was the successor of Mr. McNish. He was ordained by the 
presbytery of New Castle in 1719, and was settled there for a 
short time, but came here in 1723, and remained till 1737, when 
he removed to Philadelphia, where he and his wife, Mary, both 
died in 1766. 

He was greatly esteemed for his learning, and his very extensive 
knowledge of the scriptures ; in short, he was accounted, at the 
time when he lived, as one of the most respectable ministers in the 

Ret?. Walter Wilmot, was the immediate successor of Mr. 
Cross. He was a native of the town of Southampton, Long Island, 
where he was bom in 1713, and graduated at Yale, in 1735. He 
settled here in 1738, and married Freelove, daughter of Jotham 
Towhsend, of Oyster Bay, whose daughter, Freelove Wilmot, af- 
"terwards became the wife of James Townsend of that place. 

the chief trusts of the town of Ipswich, was representative to the general court 
in 1666, '67, *73, 'Te, '77, '80, '81, and '83. He was imprisoned and fined un- 
der the administration of Andros, for his resistance to illegal taxation, and other 
unJQSt measures of that tyrannical governor. His first wife was Margery 
Watsoo, by whom he'had children, Joseph, William, and Mary. Sept. 7, 1664, 
he married Mary Webb, by whom he had no issue. He lived long, and his 
maoy virtues conferred honor upon his name and family. The gravestones of 
himself and grandson, the Rev. Francis Goodhue, are still standing, in the 
aneiefit Imrial ground at Seekonk, once a part of the town of Ipswich. f 



Mr. Wilmot was possessed of a delicate and sickly constitution, 
which brought him to the grave, Aug. 6, 1744, at the age of thir- 
ty-one years. He was, however, one of the most amiable of men, 
and his death, as may be supposed, was greatly and sincerely re- 

Rev. David Bostwick was of Scotch descent, but born at New 
Milford, Conn., in 1721, and became a student of Yale College in 
1736 ; he did not graduate, but soon after engaged as instructor 
of an academy at Newark, N. J., under the supervision of the Rev. 
Aaron Burr, and upon his settlement here, Oct. 9, 1745, the ordi- 
nation sermon was preached by Mr. Burr, at that time president 
of Nassau Hall. Mr. Bostwick is said to have possessed a mild 
c&tholic disposition, and confined himself, with laudable zeal, to 
the duties of his station. 

In 1756, he removed to the city of New York, and took charge 
of the first presbyterian church there. His death occurred Nov. 
12, 1763, and Mary, his widow, died Sept, 22, 1778, aged 57. 
Mr. Bostwick was both a good writer and an accurate scholar. 
He wrote and published a memoir of President Davis, which was 
prefixed to his sermon on the death of George II., in 1761. He 
possessed, says his biographer, an impressive, commanding elo- 
quence, to which few attain ; and the ardor of his piety, with the 
purity of his life, and the solidity of his judgment, gave him a 
strong hold on public opinion. 

Rev, Dr. Eliku Spencer, was the next pastor of this church. 
His great grandfather, Gerard Spencer, was born in 1610, and is 
found at Lynn, as early as 1638 ; after which he removed to, and 
was one ot the first settlers of East Haddam, Conn, in the year 
1660. His son Samuel, was father of Isaac, who was the father 
of Joseph and Elihu Spencer. The former better known as Gene<« 
ral Spencer, of the Revolution, and who died in 1789. 

His brother Elihu, was born (says the Rev. Dr. Miller, who 
married his granddaughter,) at East Haddam in 1722, graduated 
at Yale in 1746, and was settled over the churches of Elizabeth- 
town and Shrewsbury in 1747, as the successor of President Dicker- 
son, and on the death of this gentleman in October of the same 
year, Dr. Spencer presided at the annual commencement of the 
college, in conferring degrees, &c. 


He was installed here in May, 1768, and remained till 1760, 

"^v^lien he removed, and succeeded the Rev. Dr. Rogers in the pres- 

^yterian church, at St. George's, Delaware. In 1770 he removed 

lo Trenton, where he died Dec. 27, 1784, aged 63. His widow 

Joanna, died at the same age, Nov. 1, 1771. He was the author 

of a view of the state of religious liberty in the colony of New 

York, and of a letter addressed to President Stiles, Nov. 3, 1759, 

on the dissenting interests in the middle states. 

Dr. Spencer possessed a fine genius, great vivacity, and eminent 
and active piety. In short his merits as a minister and a man 
stand above the reach of flattery. 

Rev. Benoni Bradner, was the son of the Rev. John Bradner, 
of Scotland, pastor of the church at Cape May, and first minister 
of the presbyterian church, at Goshen, N. Y. where his son B^ 
noni, was born in 1734. He graduated at Princeton in 1755, ana 
settled here in 1760, but m 1662 he removed to Dutchess county, 
where it is probable he ended his days. 

Rev. William Mills, was his successor. He was a native of 
Smithtown, where he was bom March 13, 1739, graduated at 
Princeton in 1756, and settled in this church in 1762, where he re- 
mained till his death, March 18, 1774. He was a very estimable 
man, and was entirely devoted to the duties of his profession. His 
sister Joanna, married Nathan Woodhull of Setauket, and was the 
mother of the Rev. Nathan Woodhull, afterwards the minister of 

Rev. Matthias Burnet j was bom at Bottle Hill, N. J. in 1747, 
graduated at Princeton in 1769, and was settled here in 1775, 
where he continued highly respected and useful till 1785, when 
he removed to Norwalk, Conn, and took charge of the congrega- 
tional church there, where he died in 1800, aged 59. 

Both before and after the Revolution, the Rev. Abraham Ketel- 
tas officiated occasionally in this and the other churches in this part 
of the country, but had no permanent parochial charge. 

Mr. Keteltasy was the son of Abraham Keteltas, a merchant of 
New York, who came from Holland in 1720. He was bom in the 
city, Dec. 26, 1732, graduated at Yale, 1752, and settled soon after 
in the borough of EUzabeth, where he continued till his removal 
here, where he spent the residue of his life, except during the Rev- 



olutionary period, devoting himself to the churches on Long Island 
and Connecticut. In 1777 he was chosen to the convention which 
framed the state constitution, and was at all times a zealous sup- 
porter of independence, which drove him from his home in 1776, 
when more than 150 acres of valuable timber were destroyed, his 
slaves set at liberty and enlisted in the service of the enemy, and 
his dwelling occupied and injured by British officers. The com- 
mander in chief knowing his ability to advise, frequently consul- 
ted him. He possessed an uncommonly large and valuable library 
which occupied much of his leisure. He published some excel- 
lent discourses, and wrote an eulogy upon Mr. Whitfield, the orig- 
inal of which is in the New York Historical Library. 

His wife Sarah, was a daughter of the Hon. William Smith, 

«* idge of the supreme court of the colony, and sister to William 
mith, the historian of New York, afterwards Chief Justice of 
Canada. She was bom 1732, and died Oct. 12, 1815, having is- 
sue eleven children, one only of whom now survives.* 

* James H, Hacked Esq, the popular American actor, whose charaeter and 
^nius hare shed no small lustre upon the American stage, is a grandson of the 
Rev. Mr. KeteUas. His father Thomas Racket, came from Holland to New 
York in 1794, being the younger son of an English nobleman, whoee family 
was respectable for rank and talents. He married Ann, daughter of Mr. Ke- 
teltas in 1799, and whose death occurred in 1843. Her son, the subject of 
this notice, was born March 15, 1800, and was a member of Union Hall, under 
the tuition of the late Mr. Eigenbrogdt. At 15 years of age, he entered Co- 
Itmibia College, which he left at the end of a year, on account of his health, and 
afterwards entered the office of the late Robert Bogardus, as a law student, but 
finding few charms in the pages of Bracton and Coke, he gave his attention to 
mercantile pursuits. Failing in this, he turned to the stage, where he met the 
most decided success, and has long sustained a high rank, both in Europe and 
America, as a tragic and comic performer. His great success, (says the late 
Mr. Dunlap,) has been proportionate to the enterprize and observation he has 
evinced. He has been from his debut a star without regular training or the 
trial of working up in a company of comedians, he has seized the crown at 
a leap, and may say with Richard," / am myself alone,^^ He married early 
Miss Catherine Lesugg, a popular English actress, whom he at onco took from 
the stage. He has not only acquired a fortune by his profession, but has sus- 
tained in all other respects a character above reproach. None of the vices or 
frailties which have been thought almost inseparable from the character of 
players, have ever attached to him ; few persons are more respected in private 


The following is a copy of the inscription, upon the monument 
^3f this gentleman, in the village of Jamaica. 

" Sacred to the memory of the Rev. Abraham Kettletas, obiit 
^0 Sept., 1798, aged 65. He possessed unusual talents, which 
"were improved by profound erudition, and a heart firmly attached 
to the interests of his country. It may not, perhaps, be unworthy 
of record, that he had frequently officiated in three diflferent lan- 
guages, having preached in the Dutch and French languages in 
his native city of New York." 

Rev. James Glassbrook, from Scotland, was engaged here in 
1786, but whether installed or not, does not appear. His stay 
was but for two or three years, when he was succeeded by the Rev. 
George Faitoute, who was born of a Huguenot family, in the city 
of New York, in 1753, graduated at Prince tcMi in 1774, and first 
settled at Cumberland, New Jersey, from whence he came to this 
place in August, 1789. 

He remained here about twenty-six years, and died on Sunday, 
between meetings, having preached in the forenoon, Aug. 21, 1815. 
In 1797 he was employed as principal of Union Hall. 

As a gentleman and divine, he was universally esteemed, and 
was admitted by all that knew him to have possessed the most 
solid talents. He had two sons and four daughters. His son 
James went to the West Indies, but whether now living or not, is 
imknown. His son George and daughter Lydia are now residents 
of this town ; Elizabeth, another daughter, is the wife of Nicholas 
C. Event, Esq., one of the ward justices in the city of New 
York; while his daughters Euphemia and Mary Ann are de- 

life, mod still fewer who have contributed more to the common stock ofhatm- 
Uss pleasure^ or conferred a greater lustre upon the morality of the stage. 

William Mastui Johnson. In the year 1790, (says John Howard 
Pkyne,) there was found at the head of a little school in Bridgeharopton, Long 
Island, a young gentleman of extraordinary genius, calHng himself by the 
above name, appearing to be about nineteen years of age, a stranger in these 
ptTto ; of unknown parentage, and all that be thought proper to communicate 
of himself was, that he came from Boston. He was a proficient upon several 
iiiBtnimeDts, particularly the violin, which he played with wonderful accuracy 
mad taste ; and had, moreorer, a genius for sketching and drawing. He was 

Vol. II. . 15 


Rev, Henry R. Weed, D, D., was bom at Ballston, N. Y., in 
1790, graduated at Union College in 1812, and was settled here 
Jan. 4, 1816. In 1822 he removed to Albany, and from thence to 
Wheeling, Va. His amiable, peaceful, and prudent conduct, 
while pastor of this church, endeared him to all classes of the 
community, during the few years he remained here, and caused 
his departure to be very generally regretted. 

He was succeeded by the Rev. Seymour P. Funck, who gradu- 
ated at Columbia College in 1819, and settled as pastor of this 
church March 6, 1823 ; but his almost continued want of health 
caused his removal from the parish May 9, 1825, and his death soon 
after, at Flatlands, L. L 

also a poet of no mean pretensions. Having a preference for the medical 
profession, he removed to Easthampton, and placed himself under the instruc- 
tion of Dr. Sage, an intelligent man and excellent physician. His pecuniary 
resources being soon exhausted, his worthy preceptor assisted him in procuring 
emplo3rment in a school at Smithtown ; and when his funds were, as he thought 
sufficiently recruited, he again returned to the doctor. When his small stock 
of means was again expended, he made arrangements with a cabinet-maker in 
the place, to labor for him two days in the week, as a compensation for his 
board, for the remainder of the time. Here he exhibited a fickleness of dispo- 
sition, pursuing his studies in a very desultory manner ; spending a good part 
of his time visiting about the neighborhood, playing upon his violin, and some- 
times upon the hearts of the ladies. Dr. Sage, who felt a deep interest in the 
stranger, says, he was well versed in the most common theories of physic ; 
was a most ready mathematician and natural philosopher, and master of the 
principles of music. He possessed a critical knowledge of his own language, 
understood the French, had some knowledge of Italian, and translated with 
ease any Latin author. Ho also appeared to have much taste and skill in 
architecture, could use almost all kinds of tools, and even excelled in many of 
the mechanic arts. It was surprising to think, that at the age of twenty years, 
and with such unstable habits, he should possess such variety and degree of 
knowledge. How and where he could have acquired it all, unless by intuition, 
could never be imagined. He was a runaway boy, and had been traversing 
the country, without friends, poor^ dependent^ and wretched. In the year 1795, 
we find him engaged as a teacher in Union Hall Academy, and highly esteemed 
for his ability and good conduct. In Feb., 1796, he sailed with Captain Ga- 
briel Havens to the south, and arrived in Savannah, where he spent a year, 
and returned to New York in August, 1797. He came shortly after to the vil- 
lage of Jamaica, where he fell sick, expired the 21st of September, 1797, 
and was buried at the expense of his friends, in the Episcopal cemetery. 


Rev. Elias W. Crane was the son of Noah Crane, Esq. of 
Ulizabethtown, N. J., where he was bom March 18, 1796, being 
the eldest of eight children, who lived to grow up, and were de- 
scended from one of the original settlers of that place in 1664. 
He graduated at Princeton, N. J., in 1814, and was subsequently 
employed a few years as instructor of the Morristown Academy. 

He was first ordained and installed over the Dutch church at 
Springfield, N. J., Jan. 5, 1820, and continued till about the time 
of his settlement here, Oct. 31, 1826. He was for several years 
a director of the theological seminary at Princeton, and like his 
predecessor, Mr. Faitoute, died suddenly, having preached a few 
miles from his dwelling on the same evening, Nov. 10, 1840. His 
life was a bright example of active usefulness, and his death cast 
a general gloom over the community in which he lived. He mar- 
ried Hannah, daughter of John Johnson, Esq. |f Newton, N. J., 
July 7, 1819, by whom he had several children. She died Oct. 
18, 1827, and June 30, 1829, he married Sarah R. Wickham of 
this place, who is still living. 

Rev. James Macdonald, the present esteemed pastor, is the son 
of Maj. General John Macdonald ; bom at Limeric, Maine, May 
22, 1812, graduated at Union College, 1832, and ordained over 
the second congressional church, New London, Dec. 13, 1837; 
dismissed at his own request Jan. 8, 1840, and installed here 
May 5, 1841.. 

The stone church, having stood one hundred and fourteen years, 
was taken down in the year 1814, and its materials used in laying 
the foundation of the present church edifice, which was begun in 
in that year, and finished the year following. It is of large di- 
mensions, and well accommodated to the convenience and wants 
of the congregation, but is a plain and substantial building. 

The compiler is in possession of an accurate pencil drawing of 
the old stone church, made and presented to him by his friend, the 
late Hon. David Lamberson, former surrogate of the county, and a 
judge of the court of common pleas, and which he laments had 
not been engraved for this work. 

The Reformed Dutch church in this town was the first of that 
denomination in the county ; it was organized in 1702, by settlers 
from the adjoining county of Kings and the city of New York, 


but the church edifice was not completed till 1715, at an expense 
of £360. It was of an octagon shape, 34 feet diameter, and 
stood upon the south side of Fulton street, in front of the present 
Dutch church. It was similar in form to most of the early Dutch 
churches, being most agreeable to their notions of architectural 
elegance, and calculated also to accommodate conyeniently, the 
greatest number of auditors, in the least space.* 

The church wardens chosen after the completion of the house, 
were Jan Snedeker, Joris Remsen, Peter Monfort and Rem 

The first settled minister was the Rev. Johannes Henricus Go* 
etschiuSy who, when a boy, came with his father from Zurich, in 
Switzerland, to Philadelphia, having received a call to the first 
reformed German church in that city. Young Goetschius had pre- 
viously commenced his education at the university of Zurich, 
which he completed with his father, on his arrival in America. 
After his ordination by the (German church in Pennsylvania, he 
preached awhile in the reformed Dutch churches of North and 
Southampton in that province, from whence he removed in 1741, 
and became pastor of the Dutch churches. of Jamaica, Newtown, 
Success and Wolver Hollow, all of which were associate or col- 

* The sul^scription for building the church was headed by the following 
declaration, which exhibits the harmony aird good feeling which then pre- 
vailed : — 

'* We, the consistory of New Jamaica, in Queens county, on the island 
Nassau, consisting of the elders and deacons of the reformed Low Doteh 
church throughout the whole of Queens county, are unanimously resolved to 
build a church unto the glory of God and our Lord Jesus Christ. <God hath 
blessed us, and enabled us to build houses for our families ; but we are also 
bound lo show our gratitude to God, by building a house for the Lord and for 
the family of God — for all we have or possess, is given us by a good God ; 
and that we may induce him to grant us greater blessings, we ought, from mo- 
tives of piety, to build a house unto the honor and glory of His name. For 
thus saith the Lord : ' In all places where I record my name, I will come onto 
thee, and bless thee/ We are therefore assured, that whosoever giveth unto 
the Lord for the building of his house, the Lord will bless him with rich re- 
turns. In endeavoring, therefore, to build an house of God for the Dutch con- 
gregation, and to prove the love of God^s children, not only in word, but in 
very deed, we propose to the charitable brethren and sisters, the following 
conditions, &c." 


legiate churches, and so continued for nearly a century, constitu- 
ting in fact one parish. 

His residence was, however, in the village of Jamaica, where 
the ministers of the several congregations, generally resided 

At this period, an unhappy division existed in the churches of 
this denomination, relative to their subordination to the church of 
Holland. The one party, called the ccBtus party, were in favor 
of declaring themselves independent of the mother church, and 
managing its ecclesiastical concerns without its interference and 
jurisdiction ; while the other, called the conferentie party, were 
of opinion that no ministerial ordination would be sufficient or 
Talid, unless obtained from the mother church, in Holland, or by 
its express permission and authority. 

The fatherland had heretofore supplied most of the ministers of 
this church, and those who were not natives of that country went 
there for ordination ; it was, therefore, natural that prejudices 
should exist in favor of a precedent, which had been so long and 
constantly observed. The church of Holland was extremely te- 
nacious of its authority in this matter, which had been ac- 
quiesced in too long to be tamely relinqufshed. But the require- 
ment was found to be vexatious, expensive and dilatory, and the 
necessity of declaring the American church, to have an indepen- 
dent existence, became too apparent to be any longer disregarded.* 

But to such an independent establishment, there was a strong 
and decided opposition, probably fomented and encouraged by the 
mother cKurch. Towards the middle of the eighteenth century, 
the English language had made great progress among the Dutch 
inhabitants, and it therefore became desirable to very many, that 
the language of the country, should be more generally adopted in 

* On the 37th April, 1738, a meeting of ministers took place in the city of 
New York, at which auch reports were received from the churches, to which 
the plan of a catus had been communicated, as induced those present to ratify 
mad confirm it. The plan adopted was sent to the classis of Amsterdam for 
their approbation, but it does not appear that any answer was returned for 
Beariy ten years, bat their concurrence was given in 1747 by the hands of Mr. 
▼an Sinderin, who, it is supposed, came then to America for the first time. 
At the meeting in that year, little was done except to appoint, that the first 
meeting of the ccetut should be held in the month of September of that year. 


the pulpit, \yhile men'educated in the American colleges, should 
be more frequently employed in the churches. 

All these circumstances, allied to the humiliating idea of being 
as heretofore dependent upon a distant republic for a large 
proportion of their ministers, made a deep and abiding impresaion 
on the public mind, and came to be regarded by many mem- 
bers of the Dutch church, as no longer tolerable. 

In 1753, it ^as advised by the coetus, to amend the plan 
before recommended, and to change it into a regular classis. Such 
a measure was actually adopted in the following year, and oc- 
casioned a scene of animosity, division, and violence, that conti- 
nued a number of years, and sometimes even threatened the very 
existence of the Dutch church in this country. 

Those ministers most zealous in their opposition, and who 
formed the conferentie party, addressed a letter to the classis of 
Amsterdam, complaining of the attempts making to be rid of its 
authority, and constituting a body here with co-ordinate powers. 
They likewise sent similar letters in 1756, '60, and '61.* 

The principle of independence finally prevailed, and in Oct. 
1771, at a convention of nearly all the ministers of the Dutch 
church in America, an union was formed, and harmony once more 
happily restored. 

Mr. Goetchius, who had been settled here as above mentioned^ 
remained till 1751, devoting himself a part of the time in the edu- 
cation of young ministers, when he was called to take charge of 

* The parties, when first formed, were about equal, although the weight of 
learning was doubtless on the side of the conferentie party ; but practical 
preaching, zeal, and industry, particularly distinguished their opponents. The 
popular opinion was likewise in their favor, and their numbers and influence 
gradually increased. But the peace of the churches was destroyed, and some- 
times members of the same congregation, taking different sides, produced the 
most deplorable consequences. Houses of worship were locked up by one 
party against the other, and tumults were not unfrequent upon the Lord^s Day ; 
preachers sometimes assaulted in the pulpit, and public worship broken up in 
disorder. The coetus party, in order to supply the want of ministers in their 
churches, obtained from the governor of New Jersey, in 17T0, the charter cf 
Queen^s College, and from that time, no further measures were adopted by 
them, for a reconciliation with the classis of Amsterdam. 



the reformed Dutch churches of Hackensacle and Schraalenburgh, 
'^vhere he died in the 57th year of his age. He was esteemed a 
very learned man, an eloquent divine, and was eminently success- 
ful in his ministry. His name is still greatly cherished by the 
aged members of the church in this country. He was one of 
the first trustees of Queen's College under its royal charter. 

Rev, Thomas Romeyn^ brother of the Rev. Dr. Dirck Romeyn, 
former minister of Schenectady, and uncle of the late Rev. Dr. 
John B. Romeyn of the city of New York, was the second pastor 
of the associate churches in this county. He was bom at Hack- 
ensack. New Jersey, in 1730, graduated at Princeton in 1750, 
and settled here, as successor to Mr. Goetchius, in 1752, where 
he remained about twelve years, when* he removed. His son, the 
late Rev. James V. C. Romeyn, was the minister of Hackensack, 
New Jersey, and his grandson, the Rev. James Romeyn, is set- 
tled at Catskill, New York. 

Rev, Hermanns L, Boelen the nexl! minister, was a native of 
Holland, from whence he came here in 1766, and after oflSciating 

Dr. John JoncSfV/^s born here in 1729, of Welch descent. His grand- 
father, Edward, was a physician of eminence in his own country, and his son, 
Evan, father of the subject of this notice, a physician also. He came here in 
in 1728, and married Mary, daughter of Thomas Stephenson, by whom he had 
Bona, John, Thomas, Evan and James, and one daughter, who married Richard 
Harrison, a late eminent counsellor of New York. The eldest, John, hav- 
ing finished his classical education, studied medicine with Dr. Cadwallader of 
Philadelphia, and after visiting the schools in London, settled in New York. 
He was the first in that city who performed the operation of lithotomy, and 
was, upon the institution of a medical school in the college, appointed profes- 
sor of surgery, where he gave several courses of lectures, and made known the 
impTOTed modes of practice adopted in Europe. Viewing the science in its 
ose and tendency to relieve human misery, he taught his pupils to despise the 
idea of making it the means of pecuniary gain only. In 177:2, he again visited 
England, and obtained subscriptions for the establishment of the New York 
hospital. In 1780, he was chosen to fill the place of Dr. Redman as physician 
to the Pennsylvania hospital, and attended Dr. Franklin in his last illness. 
He died in June, 1701. His brother, Thomas, was an eminent physician of 
New York, where he died. His three daughters mafried respectively, David 
S. Jones, Alahby GeUton, and De Witt Clinton. 


several years, returned again to the country of his birth, for rea- 
sons not now known. 

Rev. Dr, Solomon Frodligh succeeded as pastor in 1T75, and re- 
mained till the capture of Long Island by the enemy, in Sept., 1T76, 
when he left this place, and afterwards settled in the churches 
of Hackensack and Scraalenburgh, as successor of Mr. Goetchius, 
and was appointed professor of divinity by the General Synod of 
the Reformed Dutch Church, after which, he trained many young 
men for the ministry. He died Oct. 8, 1827, in the 78th year of 
his age, and the fifty-third of his ministry. The church edifice in 
Jamaica was taken possession of by the British during the war, 
and converted into a store house for goods and provisions. 

Rev. Rynier Van iVc5/e,-the fifth pastor of these churches, was 
called here from Shawangunk, Ulster county, N. Y., and settled 
in 1785, previous to which the church edifice was thoroughly 
repaired. He remained here about eight years, when he remo- 
ved and was subsequently settled at Schoharie,, in this state, 
and died near Somerville, N. J. His character was most unex- 
ceptionable, and few men were more deserving the respect of aU. 

Rev. Zachariah Kuypers succeeded in 1794, but removed in 
1802, and is believed to be still living at an advanced age in New 
Jersey, having retired from the labors of his profession, and is 
probably one of the oldest ministers in the communion of the 
Dutch church. 

In this year, the churches of Jamaica and Newtown separated 
from those of Success and Wolver Hollow, and settled in Feb., 
1802, as their joint pastor, the Rev. (now Dr.) Jacob Schoonma- 
ker. He is the youngest son of the Rev. Henry Schoonmaker, 
who, for more than forty years, was pastor of the Reformed 
Dutch Church at Aquacanock, N. J., where his said son was 
bom in 1777, and graduated at Columbia College in 1799. Li 
1802 he was appointed professor of divinity in the Dutch church, 
and is now the senior pastor of this denomination on Long Island 
and in the city of New York. He completed the quadragenian 
anniversary of his ministry here on the 22d of Feb., 1842, on 
which occasion an appropriate historical discourse was delivered, 
by his junior associate, in the Collegiate Reformed Dutch Churches 
of Jamaica and Newtown, the Rev. Garret I. Garretson, which 


has been published, and does justice to the popularity and excel* 
lence of his reverend brother. 

His son, the Rev. Richard L. Schoonmaker, is settled in the 
Dutch Church at Harlaem, N. Y. 

The history of the episcopal church in this town, for the want 
of su£5cient documentary and other evidence, is far less complete 
and satisfactory than could have been desired, and we cheerfully 
confess our obHgations to the Rev. Mr. Johnson, present rec- 
tor of tlie church here, for very many particulars, otherwise, to 
us, unattainable. 

The British society for propagating the gospel in foreign parts, 
almost immediately after its formation in 1701, sent the Rev. 
George Keith, an apostate quaker, who had once resided in Penn* 
sylvania, as a missionary to this country, and for the special pur- 
pose, as it would seem, that he might ascertain from his own per- 
sonal experience and observation, the best mode of fulfilling the 
legitimate objects of the society. 

It cannot, however, but appear remarkable, that an individual, 
who, as a zealous quaker, had himself suffered no small degree 
of persecution on that account, should in the end become the 
bitter opponent of his former friends, and be, above all others, 
selected by the society, as the most fit and competent person, 
to prepare the way for the introduclioji and diffusion of episco 
pal principles in America. 

He was accompanied on his journey to this province, by the 
Rev. Patrick Gordon, who was intended as a missionary for Long 
laland, and arrived accordingly in this town, in the year 1702. 

He was styled rector of Queens county, and commenced his 
ministerial labors here during the administration of Lord Corn- 
bury, to whom particular instructions were sent, enjoining it 
upon him, as a part of his official duty, ** to give all counte- 
nance and encouragement to the exercise of the ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, as far as conveniently 
might be, in the province," and "that no schoolmaster firom 
England be permitted to keep school in the province of New 
York, without the license of the Bishop of London." 

But such was the governor's inordinate selfishness, his impru- 
dence and bigotry as a sectarian, and above all, liis anti-christian 

Vol. U. 16 


severity, not to say cruelty toward other denominations, that in 
the event, he doubtless proved himself rather an enemy to the best 
interests of the establishment, which he seemed, on all occasions, 
so anxious to encourage. The death of Mr. Gordon took place a 
short time after his settlement. His death was greatly regretted, 
as he Was a man of much learning, of great moderation, sensible 
and prudent. A part of his library is still preserved in the vestry 
room of Grace Church. 

On the decease of Mr. Gordon, the Rev. Mr. Vesey of New 
York was appointed to preach here, till the vacancy should be 
filled; and he accordingly officiated occasionally till 1704, 
when the Rev. William Urquhart was inducted into the rector- 

In the report of the British society of Feb. 16, 1705, it is re- 
marked among other things, that " there is a provision in Queens 
county for two ministers, of £60 each. In Queens and Suffolk 
counties, are two church of England congregations, many Inde^ 
pendents, and some Quakers and Libertines,^^ 

In their report of 1706, it is stated that, " Her majesty Queen 
Anne, was pleased to allow the churches of Hempstead and Ja- 
maica, Westchester, Rye and Staten Island, each, a large church 
bible, common-prayer book, book of homilies, a cloth for the pul* 
pit, a communion table, a silver chaKce and paten." 

The death of Mr. Urquhart occurred in about five years after 
his settlement. His will bears date Aug. 29, 1709, in which he 
gives to his wife Mary, all his estate in America, and says, " I de- 
sire her that there may be no great pomp or formality used at my 
funeral, that none except my wife be put in mourning, that no 
rings, gloves, or scarfs be given, but that persons fit to be taken 
notice of for their service, be otherwise gratified." 

In a letter from Mr. Thomas of Hempstead, to the society in 
England, of March 1, 1705, he says, "the people of Hempstead 
are better disposed to peace and civility than they are at Jamaica. 
Mr Urquhart, who is well esteemed of among the people, and my- 
self, are now very easy, owing to the good governor's (Lord Com- 
bury's) vigorous espousing our cause." This want of peace and 
civility, refers probably to the resentment shown by the presby- 


tenant toward the episcopalians and their pastor, who had, through 
the ofEcious and wicked interference of his lordship, deprived 
them of their church and its appendages, as has been above 

Rev. Thomas Poyer arrived from England 1710. He had suf- 
fered shipwreck on the passage, and was saved, with great diffi- 
culty, from a watery grave. Finding, on coming to this town, the 
troubles which existed in relation to the church and glebe, he drew 
up, and forwarded to the queen, a statement of the affair, in con- 
sequence of which, and, as is supposed, by the influence of Gov. 
Hunter, (who had put Mr. Poyer into possession of the church 
and i^s appendages,) her Majesty ordered "That in all cases 
where the church is immediately concerned, as in the case of Ja- 
maica, hberty be given to the clergy to appeal from the inferior 
courts to the governor and council only, without limitation of any 
sum ; and that as well in this, as in other like cases, liberty be 
given to the clergy to appeal from the governor and council to her 
Majesty and the privy council, without limitation as aforesaid." 
The motive which dictated this extraordinary measure, and the 
object intended to be subserved by it, arc too apparent to require 
explanation ; and the natural consequence was, to protract the 
dissensions above mentioned, and to render the minds of the peo- 
ple more obstinate. The rector still kept possession of the pro- 

• In addition to the representation given of Lord Cornbury by Smith and 
other historians, Graharoe says, ** his character seems to have formed a com- 
position no less odious than despicable, of rapacity, prodigality, voluptuoasness 
and cruelty ; the loftiest arrogance and the meanest chicane. He robbed evea 
Andros of his evil eminence, and rendered himself more universally detested 
than any other officer lo whom the government of this province was ever en- 
trasted. In every quarter of the province the governor offered his assistance 
to the episcopalians, lo put them in possession of the ecclesiastical edifices, 
that other sects had built ; and to the disgrace of some of the zealots of epis- 
eopacy, this offer was in various instances accepted, and produced the most 
disgusting scenes of riot, injustice and confusion.'* ** Finally," says Ch. Justice 
Smith, '' his perpetual demands for money ; his extortions in the way of 
fees, and his haughty and tyrannical conduct in other respects, continued to 
increase, until, moved by the complaints of New York and New Jersey, the 
Queen consented to recal him.*' 


perty until a verdict was obtained in favor of the presbyterians in 

Mr. Poyer, having failed in several ejectment suits, the town 
voted, Jan. 2, 1725, that the parsonage land should be delivered 
into the possession of the Rev. Mr. Cross, the dissenting minister, 
against which Mr. Poyer, Justice Oldiield, and Richard Combs 
entered their protest; and Feb. 26, 1727, the town assigned the 
stone church to three of the surviving trustees who built it, to take 
possession of it for the town. 

Mr. Foyer's residence was every way unpleasant, constantly 
troubled with the most violent controversies about the parsonage 
property, which (says Dr. Spencer) " proceeded to such length, that 
many of the principal inhabitants were harassed with severe per- 
secutions, heavy fines and long imprisonments, for assuming their 
just rights, and others fled out of the province to avoid the rage 
of episcopal cruelty." In 1730 Mr. Foyer requested permission, 
on account of advanced age and great infirmity^ to return to Eng- 
land, where he died the next year. The church and parsonage 
land having been confirmed, by the decision of the supreme court, 
to the presbyterians in 1727, the episcopalians now held their 
meetings in the court house, until their first church was built, in 

A letter of thanks was sent to Governor Hunter, for his sup- 
port of Mr. Foyer " in all legal methods of relief," and an order 
granted for all the expenses tliat the minister should be at, in re- 
covering his salary by due course of law, in the shortest and 
speediest manner possible. 

Rev, Thornas Colgan was from England, and had been em- 
ployed as catechisl to the negroes in New York. He became 
rector here in 1732, where he continued till the close of his life, 

* In a summary account of the state of the episcopal church in this pro- 
vince, by the Rev. William Vesey, Oct. 5, 1704, is the following: "In Ja- 
maica, there is a stone church built by a tax levied on the inhabitants — baa a 
spire and bell, but no pews or utensils — the church built in the street, and there 
is a house and some land for a parsonage, formerly (says he) in possession of 
the Independents, but now in possession of the Rev. Mr. Urquhart, by his ex* 
cellency, Lord Cornbury^s favor, who has been the great promoter of the 
church in this province, and especially in this place." 


in 1755. His allowance from the British society was £50 a year. 
The church had now been completed, and was called Grace 
Church, but was not incorporated till June 17, 1761, by Lieut. 
Governor Golden. At its dedication in 1734, Governor Cosby 
and lady, the council and many ladies and gentlemen of distinc- 
tion from the city, honored the occasion with their presence, when 
a splendid entertainment was given by Samuel Clowes, Esq., an 
eminent lawyer residing here. 

On this, then, novel and interesting event, his excellency's wife 
presented the congregation with a large bible, common prayer 
book, and a surplice for the rector. Mr. Colgan, in a letter to the 
society, says of the church, " It is thought to be one of the hand- 
somest in North America." But in relation to a religious excite- 
ment then existing in the country, caused by Whitefield and other 
zealots, he says, *' The late predominant enthusiasm is very much 
declined, several of the teachers, as well as hearers, having been 
found guilty of the foulest immoralities, and others having wrought 
themselves into downright madness." 

On the death of Mr. Colgan, the governor. Sir Charles Hardy, 
introduced the Rev. Samuel Seabury, who was born at New Lon- 
don, where his father of the same name was rector in 1729, grad- 
uated at Yale in 1748, took orders in London in 1753, settled on 
his return at New Brunswick, and removed hither in 1756, as here- 
tofore mentioned. John Troup, Esq. a wealthy citizen contribu- 
ted liberally to the church, presenting also a silver collection plate, 
a large prayer book, and a table for the communion. Mr. Sea- 
bury, in a letter to the society in England, complains of the influ- 
ence of infidehty and quakerism upon his people, which he says, 
•* have spread their corrupt principles to a surprising decree." Of 
Whitefield, he says, " that he with other strolling preachers, repre- 
sent the church of England, as popish, and teaching people to ex- 
pect salvation by good works." In 1766 Mr. Seabury removed to 
Westchester, but during the Revolution was in the city of New 
Yofk. After peace he settled in New London ; and in the year 
1784 was consecrated (in Scotland,) the first bishop in the United 
States, and presided for the remainder of his life over the diocess 
of Connecticut and Rhode Island. He died Feb. 25, 1796. The 
Rev. Joshua Bloomer, had been a major in the provincial service, 


previous to 1762, and afterwards a merchant in New York. He 
was educated at King's College, where he graduated in 1758; 
went to England for ordination in 1765, settled in this town in 
1769,, where he died June 23, 1790, aged 55, and was succeeded 
by the Rev. William Hammel, Of his salary Jamaica paid £40, 
Newtown £40, and Flushing £35. This gentleman having unfor- 
tunately become blind, and therefore unable to discharge his pas- 
toral duties acceptably, resigned in Aug. 1795. These several 
ministers officiated occasionally in the churches of Newtown and 
Flushing, ^hich were associated with Grace Church ; but in con- 
sequence of some dissatisfaction, Newtown withdrew from the 
union in 1796 ; and May 10, 1797, the Rev. Elijah D. Rattoone 
was settled here in connection with the church of Flushing. 
This gentleman graduated at Princeton in 1787, and in 1802 he 
removed from this place to St. Paul's Church, Baltimore ; he was 
succeeded by the Rev. Calvin White^ who graduated at Yale Col- 
lege in 1786, and settled in 1803 ; but removed Aug. 17, 1804, and 
was succeeded by the Rev. George Strebeck, May 1, 1805. He 
remained only a short time, as was the case with the Rev. Andrew 
Fowler, Rev. John Ireland, Rev. Edmund D. Barry, and the Rev, 
Timothy Clowes ; who were successively ministers of this church 
from 1805 to 1810, for respectively short periods.* 

Rev. Gilbert H. Sayres, is the son of Isaac and Abigail Sayres, 
of Rahway, N. J. His father a soldier and patriot of the Revolu- 
tion, died Jan. 22, 1842, aged 80. His mother was a sincere and 

* Mr. Clowes is a son of the late Joseph Clowes of Hempstead, where he 
was born March 18, 1787, graduated at Columbia College, 1808, and although 
a clergyman, has employed most of his life in academical instruction. He 
preached at Jersey City and Jamaica in 1809, in 1810, was rector of St. Peter^s 
Church, Albany, where he remained seven years, when he returned to his na- 
tive place and taught a classical seminary, fur three years with great success. 
In 1821 he was appointed principal of Erasmus Hall, Flaibush. In 1823 be 
was chosen president of Washington College, Maryland, and rector of the 
church in Chestertown, and of St. Pauls, Kent county. The college was de- 
stroyed by fire in 18*29, and Mr. Clowes (now L. L. D.) again opened a school 
in Hempstead. In 1838 he was invited to preside over the Clinton Liberal 
Institute, Oneida county, where he remained till the fall of 1842, when he re* 
moved to Philadelphia, where he pursues as usual the business of instruction. 
His wife, is Mary, daughter of Benjamin Hewlett of Cow Neck, L. I. 


consistent member of the society of Friends, and brought up her 
son in that way. He was born at Rahway, 1787, graduated at 
Columbia College, 1808, and was called to this church May 1, 
1810, where he continued to discharge his pastoral duties with 
energy and zeal, till want of health, which had been a long time 
delicate, compelled him to resign his rectorship in 1830. 

Rev, William L. Johnson, (son of the Rev. John B. Johnson, 
formerly minister of the Dutch reformed church in the city of Al- 
bany, afterwards of Brooklyn, and who died at Newtown, Aug, 
S9y 1803, and grandson of Barent Johnson, a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, who was severely wounded at the battle of Flatbush in Aug. 
1776,) was born at Albany, Sept. 15, 1800. His first instructor 
in the languages was Joseph Nelson, well known at the time as 
the blind teacher, and afterwards as the learned and classical pro- 
fessor in Rutger's College, N. J. Mr. Johnson graduated at Co- 
lumbia College, 1819, was admitted to the order of deacon in 
1822, when he took charge of St. Michael's parish at Trenton, N. 
J. In 1825, he was admitted to the priesthood and removed to 
this parish in May, 1830, as the successor of Mr. Sayres. His 
brother the Rev. Samuel R. Johnson, formerly of Flushing and 
.Newtown, is now settled at La Fayette, Indiana. 

The present edifice of Grace Church, was built in 1820, and is 
in all respects a handsome and convenient structure, with an organ 
of the finest tone. It may be noticed as a singular, yet melan- 
choly fact, that of the seven persons who composed the building 
committee of this church, not one has been living for some years 

* Cornelins I. Bof^rt, was an eminent lawyer of the city of New York, and 
though not bom on Long Island, his memory has become in some measure 
ideotified with its history, particularly with Queens county, where he was ex- 
tensively and favorably known, both from his professional business and practice 
in the courts of the county, and his residence there in aAer life. He was born 
in the city of New York, on the 13ih of October, 1754. His great grandfather 
was Jan Low Bogert, who came from Holland, and was one of the original 
settlers at Harlaem, on New York Island. He graduated at Kings (now 
Cdambia) College, and studied law with the elder Kissam, a lawyer of consi- 
derable note in his day, originally from Queens county, and was admitted to the 
bar aboat the timc^the Revolutionary war commenced. He was twice married. 
His first wife was Ann Murray, by whom he had two children, the late John 


The methodists have a house of worship which has been erected 
nearly forty years, and there is one, also, for the colored popula- 
tion, completed a few years since, principally through the private 
assistance and liberality of the Rev. William L. Johnson. 

Union Hall was the third academical building upon Lf<^ng Island, 
after those of Easthampton and Flatbush, and was established by 
voluntary contributors in sums of from 1 to 30 pounds, among 
which are the venerable names of George Clinton and John Jay, 
both of whom were, at different times, governors of the state. The 
charter was signed by Govenior Clinton, as the chancellor of the 
university, March 9, 1792, on request of fifty individuals, two 
only of whom, Daniel Kissam, and Eliphalet Wickes, now sur- 
vive. The first trustees were : — 

James De Peyster, Abraham Skinner, Joseph Robinson, 

Abraham Ditmars, Abraham Ditmars, jun., Jacob Ogden, 

Dr. Daniel Minema, John Smith, Rev. William Hammel, 

Rev. George Faitoute, Eliphalet Wickes, Daniel Kissam, 

John Williamson, Isaac Lefferts, jun., Jost Van Brunt. 

The institution was opened May I, 1792, when an oration was 
dchvered by Abraham Skinner, Esq., and an ode composed by 
the Rev. George Faitoute, was sung.* 

G. Bogert, and a daughter, Abbey, who married Robert I. Thurston. His 
sedond wife was Mrs. Bartlett, a widow lady, to whom he was married in 1795, 
and who has survived him. About the year 1810 he purchased an estate at 
Jamaica, a part of the property of the then late Rev. Mr. Keteltas, where he 
built a country residence, to which he retired a few years afterwards and where 
he spent the remainder of his life. He died on the 16th February, 1832, and 
was buried in the episcopal church yard in that village. 

Mr. Bogert was a sound practical lawyer, distinguished for his knowledge of 
mercantile law, in which he had few, if any, superiors at the bar. He possess- 
ed a clear and discriminating mind, was an acute reasoner, and his arguments 
never failed to command the respect and attentive consideration of the bench, 
being remarkable for good sense, and always well timed and to the purpose. 
Beyond this, he made no pretensions to oratory, and could not be said to be 
eloquent, yet his manner was earnest, impressive and dignified. In all the re- 
lations of life he sustained an irreproachable character. 

His residence in the village of Jamaica, was after his death sold to James 
H. Hacket, Esq. and is now owned by Samuel Judd, Esq. 

* Mr. Skinner was at this time clerk of the county, which office he held from 
1778 to 1796. He was likewise a lawyer, much distinguished for his talents 


The principal instructors in this seminary of learning have been 
as follows : — 

Rev. Maltby Gelstoo, Henry Crosswell, Michael Tracie, 

Samuel Crosset, Rev. George Faitoate, William Ermeupeatch, 

John W. Cox, Albert Oblenas, Rev. John Mulligan, 

Wm. Martin Johnson, Lewis E. A. Eigenbrogdt, Henry Onderdonk, jnn., 
Henry Liverpool, from 1797 to 1828, from 1833. 

The Rev. Maltby Gelston is now living at an advanced age, and 
is the minister of the congregational church of Sherman, Conn. 

A new and larger academic building was completed, on another 
and more eligible site, in the year 1820*; which is eighty feet by 
forty, two stories high, and replete with every convenience for the 
accommodation of male pupils. The former edifice continued to 
be used, under the direction of the trustees of Union Hall, as a 
female seminary. On the 12th of Fftb. 1841, the building was 
consumed by fire ; the school having been taught many years pre- 
vious by Miss Eliza M. Hanna, a native of Ireland, who, June 5, 
1832, became the wife of the Rev. William Thompson, an Ame- 
rican missionary, and accompanied him to the Holy Land. Her 
death took place at the city of Jerusalem, soon after their arrival. 

Oct. 5, 1842, was celebrated here the fiftieth anniversary of 

and professional eloquence. He was born at New York in 1750, and soon 
after his admission to the bar, the Revolutionary troubles began. He was a 
warm and active whig, and was honored with the confidence of the comman- 
der-in-chief, by whom he was appointed deputy commissary general of prison- 
ers. In Sparks* life and writings of Washington, is the copy of a letter ad- 
dressed by him to Mr. Skinner, acquainting him of an arrangement made with 
Sir Henry Clinton, for the British commissary to meet Mr. Skinner at Eliza- 
bethtown, Sept. 19, 1780, to agree upon an exchange of officers, prisoners of 
war, upon a footing of equal rank, and to include the whole on parole at New 
York or in Europe. '* An exchange,*' says the general, *' of all the otiicers, 
prisoners of war in our hands, is earnestly wished ; but if you cannot make it 
80 as to comprehend the whole, make it as extensive as you can.*' Mr. Skin- 
Der met the British commissary at the time and place appointed, but failed to 
accomplish a plan of mutual exchange within the range of his instructions. In 
1778, Mr. Skinner was appointed clerk of Queens county, and held the office 
till 1796. In 1785 he was chosen a member of the state legislature. A few 
years after, he moved to the city of New York, where he enjoyed a lucrative 
practice for many years ; from whence he removed to Babylon in Sufiblk coun« 
ty, where he died in 1835, and was interred in this village. 
Vol II. • 17 


Union Hall, on which occasion jin eloquent and appropriate ad- 
dress was pronounced by James De Peyster Ogden, Esq., whose 
grandfather, James De Peyster, Esq., was one of the original 
trustees of the academy at its foundation.* 

* Lewis E. A, Eigenbrodt, so long known as an able and efficient instractor, 
was descended from one of the most respectable families of Hesse-Darmstadt 
upon the Upper Rhine, Germany ; and came to the United States in the year 
1796. He was destined, by his previous education, for the ministry ; but hear- 
ing, ai\er his arrival, that a teacher was wanted in the grammar-school at Ja- 
maica, he visited the place, and producing satisfactory credentials of his cha- 
racter and qualifications, was immediately engaged as instructor in the classi- 
cal department of the academy. His reputation as a scholar, and his capacity 
for imparting instruction, as well as enforcing a correct discipline, increased 
with his age, and was never more exalted than at the time of his decease. 
He was united, a short time aAer his establishment here, with Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Mr. David Lamberson, a respected and opulent merchant of the village, 
by whom he had several children. He was an enthusiast in his professioo, 
than which, there is none, upon the able and conscious discharge of which, 
more important results to society depend, and whose moral influence upon the 
future character of a people is more important and valuable. It is, in tnith, 
one of the most responsible situations in which an individual can be placed, 
and by him was felt to be so ; for he made the station of a teacher, what all 
reflecting men desire to make it, an honorable one. He was aware of its dig- 
nity, as well as the obligations it imposed ; and aimed to secure the one by an 
exact and skilful discharge of the other. He was not impelled forward by the 
mere feeling, that so much time and labor were to be bestowed for a certain 
amount of money, but with the solemn conviction that responsibilities rested 
upon him, and of his moral accountability for the gradual improvement of those 
committed to his charge. By his talents, learning, great method, and untiring 
industry, he raised Union Hall Academy, from the condition of an ordinary 
grammar-school, to a high rank among the incorporated seminaries of the 
state ; and hundreds were educated here, who now hold distinguished stations 
in every department of society, and who must always entertain a sincere and 
profound respect for the memory of their instructor and friend. 

Mr. Eigenbrodt perished in the ripeness of manhood, and in the midst of 
usefulness, in 1828, at the age of fifly-four ; having presided over the institu- 
tion more than thirty years, and with a character for learning and virtue among 
his fellow citizens which only time can diminish. He was eminent as a lin- 
guist, and for his attainments in literature ; and had been honored with the title 
of Doctor of Laws, the highest known in the American colleges. In his man- 
ners. Dr. Eigenbrodt was modest and unpretending ; in his habits, temperate 
and retiring ; and in all the endearing relations of husband, father, citizen and 
friend, kind, affectionate, generous and exemplary. There are those who hate 


On the 11th of March, 1843, was laid, in the village of Jamai- 
ca, the corner-stone of a new female seminary, under the corpo- 
ration of Union Hall, when an address was deUvcred by Abraham 
B. Hasbrouck, L. L. D., the learned president of Rutger's Col- 
lege, N. J., which was of course characterized by sound logical 
reasoning, in favor of the great importance of devoting more atten- 
tion to the promotion of female education. 

This building was immediately commenced, and so far com- 
pleted, that the school was opened in the month of May following, 
under the auspices of Miss Margaret Adrain, the talented daugh- 
ter of Robert Adrain, Esq. formerly professor of Mathematics in 
Columbia College. 

The academical building is situated on the south side of Fulton 
street, opposite the presbyterian church, and is a handsome and 
spacious edifice, as the annexed lithographic view sufficiently 

enjoyed a more brilliant reputation, and filled a larger space in the public eye ; 
bat none in whom the mild and gentle virtues have shone Tnore clearly, or by 
ivhom they have been more steadily and effectively inculcated. The influence 
and glare of exalted station, the splendor of particular feats in arms, the tri- 
umph of an hour, are apt to captivate attention, and even obscure or pervert 
the judgments of men, so that they may have little sympathy with, or admira- 
tion for, the ever enduring, unostentatious exertions which mark the life of 
nnch a man as Dr. Eigenbrodt ; yet, if measured by their importance, by the 
self-denial they evince, the fortitude they require, by the daily, hourly abnega- 
tion of self which they imply ; how vast is the difference between such ser- 
Ticee, and the public estimate of them — between common f cane and real merit f 
Such men, beyond all question, deserve more respect and consideration from 
their cotemporaries than they receive ; few are ready to confer honor where 
none is demanded ; experience shows that those most deserving of praise are 
the least obtrusive, and are often thrown into the shade by others, who, in 
reality, have little or no solid claim to public respect and gratitude. The sub- 
ject of this notice was remarkable for economy and prudence, at the same 
time, he gave liberally for purposes of charity and benevolence. By his pru- 
dence in pecuniary matters, he left an ample fortune to his children, with the 
more inestimable inheritance of an unblemished character, the animating ex- 
ample of a life spent in doing good, in the practice of virtue, and the diffusion 
of knowledge. 

His son, the Rev. William E. Eigenbrodt, is an episcopal clergyman at 
Rochester, N. Y. ; and his son, David L. Eigenbrodt, is a physician in the 
West Indies. * 


By referring to the names of the early settlers of this town, it 
will be seen that Richard Chasmore was among them ; and the 
records show that by his last will, made in 1660, he gave most of 
his estate to the wife and children of his former friend, Henry 
Townsend of Oyster Bay, once a resident here, and who had also 
experienced much illiberality as well as ill treatment, both from 
a portion of the inhabitants and from the government ; solely, it 
appears, on account of his Quaker principles. Notwithstanding 
which, such was his benevolent feeling and temper, and so great 
his regard for his fellow creatures, the victims of disease, po- 
verty and distress, in the place which he had once inhabited, that 
he gave several pieces of valuable land and meadow, with JC176 
in money, to the town, as a perpetual fund, the income of which 
was to be ever after applied for the " relief of poor widows and 
children, persons blind, lamed or aged, and such as should be un- 
able to get a living, or any that should suffer by fire, and whose 
necessities might call for relief." 

This propert)^ which ought to be denominated the Townsend 
Fundy was, as related, presented to the town of Rusdorp, March 
25, 1663, and the income of which has been appropriated to the 
above mentioned purpose for more than 180 years in succession, 
although the source from whence it was derived has been almost 
forgotten ; the town having been thereby freed from the necessity 
of raising any very considerable annual amount for the support of 
its poor.* 

* Few of t(ie old inhabitants are remembered with more sincere respect, 
than Col. Joseph Robinson. He was born at St. Croix, in the Danish West 
Indies, 1742. His father and grandfather bore the same christian name, and 
were of Scotch descent. The latter came to New York when a young man, 
and there married a Miss Lispenard, of a wealthy family, by whom he had a 
eon, Joseph, born in 1717. He went to the West Indies, where he married 
Margaret Barnes, and had issue Barnes and Joseph. The latter, who is the 
Buhject of this notice, came lo New York in 1760, and married a daughter of 
James Cebra, an inhabitant of this town, by whom he had five daughters, Mar- 
garet, Mary, Ann, Sarah and Elizabeth, but no son. The last named married 
William Sleeker. Mary married Nathanial Hazzard, by whom she had one 
daughter, Maria; and after the death of her husband, she became the second 
wife of David Gelston, Esq. of New York, in 1614. 

Col. Rofalnaon was a gentleman of good education and popular manners. 


Since the lire of Feb. 12, 1841, which consumed the former 
Academy buildings, with others in the centre of the village, James 
}{erriman, Esq., the owner, to whom the place is much indebted for 
its growth and prosperity,* has erected substantial brick edifices 
on the same spot, which are not only creditable to him, but quite 
an ornament to the village. 

A press was introduced here in 1819, and a weekly newspaper 
commenced by Henry C. Sleight, entitled the " J^ong Island 
Farmer," which was afterwards successively conducted by Thomas 
Bradley and Isaac F. Jones, the last of whom, in 1840, trans- 
ferred the establishment to Charles* S. Watrous, the present editor 
and proprietor. 

The "Long Island Democrat" was established in May, 1835, 
by James J. Brenton, who still continues in its management. 

This village is the only one in the town deserving that appella- 
tion, and is universally considered a beautiful place. It is near the 
centre of the town, and upon the great thoroughfare leading from 
ihe city of Brpoklyn to Sag Harbor, having also every desirable 
facility of intercourse with the surrounding country. Here are 
concentrated the different roads, leading to Brooklyn, Williams- 
burgh, Rockaway, Flushing, Jericho and Hempstead. 

It was, as has been seen, the seat of justice for the north riding 
of Yorkshire, at its organization in 1665 ; and so continued, to the 
division of the island into counties in 1683, and until the erection 
of the court house on Hempstead Plains, in 1788. The office of 
the surrogate and that of county clerk, are required to be kept 
here, and for which a very inadequate building has been erected. 
The village was incorporated April 15, 1814, and has been gra- 

He was made a colonel of the provincial militia at the commencement of the 
Revduiionary war, and was in the regiment commanded by Gen. Woodhull, 
whom he left bat a few minutes before his capture at the house of Increase 
Carpenter, in Aug. 1776. The island being taken possession of by the enemy, 
Col. Robinson managed to get his family within the American lines, and lived 
with thetn at Woodbury, Conn, till peace was restored. He returned to Jamaica 
in 1783, and was made the first surrogate of the county in 1787, which office he 
retained till his decease in 1815 ; enjoying the confidence of all that knew him, 
as a nuifi of the purest patriotism and integrity. 



dually increasing in business and population, till it now contains 
about two hundred dwellings, and fifteen hundred inhabitants. 

At this place is the depot of the Brooklyn and Jamaica Rail 
Road Company, with their large and commodious car housCy en- 
gine house, and machine shops. This company was incorpora- 
ted, April 25, 1832, to continue for fifty years, with a capital of 
$300,000. In 1836 it was leased for a term of years to the Long 
Island Rail Road Company at an annual rent, and has since been 
under the direction of that incorporation. The latter company 
^^ . commenced running cars upon their road as far as Hicksville on 
the 1st of March, 1837, from which time it has been in constant 

There are several splendid private residences in the village and 
its immediate vicinity, which give an aspect of beauty and opu- 
lence to the neighborhood. 

Beaver Pond, once a peculiar feature in the topography of the 
environs of the village, and which ought to have been preserved, 
has disappeared by the process of draining. Around its border, a 
famous race course once existed, patronized by the colonial gov- 
ernors and other gentry, and where immense sums, and even for- 
tunes, have been staked upon a single trial of speed.* 

* Edmund Charles Genets a gentleman of some distinction in the annals of 
diplomacy, once resided here. A native of France, of a respectable family, 
a man of finished education, and possessing some shrewdness as a politician, 
but at the same time inconsiderate, overbearing and rash. He was the first 
minister from the French republic, and sent here by the Directory in 1793. 
The friendship existing between this country and bis own, during our struggle 
* for independence, led him to believe that America would aid them in carrying 
on the war with England and Spain ; and he not only proposed to build and 
commissi(»n privateers in our ports, but also to raise a sufficient volunteer force 
to conquer the possessions of those powers, on this side the ocean. The at- 
tempt of his nation to establish a free government on the ruins of monarchy, 
was popular here, and taking advantage of this feeling, Mr. Genet acted as if 
he was independent of our government. 

He was received at Charleston as the representative of a roagnanimoue 
people, and his journey thence to Philadelphia was more like the march of a 
victorious chief, than of a mere accredited agent to a friendly power. Bal 
Washington was too wise to allow himself to be deluded by the tide of pupa* 
lar sympathy. Attachment to France and detestation of England, had loog 


The only other considerable settlement in this town, is Spring- 
Jieldy three or four miles south-east of Jamaica village, but has 
nothing remarkable in its general features. 

Union Course^ where thousands congregate at stated periods to 
witness the sports of the turf, is located upon the western limits of 
the town, and near the line of King's county ; it was established 
immediately after the passage of the act in 1821 , allowing of trials 
of speed, for a term of years, during the months of May and Octo- 
ber, in the county of Queens. In 1834 the times was enlarged 
for fifteen years more, and trials of speed may now be made be- 
tween the 1st of April and the Idth of June, and from the 1st of 
September to the 15th of November, in every year during the said 
term. This beautiful course is a few feet over a mile in length, 
on a perfectly level surface, with a good track ; and is universally 
considered one of the best in the United States. Better time has 
been made upon it, and more frequently, than on any other course 
in the country. Connected with it is a Jockey Club of above two 
hundred and fifty members, who contribute annually twenty dol- 
lars each toward the Jockey Club purses. There was run over 
this course, the 27th of May, 1823, one of the most remarkable 

T ~ 

been the common sentiment of the country. Now that the former had become 
a refmblic, the duty and interest of siding with France, was tOo apparent to ad- 
mit of reasoning. The greater, then, is the estimation in which Washington 
shonld be held, since he saw through, and far beyond this excitement ; and, 
honorable to him was that magnanimity, which opposed itself to the popular 

Genet was astonished to find, that he could not carry on the war from here, 
as he had expected, as oar government was determined to adhere to the strict- 
est neotrality ; to this, Genet had no objection, provided he could carry on the 
war himself, as he insisted on doing ; and when told that he would be resisted 
by force, he even threatened to appeal from the President to the people. The 
controversy with Mr. Genet was exceedingly embarrassing to the President ; 
bat hit conduct became so ofiensive, that his recall was demanded. He re- 
fused to return to France, but chose to resign his commission, and remain here 
as a private citizen. In 1795 he purchased a farm in this town, upon which 
be resided several years, when he disposed of it, and removed to this village. 
His first wife was Cornelia Tappen, daughter of Governor George Clinton, 
who was born June 29, 1774, and died March 23, 1810 ; and his second, Maria, 
daaghter of Samuel Osgood, Esq. of New York. He subsequently resided at 
Schodack, near Albany, where he died July 14, 1834, aged 72. 


and best-contested races that ever took place in America, being a 
match race of four mile heats, for twenty thousand dollars aside, 
between the North and the South, upon their respective champions. 
Eclipse, carrying 126 lbs, owned by Charles W. Van Ranst, and 
Henry y carrying 108 lbs, owned by Col. Wm. R. Johnson ; and 
which was won in three heats by Eclipse. The time was as fol- 
lows : first heat, T 37 — second heat, V 49 — and the third heat, 
8^ 24 ; whole time, twenty-three minutes and fifty seconds. 
Eclipse was bred by General Nathaniel Coles of Dos-Oris, and 
was nine years old when the race was run. Henry was bred by 
Samuel Long, Esq. near Halifax, North Carolina, and was nearly 
four years old. It is supposed by those present, that from forty 
to sixty thousand persons were on the ground, and that probably 
more than $200,000, were lost and won on the occasion. During 
the five days that the races continued, the Fulton Ferry Company 
took over $5000, for. toll at Brooklyn, and doubtless, an equal 
amount was received at the other avenues to the city. 

But a still more extraordinary match was run May 10, 1842, 
between the Virginia horse, Boston, and the New Jersey mare. 
Fashion, for $20,000 a side, and won in two heats by the latter. 
The concourse of spectators (taking advantage of the rail road) 
was immense. The first heat was run by Fashion, in T 32^, 
and the second in T 45. Boston was bred by John Wickham, 
Esq. of Richmond, and owned by Col. Johnson and James Long, 
of Washington ; was 9 years old and carried 1 26 lbs. Fashion 
was bred and owned by Wm. Gibbons, Esq. of Morris county, N. 
J. ; was 5 years old and carried 111 lbs ; proving herself on this 
occasion, unequalled in America for speed, and in regard to time, 
at the head of the turf, in the world. 

A remarkable foot race was run over this course, April 24, 1835, 
by Henry Stannard of Killingworth, Conn, who went ten miles in 
59 minutes and forty eight seconds, beating eight competitors, who 
started in the race, but gave up, before the end of the ten miles. 



Embraces the northwestern part of Queens county, and is cen- 
trally distant from the city of New York, about seven miles. It 
is bounded north by the middle of the East River, east by Flush- 
ing, south by Jamaica, and west by Kings county ; including the 
islands in the Sound, called the North and South Brothers, Riker^s 
or Hewlett's Island, and Berrien's Island. 

The eastern portion of the town was known to the natives by the 
name of Wandowenock, while the western was called Mispat, or 
Maspeth, the latter being probably the appellation applied to a 
family or tribe of Indians, residing about the head of the creek, 
now called the " English Kills." 

The first white inhabitants were enterprizing English emigrants, 
who came here by the way of New England, and settled under 
the Dutch government, by whom they were promised and allowed 
many of the privileges and advantages of an independent political 
community, the enjoyment of religion, and the choice of their own 
magistrates, subject only to the approbation of the governor. 

The settlement was commenced in 1651, and as was customary 
within the Dutch jurisdiction, without any conveyance, first ob- 
tained from the aborigines. The inhabitants at this time adopted 
the practice, which was usual in some of the New England towns, 
of electing certain oflScers, designated " townsmen,^^ whose prero- 
gative it was to superintend the more important interests of the 
town, and to adopt such prudential measures as the common good 
seemed to require, except as to the admission of new inhabitants 
and the division or allotment of lands, matters it seems, which 
-were only transacted in the primary assemblies of the people, and 
called, as we have seen, the general court. Whether any prelim- 
inary title to the lands had been acquired by the Dutch govern- 
ment from the Indians, is uncertain, although the most common 
sentiment of justice, would, it should seem, have dictated a pro- 
ceeding so entirely proper in all respects. 

The first patent or ground brief was obtained from Governor 
Stuyvesant in 1652, and another with more liberal provisions in 
1655. Both these, with a mass of valuable papers, essential to a 
knowledge of the early history of the town, were, it is believed^ 

Vol. II. 18 



taken away or destroyed in the Revolution, the commanding officer 
of a British regiment, having established his head quarters here, 
and his soldiers were in full possession of the town for several 
years. The names of those who were residents, and probably 
freeholders of the town in 1 655, '56, are as follows : 


Thomas Stephenson, 
Gershom Moore, 
Jonathan Hazzard, 
Daniel Bloomficld, 
Caleb Leveridge, 
Joseph Sacket 
Robert Field, 
Thomas PeUit, 
John Gray, 
Robert Field, jun. 
John Smith, 
Josiah Forman, 
George Wood, 
Nathan Fish, 
Edward Hunt, 
Jeremiuh Burroughs, 
Richard Betts, 
Thomas Betts, 
John Al-Burtis, 
James Way, 
Cornelius Johnson, 
Jacob Reeder, 
John Morrell, 
Elias Doughty, 
Thomas Lawrence, 
William Lawrence, 
William Hallet, jun. 

William Hallet, 
Samuel Hallet, 
Hendrick Martinson, 
Robert Blackwell, 
John Pearsall, 
George Stephenson, 
Thomas Skiilman, 
• John Johnson, 
Richard Alsop, 
John Denman, 
Henry Maybe, 
John Reed, 
Joseph Phillips, 
Francis Way, 
John Wilson, 
Moses Pettit, 
John Forman, 
Samuel Ketcham, 
John Ramsden, 
Rineer Williamson, 
John Harrison, 
John Coe, 
Joseph Burroughs, 
William Osborn, 
Thomas Robertson, 
Benjamin Cornish, 
Francis Combs, 

Content Titus, 
Lambert Woodward^ 
Joseph Reeder, 
Jeremiah Kceder, 
Nathaniel Woodward^ 
John Bull, 
John Wood, 
Thomas Morrell, 
Theophilus Phillipe, 
Rceliff Patterson, 
Benjamin Stephens, 
Jacob Leonardson, 
Luke Depaw, 
Nathaniel Pettit, 
James Hayes, 
Richard Owen, 
Peter Burkhead, 
John Alden, 
John Rosell, 
Angela Burger, 
Stephen GeorgesoD^ 
John Lawrence, 
Thomas Wandall, 
John Kirtshaw, 
Jonathan Strickland, 
Gershom Hazzard, 
Henry Sawtley. 

The settlement was begun on the site of the present village of 
Newtown, where the first straw-roof tenements were erected. In 
1656 it was projected by a few individuals, to lay out a village 
or town, as it was called, nearer to the water, and accordingly a 
place was selected at the head of Mispat Creek, which was dis- 
tinguished by the name of Arnharn, and the surveyor general was 
ordered by the governor " to measure and lay off the lots and 
streets, for building upon." 

The design was, however, for some reason, never carried into 


full execution, yet a few Englishmen, some of whom were quakers, 
took up their residence there, by reason of which its first name 
fell into disuse and that of the English Kills prevailed, to distin- 
guish it from another settlement on the opposite side of the fly or 
creek made by the Dutch, and which had obtained the appellation 
of the Dutch Kills. The quakers before mentioned, remained 
several years, and built a small meeting house, which was stand- 
ing not long since, although few of this denomination are now resi- 
dents of the town. 

Middlebourgy (or Middleborough,) was the name afterwards con- 
ferred upon the plantation by the Dutch, many of whom settled 
within the limits of the present town, about the year 1654. It 
was so called probably after a town of that 'name in the Nether- 
lands, and continued to be so named in all the records and convey- 
ances, to the time of the concjuest in 1664. The records of the 
town which now exist, are chiefly occupied with details of trials 
before the town courts, and among which, actions of slander and 
defamation, hold a conspicuous place. 

The following is a sample of others which might be quoted from 
these ancient cluronicles : " Middleburgh, Aug. 21, 1659. At a 
con held by the magestrates of the place aforesaid, Johnfforman, 
plaintive, enters an action ngBiinsi ffrancis Doughty, dcfen', an ac- 
tion of slander. John fforman declared that flrancis Doughty 
charge^ him, that he had stolen his chocs, and therefore he was 
satisfied which way his things went. The cort finds for the de- 
fenS too guilders for attendance and the charge of the cort, to be 
payd by John fforman, because he doth not support his charge 
that he layd against the defend" 

Concerning a patent the following particulars are recorded : — 
"At a general town meeting, held October 6, 1665, voted that 
Thomas Lawrence, Ralph Hunt, and Jo. Burrows shall be em- 
ployed to get a draft of the bounds of the town, and get a pattin 
for the same ; also the town people to bear the charge according 
to their several proportions." 

Upon this application a patent was issued March 16, 1666, by 
which was granted and assured unto '* Capt. Richard Bells, Capt. 
Thomas Lawrence, Capt. John Coe, John Burroughs, Ralph Hunt, 


Daniel Whitehead, and Joost Burger, as patentees for and on be- 
half of themselves and their associates, the freeholders and inhabi- 
tants of Newtowne, their heirs, successors, and assigns, as fol- 
lows : 

'' All that the said tract of land herein menconed to have heen purchased 
from the Indian natives, bounded on the east by Fhishing Creek and a line to 
he drawne from the head thereof due south, extending to the south side of the 
hills ; on the north by the Sound ; on the west by the Maspeth Creeke or 
Kill, and a line to be drawne from the head thereof due south, ezteodinfr to 
the south side of the hills ; and on the south by a straight line lo be drawne 
from the south points of the said west line, alongst the south side of the 
said hills, it meets with the said east line soe menconed, to extend from 
the head of Flushing Creeke as aforesaid ; as also all that one third part 
of a ceriaine neck of meadow called Cellars*Neck, scituate, lying, and be- 
ing within the biiun is of Jam lica, upon the south side of Long Island ; as 
also liberty to cut what timber within the bounds of Jamaica aforesaid they 
should have occasion for, for the fencing the said neck, and to make and lay 
out to themselves what highway or highways they should think fit, for their 
free and convenient egresse and regresse to and from the aforesaid neck or 
parcell of meadow. AtkJ that ihesaid patentees, their associates, heyres, suc- 
cessors, and assigns shall enjny alt the privileges belonging to any town within 
this government; and that the place of their habitation shall continue and re- 
taine the name of Newtown, and so be distinguished and known in all bargains, 
sailes, deeds, records, and writings.^* 

Dec. 13, 1670. — " At a town meeting, voated, that if Mr. Leve- 
rich shall continue in this town to preach the word of God, a rate 
of £40 shall be made for the building of a meeting-house, .one-half 
to be payd in corn and the other half in cattle." 

"At a corl, held May 6, 1674, the order of the cort is, that 
Thomas Case shall not entertayne William Smith's wife, un- 
knowne to her husband, as he will answer for the contrary at his 

" Feb. 28, 1683, voated that Mr. Morgan Jones be schoolmas- 
ter of our town, to teach on the Sabbath days those that will come, 
allowing for him exercising on that day what any one pleases." 

Of this person we find the following entry, made upon the re- 
cords by himself : ** Whereas I, Morgan Jones, have officiated for 
some lime as a minister in Newtown without any agreement for 
a salary, upon the promise of some particular persons of the town. 


to allow mc some small recompense of their own accord, I do 
hereby acquit and discharge the town of all salary, moneys, goods, 
or wares, which I might claim. Aug. 28, 1 686, Morgan Jones." 

" At a cort, held April 4lh, 1688, Ann Cleven did, in presents 
of the cort, own that she had spoken several tymes scandalous and 
reproachful speaches against William Francis, touching his good 
name ; she doth now confess her fault, and says she had done the 
said William wrong, and is sorry she spoke such words against 
him ; and hopes, for the time to come, she shall be more careful. 
She owns that she charged the plaintive with cheating her of a 
pound of flax, and told the people to take notice he had stole her 

" On the 29th July, 1688, voated that Edward Stephenson and 
Joseph Sacket shall appear at the supream cort, held at Flatlands, 
to defend the town's right ; and that they have full power to eifi- 
ploy an attumey if they shall see fit, and what they do, we will 
ratify and confirm." 

** June 11, 1689, it was voated and agreed that Capt. Richard 
Betts and Lieut. Samuel Moore go to the county-town to meet the 
deputys of other towns, to vote for too men out of the county to 
go to Yorke to act with the rest in the counsil as a committe of 

" These may certify all whom it may concern, that I, flTrancis 
Combs, being accused for speaking scandalous words and 
speeches, tending to the deffamacon of Marget, the wife of John 
flforman of Newtown ; I doe publicly declare that I am herlily 
sorry that the said Marget is any wise by me defamed, not know- 
ing any tiling against her name, fam3, or reputacon ; but that she 
lives honestly and grately with her neighbors, and all other their 
Magesty's subjects. As witness my hand, October 2, 1691, Aran- 
cis Combs." 

" July 14, 1694, voted at town meeting, that the town will make 
a rate toward repairing the meeting-house and the town-house ; 
also, for paying the messenger's expense, that is sent for a minis- 
ter, and for making a pair of stocks." 

On the 25th of Nov. 1686, a new patent was granted by Gov. 
Dongan, which, after reciting the date of previous patents, and the 
boundaries of the town as before mentioned, states that the free- 



holders and inhabitants had made application to him by William 
Lawrence, Joseph Sacket, John Way, and Content Titus-, persons 
deputed by them for a more full and ample confirmation of the 
tract or parcel of land contained in the patent of 16G6 from Gov. 
NicoU ; therefore he, the said Thomas Dongan, doth ratify, con- 
firm, and grant all the said land and premises, with the houses, 
messuages, tenements, fencings, buildings, gardens, orchards, 
trees, woods, underwoods, pastures, feedings, common of pastures, 
meadows, marshes, lakes, ponds, creeks, harbors, rivers, rivulets, 
brooks, streams, easements, and highways, together with the 
islands, mines, minerals, (royal mines only excepted,) fishing, 
hawking, hunting, and fowling, in free and common soccage, ac- 
cording to the tenure of East Greenwich in the county of Kent, in 
his majesty's kingdom of England, (yielding and paying on the 
five and twentieth day of March, yearly for ever, the chiefe or 
quit-rent of three pounds four shillings,) unto the following named 
persons, then being the freeholders and inhabitants of the town, to 
wit : — 

Richard Betts, 
Thomas Stephenson, 
Gershom Moure, 
Jonathan Hazzard, 
Samuel Moore, 
Daniel Bloorafield, 
Caleb Leverich, 
Edward Stevenson, 
Joseph Sacket, 
Samuel Scudder, 
Robert Field, sen., 
Thomas Wandell, 
John Catcham, 
Thomas Peiet, 
John Woulton Grafts, 
Johannis Lawresse, 
John Rosell, 
Joseph Reed, 
Roaleffe Peterson, 
Jacob Scverson Van 

De Grift, 
Stoffell Van Law, 
Abraham Ricke, 

Jonathan Stevenson, 
Thomas Case, 
John Alburtise, 
James Way, 
John Johnson, 
Richard AIsop, 
Hendrick B. Smith, 
John Red, 
Benjamin Sufferns, 
Luke Depaw, 
Nathaniel Petet, 
Samuel Katcham, 
John Harickson, 
Isaac Gray, 
Content Titus, 
John Fish, 
Cornelius Johnson, 
Abram Yorris, 
John Coe, 
Samuel Fi.nh, 
Joseph Burroughs, 
Thomas Robinson, 
James Hays, 

Garsbam Hazard, 
Francis Way, 
Moses Peiet, 
John Ramsden, 
Phillip Katcham, 
Josias fToreman, jun., 
Lambert W^oodward, 
John Moore, 
Thomas Lawrence, 
William Lawrence, 
John Lawrence, 
William Hallet, sen., 
William Hallet, jun., 
Samuel Hallet, 
Hendrick Martinson, 
Robert Blackwell, 
John Parcell, 
William Parcell, 
George Stevenson, 
Thomas Parcell, 
Stephen Georgeson, 
John Bockhout, 
Anellchie Bower, 




Francis Comes, 
Thomas Etherinson, 
Jeremiah Rider, 
John Way, 
Robert Field, jun., 
Jonathan Sticklin, 
John Smyth, 
Josias ffbrman, sen., 
George Wood, 
Nathan Fish, 
Edward Hunt, 
Jeremiah Burroughs, 
Thomas Bette, 
John Scudder, jun.. 

Jacob Rider, 
John Rider, 
John Richard, 
Woulter Gisbertson, 
John Petet, 
Thomas Morell, 
John Roberts, 
Isaacke Swinton, 
Elias Doughty, 
Jane Rider, 
John Aliene, 
Hen. Mayel, sen., 
Joseph Phillips, 

Thomas Cillman, 
Peter Bockhout, 
John Denman, 
Henry Mayel, jun., 
Theophilus Phillips, 
Anthony Gleen, 
John Willson, 
John fforeman, 
Rinier Williamson, 
Benjamin Cornish, 
Henry Safly, 
Joseph Rider, 
Thomas Morrell, jun. 

The first church edifice of which any thing is known, was 
built by the independents or presbyterians in 1 670, nearly upon 
the site of the present village church, but there is good reason for 
believing that the place had not only a minister, but a house for 
religious worship before that time. The Rev. John Moore had 
been employed here for a period nearly coeval witli the settlement, * A4,t,»^iJ7^ 
till his death, Jwno I7| 16 g l , in which year, as appears by the ,^^o.»^ '^S&r^ 
colony records, the people petitioned the governor and council to ^y^^y, ^^^ // 
aid them in procuring another minister in the place of Mr. Moore, 
" fearing (say they) that some of the inhabitants may be led away 
by the intrusion of Quakers and other heretics,^^- It is, therefore, 
highly probable that a minister was furnished from New Amster* 
dam, who supplied the vacancy till the arrival of the Rev, WiU 
liam Leveridge (or Leverich) in 1 670, from Huntington, where he 
was settled in 1658. He was the first ordained minister that 
preached within the limits of New Hampshire, having settled at 
Dover in 1633, from whence he went to Sandwich, on Cape Cod, 
and continued several years, and was employed afterwards in 
instructing the Indians in various places. He remained here till 
his death, in 1692. He was an uncommonly intelligent, learned 
and useful man, well versed in public business, and remarkable 
for his energy and perseverance. 

In the oldest volume of the town records, which has been pre- 
served, is about one hundred pages, which purports to be a sort of 
running commentary upon the Old Testament, and is in the 


hand-writing of Mr. Leveridge, but in an abbreviated form — ^a sig- 
nal proof of his learning, patience and industry. He left two 
sons Caleb and Eleazer, of whom the former only had issue, the 
other having been divorced from his wife Rebecca, on proof of his 
impotency, in 1670. 

Rev, John Morse succeed ed Mr. Leveridge in 1694. He came 

^ .KLf'^^^from tho > neighb or h oo d uf Diamu ee, Mass , and was the son of 

uj i^A.y*>hTrMorse, one of the first settlers of Dedham. He was bom 

/X^c /A^*/^*® latter place, O ct., IGO^; and was 55 years old on his settle- 

^ AiJu/ r^^^ htit^ ^^J^ hejgjgched about "W-years. Wholh e i!^« died 

^\/ here, io not oor][ainly^nown, most of the ancient grave stones hav- 

J(^ . ing been destroyed during the revolutionary war by the troops 

• stationed here. 

/Jev. Samuel Pomeroy was the next minister. He was bom at 
Windsor, Conn. 1684, graduated at Yale 1705, admitted a mem- 
ber of the Philadelphia presbytery 1715, but settled here in 1709, 
and remained till his decease June 1 7, 1 744. He was reputed a 
good scholar, and prepared a number of youth for admission into 
college. His son Benjamin, bom July 6, 1705, graduated at Yale 
1733, and was ordained at Hebron, Conn., 1735, where he died 
Dec. 22, 1784. 

Rev, Simon Horton came from Boston to New Jersey in 1727, 
graduated at Princeton in 1731, settled in East Jersey in 1736, 
and removed from thence to this town in 1 746. Here he labored 
assiduously, and with the respect and approbation of his people, 
for a period of forty years, and died 1 786, at the age of 76. 

It appears by the records of the presbyterian church in the United 
States, that in 1 738, the presbytery of Long Island was united with 
that of East Jersey, and Mr. Horton probably in that way became 
acquainted with the leading men of this congregation, which 
opened the door for his settlement here at a subsequent period. 
It is supposed that the Rev. Azariah Horton was of the same fam- 
ily, but the degree of relationship is not known. One of the Rev. 
Mr. Horton's daughters was the wife of the late Hon. Benjamin 
Coe, by whom he had issue Grover and Abigail, the latter of 
whom married the Hon. James Burt, of Orange county, N. Y. 

Rev, Nathan WoodhuU was the immediate successor of Mr. 
Horton. He was the son of Capt. Nathan Woodhull of Setauket, 


tod great-great-grandson of the first Richard Woodhull, who set- 
tled there in 1656. His mother was a sister of the Rev. William 
Mills, former minister of Jamaica. He was bom 1752, gradua- 
ted at Yale 1775, and settled upon a farm at Southold in 1777. 
But giving his mind to theology, he was ordained and settled at 
Huntington 1785, from whence he removed here 1789, and 
died March 13, 1810. His character and qualifications as a 
preacher were of a high order, and perhaps no man was ever 
more popular with the people of his charge. His wife, Hannah, 
daughter of Stephen Jagger of Westhampton, survived him many 

Rev. William Boardman was born at Williamstown, Mass., 
Oct 12, 1781, and was educated at the college in that place. He 
was ordained and installed pastor of the prcsbyterian church at 
Duanesburgh, N. Y., in 1803, from whence he removed to this 
church, where he was installed Oct. 22, 1811, and continued till ^ •' ' ,^ 

his death. His wife, was Rachel, daughter of Abraham Blood- i ,i^^^'-^-*^ 
good, Esq., of Albany, and sister of Dr. James Bloodgood of /y ^k //•-i 
Flushing, whom he married in 1804. He was highly esteemed ' ^ { 

through life, and died universally lamented Oct. 22, 1811. ^'^, ^ . 

Rev. John Goldsmith^ present pastor of this church, is the son 

^.c> { 


of the Rev. Benjamin Goldsmith, who, for forty-six years, was s\ ft*-^ ^ 
pastor of the united parishes of Aquabogue and Mattetuck, Suf- ^^ 
folk county, where his son was born April 10, 1794, graduated at 
Princeton 1815, and installed over this parish Nov. 19, 1819. 

His first wife was Ellen, daughter of his predecessor, the {lev. 
Nathan Woodhull; his second, Elizabeth, daughter of Aaron 
Funnan, Esq., of this town, who died Sept. 4, 1834; and his 
third, Eliza, daughter of the late Col. Edward Leverich. 

* Mr. Woodhull had six daughters and one son, all of whom are now de- 
ceased. Matsy, married to Dr. Silas Condict of N. J. ; Sophia married Tim- 
othy J. Lewis of N. J. ; Maria married Thomas R. Lawrence of Newtown, 
and died Aug. 12, 1833 ; Sarah married Rev. Richard S. Storrs of Braintree, 
Ifftss ; Ellen married Rev. John Goldsmith ; Julia Ann married Rev. Mr. 
Dewitt of Harrisburgb, Penn ; and Ezra married a daughter of Joseph How- 
laod, Esq., of New York, where he died in March, 1831. None of these, ex- 
cept Sophia and Ezra, left issue. 

Vol. II. 19 


The present church edifice was erected during the ministry of 
Mr. Woodhull, in 1796, the old one having stood .120 years.* 

The episcopal society was organized, probably, soon after the 
introduction of ministers of that denomination, by the •society for 
propagating the gospel in foreign parts ; but nothing, it is be- 
lieved, was attempted toward the erection of a church, till about 
thirty years thereafter. Yet the same game was acted here as 
at Jamaica ; the episcopal party being instigated and supported 
by the same power, that prompted the outrage at that place, to the 
great annoyance of the Rev. Mr. Pomeroy §ind his congregation.! 

April 19, 1733, the town presented the episcopalians 20 square 
rods of ground for a (Aurch lot, and a deed was executed the 
same day by 90 freeholders of the town. A building was erected 
thereon in 1734, and a charter granted by Lieut. Gov. Colden, 
Sept. 9, 1761, under the name and style of St. James' Episcopal 

* Among other extraordinary instances of longevity known in this town, 
may he mentioned that of Mrs. Deborah Smith, who died Nov. 21, 1838, at 
the age of 108 years. She was the widow of Waters Smith, a brother of the 
celebrated Melancthon Smith, so distinguished in the state convention which 
adopted the constitution of the United States. Elizabeth, her daughter, mar- 
ried John B. Scott, Esq., father of the Hon. John B. Scott, late justice of the 
marine court in the city of New York, and now a highly intelligent and use- 
ful member of the state senate. 

t Lord Cornbury, in his great zeal for the established church of EnglaDd, 
took every opportunity to forward the interest of the churches of the same 
denomination here, and there is proof that he interfered with the dissenters in 
this town, as he did at Hempstead and Jamaica, in regard to their churchea. 
The Rev. Mr. Vesey, in a letter to the parent society, Oct. 6, 1704, says, " the 
parish of Jamaica consists of three towns, Jamaica, Newtown and Flushing. 
In Newtown there is a church built, and lately repaired by a tax levied on the 
inhabitants. This church was formerly possessed by a dissenting minister, but 
he being gone, it is in possession of the present incumbent, (Mr. Urquhart,) 
by his Excellency's (Ld. Cornbury's)/avor." The original proprietors aAer- 
wards got possession, hut whether peaceably or by course of law, as at Ja- 
maica, the records which are very imperfect, do not inform us, but it is mat-^ 
ter of historical notoriety, that his Excellency forbid ministers to preach, eTea 
in the Dutch churches, without his license, and that he actually imprisoned the 
Rev. John Hampton in 1707, for preaching in this church contrary to the or- 
dinance he had established, as he did the Rev. Francis McKemie in New 


Church. By this act of incorporation, James Hazzard and Rich- 
ard Alsop were appointed wardens, and Samuel Moore, Jacob 
Hallet, Richard Alsop, fourth, and William Sacket, third, vestry- 

This church, with those at Flushing and Jamaica, were asso- 
ciate churches, and considered as one parish', the same clergymen 
officiating alternately in each, for a long series of years. The 
Rev. Mr. Van Dyke being, it is believed, the first rector whose 
services were confined exclusively to this church. He was set- 
tled here in 1797, and removed in 1802. 

Kev. Abraham L. Clarke^ graduated at Yale in 1785; settled 
at Flushing in 1803, and removed here in 1809, where he died in 
1811. The vacancy was supplied a few years after, by the Rev. 
(now Dr.) William Wyatt. He graduated at Columbia College 
in 1809, and settled in this parish in 1812, but was soon after call- 
ed to the rectorship of St. Paul's Church, Baltimore, where he 
Btill remains, and ranks among the ablest divines of the monu- 
mental city. 

Rev, Evan M. Johnson^ a native of Rhode Island, and a gradu- 
ate of Brown University in 1808; settled here in 1814, and re- 
mained till March, 1 827, when he removed to St. John's Church, 
Brooklyn, which he caused to be erected, and of which he has 
been rector ever since. His wife was the daughter of the Rev. 
John B. Johnson, whose death occurred here in 1 803. 

Rev. George A Shelton^ the present rector, is the son of the 
late Rev. Philo Shelton, rector of Trinity Church, Fairfield, Ct., 
where he died, Feb. 27, 1825 ; his son was bom in 1799 ; gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1 620, and settled in this place in 1 ^7.* 

* The following tragical occurrence is related in an old newspaper of 1708. 
** On the 22d Dec. last Mr. William Hallet of Newtown L. I. his wife and five 
children, were all inhamanly murdered by an Indian man and Negro woman, 
their own slaves. They were apprehended and confessing the fact, they were 
all executed Feb. 10. 1708, at Jamaica, and were put to all manner of torment 
possible, for a terror to others. On Saturday following two other men were 
executed at Jamaica, as accessaries, and several more are now in custody on 

This is the only instance we have found in this state of a criminal being put 
to the torture after conviction, and it is consoling, that so barbaroof an exam- 
ple has not been followed. 


A reformed Dutch church has existed here from a remote pe- 
riod, although the records, which have been preserved, do not ex- 
tend back, beyond the year 1731 . The society was organized in 
1704, and for many years formed a collegiate church with those 
of King's county ; it is still associated with the church at Ja- 
maica, and the respective ministers alternate with each other, at 
both places. The first church edifice of which we have an ac- 
count, was erected by voluntary donations, among the Dutch in- 
habitants of the colony, in 1 732, and stood 99 years, when, in 
1831, it gave place to the present one, which was completed and 
dedicated the year following. The ministers have been in con- 
nection with others imited in the same charge, as follows : Rev. 
John Henry Goetschius, 1791 ; Rev. Thomas Romeyn, 1752 
Rev. Hermonus L. Boelen, 1766; Rev. Solomon Froeligh, 1776 
Rev. Rynier Van Nest, 1785; Rev. Zachariah Kuypers, 1794 
Rev. Dr. Jacob Schoonmaker, 1802; and the Rev. Garret J. 
Garretson, who was settled in 1834. He is the son of John Gar- 
retson, Esq. of Hillsborough, N. J., where he was boni June 29, 
1808; graduated at Rutgers College, 1829, where he studied 
divinity with Dr. I^hillip Milledoller, and settled as first pastor of 
the Dutch church at Stuy vesant, Columbia co., N. Y., in 1 830, 
from whence he came here in 1834, as collegiate pastor with the 
Rev. Dr. Schoonmaker. He married in 1839 Catherine, daughter 
of Daniel Rapelyea. 

There sure also, in the village, a baptist and methodist meeting 
house, the former having b.een erected several years ago.* 

• The late Rfght Rev. Benjamin Moore, bishop of the diocese of New 
York, was the son of Samuel Moore, a respectable citizen of this town. He 
was born here Oct. 5, 1748, and graduated at King's (now Columbia) College 
in 1708. He began, soon after, to read theology, under the direction of the 
Rev. Dr. Auchmuty, rector of Trinity Church, and was engaged a few years 
in teaching Latin and Greek to the sons of several gentlemen in the city of 
New York. He went to England in May, 1774, was ordained deacon June 
24th, and priest June 29ih of the same year, by the Right Rev. Richard Ter- 
rick. Bishop of London. On his return, he officiated in Trinity Church and 
its chapels, and was appointed, with the Rev. Mr. Bowden, an assistant minis* 
ter of Trinity Church, of which Dr. Auchmuty was rector. The church edi- 
fice was consumed by fire in 1776, and was not rebuilt till 1789. In 1775 he 
was chosen, pro tempore, president of King^s College, io the absence of Dr. 


Mispat or Maspeth, before mentioned, at the head of Newtown 
creek or English kills, is a small hamlet, but the location is very 
pleasant, and from which turnpike roads lead to Brooklyn, Wil- 
liamsburgh, Jamaica and Flushing. Here is the country mansion 
of the Hon. Garret Furman, formerly a judge of the common 
pleas, and the late residence of his excellency, De Witt Clinton. 

Astoria (late Hallet's Cove) is by far the most important village in 
the town, being situated upon the East river, opposite 86th street, 
New York, and has a steam ferry connecting it with the city. It 
is certainly to be lamented, that in the unnatural rage for changing 
names, this place should have come within its influence, its former 
appellation being a respectful and deserved memorial of its an- 
cient owner, as the following document illustrates : — 

" Petrus Sluy vesant doth declare, that on the day of the date here under- 
written, he hath granted and allowed, unto William Hallet, a Plot of ground at 
Hell-Gate, upon Long Island, called Jark^s Farm, beginning at a great Rock, 
that lays in the meadow, (or rather valley,) goes upward south-east to the end 
of a very small Cripple-Bush, two hundred and ten rods ; from thence north- 
east two hundred and thirty rods ; on the north it goes up to a running water, 
two hundred and ten rods ; containing, in the whole, 80 Morgan, and 300 rods, 
(about 154 acres.) This done 1, day of Dec, 1652, at New Amsterdam, by 

Cooper, hut the institution was suspended during the Revolutionary war, al- 
though Mr. Moore, it is believed, during this period remained in the city. In 
1784, he was appointed professor of rhetoric and logic in Columbia College, 
which office he sustained three years. In 1789, he was again assistant min- 
ister of Trinity Church, and the same year was created S. T. D. In 1800, he 
became rector, and was elected bishop of the diocese Sept. 5, 1801, as the 
successor of the Right Rev. Samuel Provost, and the same year was elected 
to the presidency of the college, which he held till 1811, when he was suc- 
ceeded by the Right Rev. Samuel Harris, S. T. D. He was unable, from 
bodily infirmity, to discharge the duties of the pastoral office for some years 
before his death, which occurred in Feb., 1816, and was assisted by the Rev. 
John Henry Hobart, who succeeded to the prelacy on his decease. 

Dr. Moore was a man of distinguished ability, and rose to public confidence 
and respect, and to general esteem, solely by the force of natural talents and 
great private worth. His acquirements in Greek were not so extensive as in 
Latin, which he wrote and spoke with great facility, possessing at the same 
time a keen relish for the beauties of the best authors in that language. The 
refined taste which was exhibited in all his writings was imbibed at the pure 
elasaic fount. 


order of the Honorable Director-General, and the Honorable Cooncfl of Ne^ 
Netherlands. ** P. Stuyvesant. [ l. a. ] 

" Carel Van Brugge, Sec'y." 

The premises were confirmed by the sachem, Dec. 5, 1664, for 

the consideration of 58 fathom of wampum, 7 coats, 1 blanket, 

and 4 kettles. A patent of confirmation was also executed by 

Governor Nicoll, April 8, 1668, and a further patent by Col. Don- 

. gan, April 1, 1688, for an annual quit-rent of two shillings. 

A deed was executed Aug. 1, 1664, to William Hallet, by Sha- 
westsout and Erromohar, Indians of Shawkopoke (Staten Island,) 
by command of Mattano, sagamore — for a tract of land described 
as follows : 

" Beginning at the first Crick, called Sunwick, westward below Hellgate 
upon Long Island, and from the mouth of s^ Crick, south to a markt tree fast 
by a great Rock, and from the s^ markt tree southward 15 score rods, to an- 
other markt tree, which stands from another Rock, a little westward, and from 
that markt tree, right to the Point, upon an Island, which belongs to the Poor^s 
Bowery, and soe round by the River, through Hellgate to the fores<l Crick 
westward, where it began, and which the sd Hallet did formerly live upon, to 
have and to hold, &c. unto the fotes^ William Hallet, his Heirs, Exe^ adm**"* 
and assigns forever." 

[l.'s. ] Sealed, &c. Shawestsout ^^ his mark. 

'* John Coe." Erromohar ^ his mark. 

The above conveyances did not embrace what is " called Hell- 
gate Neck," as that was in 1665 the property of Thomas Law- 
rence ; and an act was passed Sept. 23, 1701, "for quieting, set- 
tling, and confirming the right of his sons Thomas, William, and 
John to the said tract, and vacating all under patents, if any, clan- 
destinely obtained." 

The village of Astoria, formerly Hallet's Cove, has greatly in- 
creased in business and population within a few years — indeed its 
extraordinary local advantages are quite sufficient to enhance its 
growth and importance to an almost unlimited extent. For manu- 
facturing purposes, its situation is unequalled, so far as steam 
power can be applied ; and its easy access to the city, adds greatly 
to its other facilities. 

St. George's Episcopal Church, in this village, was erected in 
182S, and was at first under the pastoral charge of the Rev. Sa- 


muel Seabury, now editor of a weekly religious paper, called ihe 
Churchman, and rector of the Church of the Annunciation, in the 
city of New York. The present rector is the Rev. George W. 
Brown, a graduate of Union College, and he was inducted into this 
church Oct. I, 1837. 

The reformed Dutch church was built in 1834, of which the 
Rev. Alexander Hamilton Bishop, is pastor. He is son of Timo- 
thy Bishop, merchant of New Haven, and graduated at Yale in 
1830. His installation here took place Sept. 1840. He married 
a daughter of Obediah Holmes, Esq. merchant of New York. 

Both church edifices are situated upon an eminence, command- 
ing an extensive prospect, and are seen to good advantage at a 
considerable distance, upon the river, as well as from the opposite 

The Astoria Female Institute, under the superintendence of the 
Rev. Mr. Brown, was established in 1838; its location is excel- 
lent, and combining the most beautiful scenery with an animated 
water prospect. The institute enjoys, moreover, the advantage of 
retired rural walks and pleasant groves, in its vicinity ; and in or- 
der to encourage a taste for floral horticulture, a portion of the 
flower garden is laid out to each pupil. The rector with his fa- 
mily, the resident teachers and pupils, who are limited in number 
to thirty, form one household, and the government of the whole is 
paternal. Here are taught all the useful and ornamental branches 
of education, common in the best arranged female seminaries. 

In the immediate neighborhood are several superb private resi- 
dences, surrounded by all the luxury of the most splendid scenery. 
There is also an extensive carpet factory, one for hats, and others 
for chairs, candles, wool-cards, <kc, besides gardens and nurseries 
filled with fruit and ornamental trees, plants, <kc.* 

* The celebrated pass or strait, called by the Dutch Helle-gat, (or narrow 
passage,) is on the northern border of the town, where those who love to wit- 
ness the impetuous strife of angry currents, with cragged and zig-zag courses 
among hidden rocks, may find full gratification. Our estimable countryman, 
Washington Irving, Esq. speaking of this celebrated place, with which the 
idea of danger has in all ages been nearly associated, says, '* Hell-gate is as 
pacific at low water as any other stream ; as the tide rises, it begins to fret ; 
at half tide it rages aod roars, as if bellowing for more water : bat when the 


The whole north shore of this town from Flushing Bay, on ihe^ J 
east to Kings county line on the west, affords some of the richesr^ 
and most varied scenery in the world — and upon it may be seei 
many noble residences, some of which have been erected by wealth] 
retired merchants, from the neighboring city. Among the most 
magnificent of these, is the seat of George M. Woolsey, Esq. a 
former London merchant and now conducting an extensive suj 
refinery in New York. The mansion house and grounds are nol 
exceeded by any in this part of the country, and the variety, soft- 
ness and beauty of the scenery is unsurpassed by any other whicl 
can be found. 

In the village of Astoria is the substantial mansion of the lat^ 
General Ebenezer Stevens, occupied by his family. Also th^ 
stately residence of Dr. Alexander H. Stevens, and that of th^ 
well known and eccentric Grant Thorburn, distinguished by Gait, 
as the hero of his novel of ** Lawrie Todd." 

Ravenswood, is the name of a settlement a little south west of 
Astoria, in which it has been attempted to build up a beautiful 
villa, on the banks of the East River, where the site is sufficientljT 
elevated to afford charming views of the surrounding landscape, 
and possessing charms almost rivalling the descriptions of romance. 
The scenery upon the Thames at Windsor, scarcely compares 
wilh this, in all that can delight the eye, or satisfy the most ex- 
travagant fancy. 

The Poor House Farms, the property of the corporation of the 
city of New York, occupy the territory between Ravenswood and 
the Dutch Kills, or Newtown Creek. The buildings are spacious 
but not elegant, but the land is well cultivated, and there are ac- 
commodated here, nearly one thousand vagrant and orphan children. 
Their health, education and manners are attended to under the 
direction of overseers, teachers, &cc, and when of sufficient age, 
are put out to trades and various other pursuits, with respectable 
and prudent masters. 

tide is full, it relapses again into quiet, and for a time seems almost to sleep as 
soundly as an alderman after dinner. It may be compared to an inveterats 
drinker, who is a peaceful fellow enough when he has no liquor at all, or when 
he is skinfull ; but when half seas over, plays the very devil." 




The general surface of the town is undulating, in some parts 
:miiclining to be rough and hilly ; the soil above a middling quality, 
«ind in the vicinity of the Sound and the shores of Flushing Bay, 
of superior fertihty. Yet there are considerable tracts of low 
awampy soil, not at present susceptible of cultivation, and afford- 
ing in some instances, turf or peat, fit for fuel, and which has been 
for a long time extensively used for that purpose.* 

The islands lying in the East River, called the North Brother 
and South Brother, are valuable on account of their situation, and 
liave in general been hijghly cultivated for horticultural purposes, 
as may also be said of Berrien's Island, lying off Berrien's Point, 
on the western part of the town, and containing about twelve acres. 
Riker's Island is, however, the largest and most valuable of all 
those which appertain to this town. It was at first called Hew- 
lett's Island, in consequence, as is supposed, of its having been the 
residence of George Hewlett, the progenitor of the Hewlett family 
upon Long Island, and who, it is believed, first married the widow 
of Guisbert Riker, father of Abraham, the original proprietor and 
patentee of the island. It lies about one mile from the main land 
of Long Island, nearly opposite the entrance of Flushing Bay, and 
contains more than fifty acres of land, of a moderate quality, al- 
though, if well cultivated, it would no doubt be made highly pro- 

It was purchased at an early period, by Abraham, son of the 

* In the Boath part of the town, adjoining the Jamaica and WiUiamsburgh 
tampike, is one of the most extensive milk establishments in the eonntry. It 
* is owned and managed by Mr. David Mills. In 1634 he pnrchased for $8000, 
the farm of the late Dr. Isaac Ledyard, containing 200 acres, the whole of 
which has since been subdivided into fields of five and ten acres each, by stone 
walls, the materials of which have been obtained from the land, thereby clearing 
it of the snrface stone, and by a judicious coarse of husbandry the whole tract 
has been rendered productive in a high degree. The dairy edifice is construc- 
ted of stone, 160 feet long, 40 wide, and divided into 100 stalls, of 12 by 3 feet, 
with a passage through the centre to pass with a loaded waggon from one end 
to the other. The number of cows is 100, which consume one ton of English 
hay and 800 quarts of Indian meal per day — producing on an average through- 
oat the year, 800 quarts of milk daily, which at 5 cents a quart, amount to $40 
a day, or $14,600 a year, leaving afler deducting all expenses, a handsome an- 
Bital profit. 

Vol. II. 20 


said Guisberl Riker, who was the first of the family in America. 
During the minority of his children, the premises belonging to the 
said Riker, including the island, were under the general manage- 
ment of the reformed Dutch church, and was leased out by them 
for the support of the poor, whence the name of Poor's Bowery, 
or Poor's Farm, applied to a part of the town adjoining the Sound. 
Aug. 19th, 1664, Governor Stuyvesant, (being one of his last 
official acts,) gave a patent to Riker, and a patent of confirmation 
was obtained from Governor NicoH, Dec. 24, 1667. The island is 
still owned and occupied by the descendants of the first proprietor. 


This town occupies the northeastern part of Kings county, ad- 
joining the East River and Newtown creek. It is bounded north 
and east by the town of Newtown and channel of the East River, 
west by Williamsburgh, and south by Brooklyn, and a part of 
Flatbush, called New Lots. 

Previous to March 16, 1840, the territory now constituting the 
town of WilUamsburgh, was embraced in this ; and the history of 
the former must, therefore, necessarily be, in a great measure, in- 
cluded in that of the latter. 

There is a good deal of uncertainty, and no httle confusion in 
the accounts which have been given, of the time and manner of the 
first settlement, in this particular part of the island, the most an* 
cient records having become by time and accident sadly mutilated, 
while others are undoubtedly lost. 

It is highly probable, that individuals had taken possession of 
various parts of the town, without any view to a plantation, and 
without any express authority so to do, for the first inhabitants ap- 
pear to have been of a very mixed character ; Dutch, English, 
French, <kc. The settlement, under the sanction of the provincial 
government, took a more permanent form some years after that of 
Brooklyn, and a few dwellings were erected in the inunediate 
neighborhhood of the old Bushwick Church. 

But it seems that the scattered condition of the inhabitants was 


«uch, as rendered it somewhat difficult, if not impracticable, for 
the public authorities to render them any very efficient protection, 
leing, from their peculiar situation, greatly exposed to be intruded 
^pon by enemies and robbers, who assailed them in boats, as well 
as by land. 

On this account, the " Director General and his High Council," 
ordained that the outside residents should remove, from their then 
places of abode, in the outskirts of the place, and concentrate them- 
selves, because, say they, " we have war with the Indians, who 
have slain several of our Netherland people." 

The records of 1660, contain the following entries relating loan 
original plantation here. 

"Feb. 16. — As fourteen Frenchmen, with a Dutchman named 
Peter John Dewit, their interpreter, have arrived here, and as they 
do not understand the Dutch language, they have been with the 
Director General, and requested him to cause a town plot to be 
laid out at a proper place ; whereupon his Honor fixed upon the 
19th instant to visit the place, and fix upon a scite." 

" Feb. 19. — On this day, the Director General, with the fiscal 
Nicacius D. Sille, and his honor Ser. Van Rayven, with the sworn 
Surveyor, Jaques Corleau, came to Mispat, and have fixed upon 
a place between Mispat kill and Norman's kill, to' establish a vil- 
lage, and have laid out by survey twenty-two village lots, on which 
dwelling-houses are to be built." And again : — 

"1661, March 14. — The Director General visited the new vil- 
lage, when the inhabitants requested liis honor to give the place a 
name, whereupon he named the town Bosfvijck. — The citizens 
then applied for the following privileges : — 

Firstly. For pasture-land for their cattle, and hay-land for their 
stock, which they requested to have on the east side of the village 
limits, extending southward to the hills, and along said hills west- 
ward to the heights of Merck's plantation, and from said heights 
'northerly by Merck's plantation to Bush wick, being a four cor- 
nered plot of land. 

Secondly, To have meadows to mow hay for their stock, ac- 
cording to the landed rights. 

ThiSrSlyr^ To have roads for the purpose of going to the river 
andlulls, to wit : one road between the land of Henderic Willemse 


Baker, and John Horn Zeewis, the second upon Derick Volker-' 
sten Norman's land, which is named the Green Point, the third, 
over Steendain*s land, to come to Mispat kill, the fourth, over Al- 
bert de Norman's land, to get hay and other things. 

Fourthly. That all the citizens who dwell within the limits and 
jurisdiction of the town of Bushwick, and already have village lots, 
shall remove to the same, according to the order of the Director 

Fifthly. This is undersigned by the citizens, namely, by Peter 
Jans Vliet, Swert Hedeman, Jan Willems Vertein, Jan Tilje, Rijek 
Leideeker, Hendrick Willemsen, Barent Gerritsen, Jan Hen- 
drickse, Jan Cornelis Zeeuw, Barent Joosten, Frangois de Puij, 
Johannes Casperts, Francisco de Meyer, Pieter Lamberts, Charel 
Fontein, Henry Jan Catjouw, Jan Mahnjaert, Hendrick Janse 
Creven, Gysbert Hoonis, Joost Casperts, Willem Hraphagen, 
Dirk Volkertsen. 

That all persons whatsoever, who dwell outside of the village, 
attend to the danger they may be in, by remaining where they be. 

The Governor General has commanded that six men be chosen, 
from whom he will select three to be commissioners over the town 
of Bushwick. 

Six men were chosen, from whom the Director General selected 
Pieter Jans Dewidt, Jan Tilje, and Jan Comlits, to whom he com- 
mitted the provisional administration of the justice of the village. 

It is difficult at this day to ascertain the precise spot where the 
said village was intended to be established and the greater proba- 
bility is, that the persons named among the applicants, subsequent- 
ly abandoned the design, as their descendants are not now found 
here, although there are families who can trace their ancestry two 
hundred years back, and many of them still possessing the same 
land, once occupied by their progenitors. 

The name by which the town is designated is of Dutch origin, 
and is said to be synonymous with Big Woods^ the territory being 
doubtless, at that time, covered by a growth of heavy timber ; and 
such was the case to a considerable extent down to the period of 
the Revolution. 

A patent or ground brief was issued as early as 1648, for lands 


ithin the original town of Bushwick, but was confined to that por* 
on of the soil, adjacent to the Wallabout Bay. 
The year next succeeding the conquest of New Netherlands by 
Xlie English, the following precept was directed to the principal 
excutive officer of the town : 
** To the Constable of the Town of Bushwick: 

" You are^by this required personally to appear before His Ma- 
jesty's Court at Gravesend, on the 20th of July next, and you are 
required also to summon the Officers of your town to appear at 
said Court of Sessions, and not to leave the same during the term : 
And you are also required to summon as many of your inhabitants 
SIS understand the English language to attend the aforesaid Court, 
aind not to leave the same during the term, on pain of fine. Dated * 
the 16th of June, 1665, in the 18th year of his Majesty's reign. 

Jo : RiEDER, Clerk of Sessions.^^ 
To prevent fraud and imposition, by wicked and designing per- 
sons, upon such of the inhabitants as did not understand the Eng- 
lish language, it was required by the government that all tranS' 
jforts or conveyances, and also hypothecations of land, should be 
jxissedy signed, sealed and registered^ by the secretary or clerk of 
the town, and without which they were to be considered invalid. 
A dispute about the meadows between this town and Middle- 
borough, which had existed for some time, was eventually decided 
in the assembly of deputies, which convened at Hempstead in 
March, 1665, in favor of Bushwick ; which meadows are described 
as lying on the west side of the oldest Dutch fence, standing on 
the east side of the head of Mispat Hill. 

It is worthy of note that one of the first steps taken by the new 
government was to oblige the inhabitants to provide for and main- 
tain a minister, as is shown by the following order : 
" To the Constable of the Town of Bushwick : 

By these presents you are, in his Majesty's name, commanded, 
and ordered, to call a meeting of the Officers of your Town, who 
shall within four months after the first day of June, make out a 
correct list of all the male persons in the town, of the age of 16 
years and upwards ; and also, a correct list or estimation of the es- 
tate of every inhabitant of the town that he holds in his own right, 
or for others, according to its true value, designating the same par- 


ticularly, and to whom it belongs in the town, or elsewhere, as the 
same can be discovered, and the tenure under which the property 
is held. And also, an account, or list, of every acre of land in the 
town, and the true value of the same, and by whom owned, and 
further the tax each person has to pay, from a pound to a penny, 
for his land and personal property, and also a report of the situa- 
tion of the inhabitants of the town : neatly written in the English 
language. Hereof fail not, as you will answer for the same. June 
20, 1665. By me : Wilhelm Welsh, Chief Clerk:' 

The inhabitants being at this time unable wholly to support a 
minister, the other towns who had no settled clergyman, were or- 
dered to contribute a certain amount, and preachers from other 
places were directed to officiate here occasionally. 

The following is a copy of an epistle addressed by the governor 
to the people of the town : 
" Beloved and Honorable Good Fi'iends : 

Before this time our order has been made known to you, that 
the Honorable Ministers of this place, in turn, will preach to your 
people until you are able to maintain a Minister yourselves. By 
our order presented to you, you were required to raise the sum of 
175 guilders as your proportion of the salary, but in consideration of 
the trouble in your town, we have deemed proper under present 
circumstances to reduce the sum of 175 guilders to the sum of 100 
guilders, which we deem reasonable, and against which no well 
grounded complaint can exist, and ought to be satisfactory, which 
last sum we demand for the Ministers' salary ; therefore, we expect 
that measures will be adopted to collect the same promptly, pur- 
suant to this order, and to ensure the same, we have deemed it 
proper to appoint Evert Hedeman and Peter Jansen Dewit, giving 
them full power and authority to assess and collect that sum, hav- 
ing regard to the condition and circumstances of the people and to 
decide what each of them shall pay, which the said persons shall 
collect or cause to be collected, that is, 100 guilders, in three in- 
stalments, and pay the same over to us, the first on the last day 
of December next, the second on the last day of April next, and 
the third on the last of August next ensuing. Whereupon, we re- 
main your friend, greeting, Richard Nicoll. 


This will be delivered to Evert Hcdeman and Peter Jansen 

{witt, and read to the Congregation. R. N. 

Fort James, 26^A Dec, 1665. 

The patent heretofore granted by Stuyvesant having, it seems, 
TDcen considered either defective or insufficient, the people of Bush- 
^^wick, in 1666, at a town meeting assembled for the purpose, ap- 
pointed a committee to wail upon Governor NicoU, " to solicit 
liim for a new patent, and to request that therein the boundaries 
of iheir plantation might be more expressly defined and set forth." 

This patent was obtained the 25th of October, 1667, wherein 
the boundaries of the town are set forth in the words following : — 

^' Bounded with the mouth of a certain creeke or kill, called, 

right over against Dominie- Hook, aoe their boands goe to David Jocham*8 

fiook ; then stretching upon a south-east line along the said Kill, they come to 

Smith's Island, including the same, together with all the meadow-ground or 

TaUey thereunto belonging ; and continuing the same course, they pass along 

by the ffence at the wood-side, soe to Thomas WandalFs meadow, from whence, 

stretching upon a south-east by south line, along the woodland to the Kills, 

taking in the meadow or yalley there ; then pass along near upon a south-east 

by south line six hundred rod into the woods : then running behind the lots as 

the woodland lyes, south-west by south ; and out of the said woods they goe 

again north-west, to a certain small swamp ; from thence they run behind the 

New Lotts, to John, the SweedeVmeadow ; then over the Norman's Kill, to 

(be west end of his old house, from whence they goe alongst the river, till yoa 

come to the mouth of Maspeth-Kill and David Jocham's Hook, whence they 

£rst began." 

From the organization of the town till the year 1690, it was for 
certain civil purposes associated with the other towns in the coun- 
ty, except Gravesend, constituting a separate district under the 
appellation of the ** Five Dutch Towns ;" and for which a secre- 
tary or register was specially commissioned by the governor, 
whose duty it was to take the proof of wills, of marriage settle- 
ments, also the acknowledgment of " TranscriptSy'^ or convey- 
ances, and many of the more important contracts and agreements ; 
all which were required to be recorded. This office was, in 1674, 
held by Nicasius de Sille, who had once held the office of attor- 
ney general under the administration of Stuyvesant. These five 
towns likewise formed but one ecclesiastical congregation, and 
jomed in the support of their ministers in conunon. The inhabit- 


ants, ivith few exceptions, professed the doctrines promulgated at 
the synod of Dort in 1618, most of whose resolutions are still ad- 
hered to in the reformed Dutch churches. The churches were at 
that period, and for a long time after, governed by the clasps of 
Amsterdam, and so continued till about the year 1772, when the 
American churches became independent of the mother churcfa, 
and established classes and synods of their own, after the model 
of the church of Holland. 

In the year 1662, according to one authority the dwellings in 
this town did not exceed twenty-five, in number, and were located 
on the site of the present village of Bushwick, which, with the 
Octagon church, built in 1720, were enclosed by palisades^ as 
most of the other settlements were. In the minutes of the coiut 
of sessions is the following entry : — 

" At a Court of Sessions, held at Flatbosh for King's County, May 10, 1699. 
Uppon the desire of tho inhabitants of Breucklyn, that according to uao and 
order, every three yeare the limmits betweene towne and towne mast be nimiy 
that a warrant or order may be given, that upon the 17th day off May, the line 
and bounds betwixt said townes of Breucklyn and Boswyck shall be mn ac- 
cording to their pattents or agrements. Ordered, That an order ahoold bo 
past according to theire request." 

The inhabitants of this town were comparatively few in num- 
ber, even at the commencement of the Revolutionary contest, but 
Uiey suffered abundantly from depredations upon their property in 
various ways. Their exposed situation made them liable to inva- 
sion from every quarter, and they were of course robbed and plun- 
dered, as caprice or maUce dictated. 

The nearness of its fine forests of wood to the garrisons and 
barracks of New York and Brooklyn, led to the entire waste of 
the valuable timber which abounded at the commencement of the 
contest. On the return of the owners to their homes at the close 
of the war, they found not only the woods and fences destroyed, 
but their dwellings, in many instances, greatly deteriorated in 

On the 12th of May, 1664, the magistrates of this town sen- 
tenced one John Van Lyden, convicted of publishing a libel, to 
be fastened to a stake, with a bridle in his mouth, eight rods un- 
der his arm, and a label on his breast with the words, " toriter of 


lampoons^ false accuser, and defamer of magistrates,^ upon it, 
and then to be banished from the colony, An instance also oo* 
curred, of a clergyman, who had improperly married a couple, 
being sentenced to ^^ flogging and banishment,^* but which, on 
account of the advanced age of the delinquent, was mitigated by 
the governor to hanjishment only. Another person, convicted of 
theft, was compelled to stand for the space of three hours under 
a gallows, with a rope around his neck, and an empty scabbard in 
his hands. 

In 1664, permission was given by the town to Abraham Jansen 
to erect a mill on Maspeth kill, which was probably the first wa- 
ter-mill built within the town ; and for grinding of the town* s grain, 
he was to receive the ^^ customary duties** November 12, 1695, 
the court of sessions of Kings county made an order, " That 
Mad James should be kept at the expense of the county, and that 
the deacons of each towne within the same doe forthwith meet 
together, and consider about their propercons for maintenence of 
said James,^ 

The reccH'ds of the church here, like those of the town itself, 
are very defective, scarcely affording us any information of 
much value, and do not extend back to a period anterior to the 
year 1689. It is highly probable, however, that a house for pub- 
lic worship existed here as early as 1714, at which time all the 
Reformed Dutch Churches in the county were united, and consti** 
tuting together but one collegiate charge, under the care of the 
different ministers resident in the district, and whose names, cha- 
racters, &c., will be found more at large in our account of the 
town of Flatbush. 

In 1787, the Rev, Peter Lowe, a native of Ulster county, N. 
Y., was installed here as collegiate pastor with the Rev. Martinus 
Schoonmaker, whose residence was at Flatbush. Having accept- 
ed a call to the associate churches of Flatbush and Flatlands, he 
closed his services in this place in the year 1^08, and was suc- 
ceeded in 181] by the Rev. Dr. John Bassett. 

This gentleman was descended of a Huguenot family resid- 
ing in the city of New York, where he was born in 1764. His 
faiher, Capt. John. Bassett, was a mariner, and was lost upon the 
ocean at an early period of life, leaving his son an infant. He 

Vol. II. 21 


wrs, however) enabled to obtain a good education, and graduated 
at Columbia College in 1786. 

He first settled in the city of Albany, where he married Ann 
Hunn, and continued to officiate in the Reformed Dutch Church 
there, till 1811. That he was a learned scholar and able dirine, 
appears from the fact of his having been, in 1797, appointed by 
the General Synod of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 
Hebrew Professor in Queens (now Rutger's) College, New Bruns- 
wick, N. J., which he held several years. 

Being equally familiar with the Dutch language as the English, 
he was induced to translate Von der Donk's History of New 
Netherlands for publication in English, but by some means the 
manuscript was lost, and the task remained to be repeated by 
the Hon. Jeremiah Johnson of Brookl)m, which he has very 
ably executed. 

Dr. Bassett died Nov., 1824, and was buried in the yard at- 
tached to the church, but was subsequently removed to the vault 
of his wife's family at Albany. He left sons, John and Hunn, 
and three daughters, the survivors of whom reside in the western 
part of the state of New York. 

In Dec, 1824, a call was given to the present excellent pastor, 
the Rev. Stephen H. Meeker. He is the son of Benjamin Meeker 
and Esther Headly, and was born at Elizabethtown, N. J., Oct. 
17, 1799, graduated at Columbia College in 1821, licensed to 
preach in 1824, and was installed here in Feb., 1825, where he 
remained about five years, when he went to the church at Jersey 
City, but returned again in Nov., 1830, and still continues, with 
the fond esteem of a congregation consisting of about eighty fami- 



Was taken from Bushwick, and organized into a separate town 
by an act of the legislature, passed March 16, 1840, which among 
other things provides, that " all that part of the town of Bushwick, 
in the county of Kings, included within the chartered limits of the 
Tillage of Williamsburgh, shall be erected into a separate town, 
by the name of Wilhamsburgh." The town was divided by the 
sdid act into three assessment and collection districts, and it was 
further declared, that all the remaining part of the town of Bush- 
wick, should be and remain a town by the same name. 

In the act incorporating the said village, passed April 4, 1827, 
which gave a new impulse to business and population, the boun- 
daries are set forth and described as follows : 

" Beginning at the Bay or River opposite the town of Brooklyn, 
and running easterly along the division line between the towns of 
Bushwick and Brooklyn to the land of Abraham A. Remsen ; 
thence northerly by the same to a road or highway, at a place 
called Swede's Fly ; thence by the said highway to the dwelUng 
bouse, late of John Vandervoort, deceased ; thence in a straight 
line northerly, to a small ditch or creek, against the meadow of 
John Skillman ; thence by said creek to Norman's Kill ; thence 
by the centre or middle of Norman's Kill to the East River ; 
thence by the same to the place of beginning." 

In consequence of an application from the inhabitants, at a sub- 
sequent day, for an extension of the chartered limits of the vil- 
lage, an act was passed April 18, 1835, extending its boundaries, 
and making the territory what it now is, co-extensive with the 
town of WiUiamsburgh. The first trustees appointed by the act 
of 1827, were Noah Waterbury, John Miller, Abraham Meserole, 
Lewis Sandford and Thomas T. Morrill, of whom the first named 
(a public spirited individual) was chosen president, and under 
whose energy and encouragement, the board applied themselves 
immediately to the laying out of streets and building lots, which 
proved the basis of its future growth ; and every thing else was 
done, which the state of things at that time seemed either to au- 
thorize or require. However, the reasonable expectations of the 
people were not thereby realized, and this circumstance lod tQ the 


desire of enlarging the boundaries of the village, and obtaining; 
at the same time, additional powers and privileges, more commen- 
surate with the important objects in contemplation. The last village 
act confided the management of all its municipal concerns to a 
board consisting of nine trustees, to be annually elected, and of 
which new board, Edmund Frost, now deceased, was chos^k 

Within a very few years past, many and great improvement* 
have taken place, and measures have been not only devised, but 
accomplished, to insure the prosperity of the village, and make it,, 
as it deserves to be, no mean rival of its neighboring city of 

Much of its present opulence is, doubtless, fairly attributable 
to tlie construction of turnpikes in different directions, opening 
new avenues to trade, and to the establishment ot steam ferries 
between it and the city of New York. Indeed, it is already so 
closely identified in its various interests and business with the 
said cities, that it may properly be considered, in many respects, 
an integral portion of both. 

The length of the principal or Grand street ferry, is 950 yaidff, * 
or 2,850 feet, being 210 feet over half a mile. Another ferry con- 
nects the village with the lower part of the city at Peck slip, 
and a third communicates with the foot of Houston street, in the 
upper part of the eity ; upon all which large, safe and convenient 
steamboats have for years been established. 

The consequence of these very important accessaries, to the 
many local advantages enjoyed by this populous village^ it hats 
happened that where, a few years since, only hills and naked fields 
were seen, the tide of successful experiment has produced nume- . 
rous paved streets ; upon which whole blocks of houses and stores 
have arisen, as if by the power of enchantment. 

In 1817 the river was crossed in boats impelled only by horses ; 
while the absence of good roads was a great and manifest impe- 
diment to a rapid improvement of the village. 

This town having so recently formed a considerable part of 
Bushwick, the following extracts from the ancient records of the 
latter can hardly fail of amusing as well as interesting those who 
dehght to revel in the reminiscences of the olden times. 


' September 8, 1664., N. S. 
** Beloved Friends. 

" It has happened that the New Netherlands is given up to the 
English, and that Peter Stuyvesant, Governor of the West India 
Company, has marched out of the Fort with his men, to Bear's 
Paeet, to the Holland shipping, which lay there at the tin>e : And 
that Gov. Richard Nicolls, in the name of the King of England, 
ordered a Corporal's guard to take possession of the Fort. After- 
wards the Governor, with two companies of men, marched into 
the fort, accompanied by the Burgomasters of the City, who in- 
ducted the Governor and gave him a welcome reception. Gover- 
nor Nicolls has altered the name of tlie City of New Amster- 
dam, and named the same New York, and named the fort. Fort 


From your friend, 

Cornelius Van Ruyven." 

To which may be added the following orders for the adminis- 
tration of justice : 

" By these presents, beloved friends, you are authorised and 
required, by plurality of votes, to cause to be chosen by the free- 
holders of your town, eight men of good name and fame, for the 
purpose of administering Justice for the ensuing year, for which 
they will be held answerable in their indivijjiual capacities, together 
with the Constable which is elected, until the first day of April 
next, (old style.) You will forward the names of the persons 
chosen, as is usual, to his Excellency Governor Nicolls, who 
sends these presents greeting, in the name of God. Dated in Fort 
James, March 23, 1665, old style. 

By order of the Governor, 

C. V. RtJYVBN." 

It will perhaps seem to many not a little extraordinary, that 
more particular attention should not sooner have been concentrated 
upon a place, possessing as this does, so many and such superior 
advantages for the successful prosecution of every species of manu- 
facture and commerce, or for the erection of the most pleasant and 
convenient private residences in the neighborhood of New York, 
It is situated opposite the very heart of the city, and has a bold 
water-frbnt upon the East River of a mile and a half in extent^ 


with a suiEcient depth for all ordinary commercial purposes. It 
has besides this advantage over Brooklyn, that.its entire shore is 
under the control of its own local authorities. 

There has already been constructed, under the act of the 22d of 
April, 1835, and the other statutes before mentioned, several large 
and substantial wharves and docks, affording thereby a safe and 
convenient mooring for vessels, of the largest class. The ferry is, 
by two or three miles, the nearest approximation to the upper 
wards of the city, from the eastern towns of Long Island^ and is 
connected with the upper and lower parts of the city, as above 
mentioned, by double lines of steam ferry boats of the best con- 
struction, and remarkable for their speed and accommodations. 

The ferry to Peck slip may be said to unite the village with the 
Fulton and Catherine markets, as the other does that of Houston 
street, leading to the upper parts of the city and to Harlaem. 
Williamsburgh now contains sevenly-five streets, permanently 
laid out, of which about thirty have been opened and regulated, 
including one Macadamized, and several paved streets. 

The number of dwellings is seven hundred, and that of the in- 
habitants over five thousand. 

The village also contains several extensive manufacturing estab- 
lishments, a distillery, an iron foundry, spice mill, batteries, rope 
walks, and probably the largest glue factory in the United- States. 

The Williamsburgh Gazette, a weekly newspaper was cstab- 
hshed in 1S35, by Francis G. Fish, which was transferred the 
next year to his brother Adrastus Fish, who in 1838 disposed of 
the same to the present editor and proprietor, Levi Darbee. 

The Williamsburgh Democrat, was commenced June 3, 1840, 
by Thomas A! Devyr. 

The Williamsburgh Fire Insurance Company was incorporated 
April 28, 1836, with a capital of $150,000. 

The methodist episcopal church is the oldest in the village, and 
was rebuilt of brick in 1 837, on South Second street — it was dedi- 
cated Jan. 8, 1840. 

The prolestant methodist church is situated near Fifth street, 
and is built of wood ; the society was organized in 1833, the same 
year in which the edifice was erected. Both these churches have 
large and constantly increasing congregations. 


The protestant reformed Dutch church is located on the corner 
of Fourth and South Second streets, and was built in 1828. Its 
pastor is the Rev. William Howard Van Doren, who was born at 
Hopewell, Orange county, N. Y. March 4, 1810. and graduated at 
Columbia College, N. Y. in 1632. He is the son of the Rev. 
Isaac Van Doren, for twenty years pastor of Hopewell aforesaid, 
and whose wife was Abigal Halsey of Schenectady, N. Y. 

Mr. Van Doren married Matilda Ann, daughter of Teunis John- 
son, Esq. of Brooklyn, Feb. 20, 1840. 

The first presbyterian congregation was formed recently, and 
have for their pastor the Rev. Joseph Rawson Johnson, second son 
of the Rev. Gordon Johnson, and was born at Killingly, Windham 
Co., Conn., August 19, 1806. He was licensed to preach by the 
Tioga presbytery at Nanticocke, N. Y., Sept. 19, 1832, and mar- 
ried Sophia, third daughter of Andrew Penniman, Esq., of Men- 
don, Mass., Nov. 26, 1832. 

After preaching two years at Newfield, Tompkins Co., N. Y., 
and one year to the second presbyterian church, Cortlandville, 
Cortland Co., N. Y., he was ordained and installed pastor of the 
Union Congregational Society of Cincinnatus and Sdon, N. Y., in 
Feb. 1836. Jan. 22d, 1840, he was installed over the De Ruyter 
Religious Society, Madison County, N. Y., and was installed over 
this congregation by the Brooklyn presbytery, June 13, 1843. 

St. Mark's Episcopal Church, on the corner of Fourth and South 
Fifth streets, built of hammered stone, in the Gothic style, was 
completed in April, 1841, and consecrated on the 27th day of the 
same month. 

The Rev. Samuel M. Haskins is the rector. He is a native of 
Waterford, Maine, graduated at Schenectady, N.*Y., in 1836, 
at the General Theological Seminary, N. Y., in June, 1839, and 
aetiled in this church in Oct. of the same year. 

The Baptist Church was organized in the spring of 1839, and 
the building dedicated June 29, 1843. Of this church the Rev. 
Lawson Mussey is pastor. He was born at Dublin, Cheshire Co., 
N» H., and educated at Hamilton Theological Seminary, where he 
graduated Aug. 1 1 , 1 84 1 , and was ordained the pastor of this church 
on the 16th day of Sept. of the same year. His wife is a daughter 
of Daniel and Hester Reed, of Brookfield, Madison Co., N. Y. 


The German Catholic Church of the Holy Trinity, was founded 
in 1841, and consecrated the same year. The pastor is the Rev. 
John Raffeiner, at whose sole expense the ground was given and 
the church edifice itself constructed. He was bom at Mais-Tyrol, 
a province of Austria, in 1784, and graduated at Rome, Doctor of 
Medicine and Philosophy, May 4, 1813. 

Rev. James O'Donnell is pastor of St. Mary's, which has not 
been long established ; but we have not been able to obtain any 
particulars concerning the time of its erection, or of its pastor.* 


This is the most southerly part of Kings county, and includes, 
within its limits. Coney Island, bordering upon the ocean. It is 
centrally distant about ten miles from New York city, and is 
bounded east by Flatbush, south by the Atlantic, and west by New 
Utrecht, being of a triangular shape, with its base resting on the 
ocean, and terminating in a point adjoining the town of Flatbush. 

Much of the territory consists of salt meadows or marsh, not 
more than one-third being returned as improved land. The sur- 
facer of the town is, in general, quite level, except near the sea 
shore, where there are some ridges of sand hills. 

The town, being an exception to other parts of the county, 
was settled by English people, some of whom were of that des- 
pised and persecuted sect called Quakers, and most of them com- 
ing from the colony of Massachusetts, where they had resided for 

* To assist and amuse those who may be desirous of knowing a few of the 
Dutch official titles, we here give the names of some of the principal office* of 
the former Dutch government, with their corresponding English titles. 

DeHeer Officer , (Head Officer,) or Hoofd-Schouty was the same as (High- 
Sheriff ;) De Fiscale or Procureur-GeneraU (Attorney General ;) WeeS'Mets- 
ters, (Guardians of Orphans ;) Roy Meesters, (Regulators of fences :) Groot 
Burgerrecht and Klein Burgerrechi^ (the great and small citizenship, which 
then marked the two orders of society ;) Eyck Meester^ (the Weigh Master ;) 
the Schoutf (the Sheriff ;) Burgomasters and Schepens then ruled the city ** M 
in all cities of the Fatherland." Oeheim Sckryver^ (Recorder of Secrets.) 


different periods. The plantation was commenced previous to 
1640, and was called Gravesend, cither from the fact that many 
of the individual settlers, had sailed from the place bearing that 
name in England, on their departure for America, or, what is quite 
as probable, from the circumstance of the shore, where they first 
landed, being composed of a deep and heavy sand. 

Among the Quaker portion of the emigrants, was that extraor- 
dinary and heroic individual, the Lady Deborah Moody, a woman 
of rank, education and wealth, who, with other friends^ residing 
at Lynn, Sandwich, and other parts of Massachusetts^ entertain- 
ing opinions in common with the followers of George Fox, had 
become objects of disfavor, and often of ill treatment, to their 
puritanical brethren of the Bay State, and therefore very ration- 
ally concluded to seek a situation, which presented a better pros- 
pect of enjoying unmolested the full exercise of religious freedom. 
The emigrants, having taken time to examine the coimtry in the 
neighborhood of the city, finally selected this beautiful place for 
their future residence, where they might not only procure the ne- 
cessaries of life for themselves and families, but lay a foundation 
also, for the transmission to their posterity, the many important ad- 
vantages of an independent community. The proximity of this 
location to the sea, and the facilities thereby presented, of making 
it a place of some commercial importance, were probably among 
the reasons which induced the settlers to fix themselves here. 

A committee was thereupon appointed, from their own body, to 
determine upon a plan of a village, which was proposed to be 
built, who, having made and presented a draught, which was well 
approved, they proceeded to lay off a plot, consisting of ten acres, 
in the most central situation, into squares and streets, intersecting 
each other at right angles, and so subdivided as to allow of thirty- 
nine lots of competent size, for houses, gardens, &c., fronting 
upon the extreme circle or street, which surrounded the whole. 

The number of the lots was equal to that of the first settlers, 
and served as the rule of division m all subsequent allotments of 
land in the town. The village plot, thus designated, was next en- 
closed by a stockade or palisade defence, erected by the propri- 
etors of the respective lots, composed of " half trees nine feet 
long, and standing seven feet above the ground.'' 
Vol. IL 22 


This chosen spot served as the nucleus of a more populous set- 
tlement, and the outlands were so laid off, as to make the exterior 
lines of every plantation, converge toward the common centre ; 
which, it may be observed, is their condition at the present day, 
to a very considerable extent. Although the want of a suffi- 
cient depth of water in the neighboring cove, defeated the origi- 
nal project of making this a commercial town, yet the place grew 
into importance, and became, in a short space, the capital or shire 
town of the county, the courts being appointed to be held here, 
and so continued for more than forty years, when they were re- 
moved to Flatbush. After the danger from enemies became less 
considerable, and the inhabitants more generally diffused, the idea 
of supporting the central establishment abated, and the larger 
squares were appropriated to other uses, than as a place of habita- 
tion and defence. The court house was built upon one of them, 
the church upon another, and a third was appropriated as a com- 
mon cemetery. Here are a number of graves of the early set- 
tlers, but those of the Quakers have been levelled by the plough. 
According to the custom of these people, there were no monu- 
ments to designate the place of their interment, except that of 
Peter Sullivan and his ^ife, at the head of which is a large 
granite slab, containing the names of the deceased only. 

It is highly probable that the first proprietors procured a con- 
veyance from the neighboring Indians, as was the custom in the 
English towns, for only a very short patent was granted them dur- 
ing the Dutch government. But a ground brief or patent was is- 
sued by Governor Kieft to Antonie Jansen Van Salee, May 27, 
1643, "for 100 morgen* of land lying on the bay of the North 
River, on Long Island over against the Conyne Island, stretching 
along the strand 253 rods. North north-west from the strand, 
about north-east by east 236 rods, back again along an height 124 
rods, about south-east, and south-west by west, 24 rods ; south, 
54 rods farther to the strand, south west by west 174 rods, with 
some out hoecksj lying on the south side, amounting to 87 morgen, 

• A morgen was a Dutch measure, little less than two English acres, and. 
consisting of 600 square Dutch rods ; a shepel (or Dutch bushel) was nearly 
three English pecks ; ii guilder was about the value of forty cents, and that of 
a stiver about two cents. 


and 49J rods, with yet an hoeck stretching from the house, sur- 
rounded on three sides with meadow, stretching south-west by 
west 72 rods, 90 rods south-east by south, being ah oblongs with 
some out hoecks, bearing 12 morgen, 650^ rods, amounting toge- 
ther to the aforesaid 100 morgen." 

This was probably a confirmation patent, as a grant was made 
to him Aug. 1, 1639, and afterwards known as Antony Jansen's 
Bowery, (or farm) and for which another patent of confirmation was 
issued by Governor Nicoll, June 11, 1667, but was made to Fran- 
cis Bruyne, (or Brown,) specifying the same boundaries as afore- 
said, and concerning which an agreement was made between the 
patentee and the people of Gravesend, April 29, 1670.* 

A patent was granted to Guisbert Op-Dyck, May 24, 1644, for 
Coney Island, called by the Dutch Conynen Eylandt, probably 
from an individual of that name, who first lived upon it. Pine Is- 
land, then called Conyne Hoeck, was separated from the former 
by a small creek, which has since disappeared. 

A general patent for the town, both in Dutch and English, was 
obtained from Governor Kieft, Dec. 19, 1645, in which the paten- 
tees named were, the Lady Deborah Moody, Sir Henry Moody, 
Bart., Ensign George Baxter, and Sergeant James Hubbard, their 
heirs and successors, for " a certain quantity of land being 
upon or about the westermost part of Long Island, beginning at 
the mouth of a creek adjacent to Conyne Island, and bounded on 
the west part thereof with the lands belonging to Anthony John- 
son and Robert Pennoyre ; and to run as far as the westermost 
part of a certain pond in an old Indian field on the north side of 
the plantation of the said Robert Pennoyre ; and from thence to 
run directly east as far as a valley, being at the head of a fly or 

* There is an existing tradition, that this Antonie Jansen Van Salee was by 
birth a Moor, and came from a place called Salee on the coast of Africa, and 
which caused the addition to his name, to distinguish him from another person 
of the same name. As there is no known reason why the Dutch governor 
should make so extensive a grant to a native of Africa, it is more probable that 
he may have been a Dutchman, who, fur purposes of commerce had resided 
abroad, and thus acquired the above addition by way of distinction. He is said 
to have been a man of prodigious strength ; and William, a brother of his, is 
reported to have carried ten bushels of wheat from his barn to the house, a 
distance of fifty yards, and then up stairs to the garret. 


marsh some time belonging to the land of Hugh Garretson ; and 
being bounded on the south with the main ocean, with liberty to 
put what cattle they shstU see fitting to feed or graze upon the 
aforesaid Conyne Island, and with liberty to build a town, with 
such necessary fortifications as to them shall seem expedient ; and 
to have and enjoy the free liberty of conscience according to the 
customs and manners of Holland without molestation, and to es- 
tablish courts, and elect magistrates, to try all causes not exceed- 
ing fifty Holland guilders." 

The fact of a female being included, and first named also, in 
this patent, is, as far as we know, unprecedented in the colony, 
and exhibits the lady Moody and her noble hearted son, in a very 
interesting position. 

This circumstance very naturally excites a curiosity in the 
reader, to be better informed of the character and standing of 
these distinguished strangers. This curiosity we shall endeavor 
to gratify to the fullest extent in our power. 

In Burk's " Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies,^^ we find the fol- 
lowing : 

" 1. Henry Moody ^ Esquire^ of Garesdon, in Wiltshire, created baronet 
1621-2, married Deborah, daughter of Walter Dunck, Esquire, of Avebary, ia 
the same county, and dying about 1632 was succeeded by his son, viz. : 8. Sir 
Henry Moody, who sold the estate uf Garesden, and settled in New England, 
where he is presumed to have died sine prole, in 1662, and the baronetcy be- 
came extinct." 

*' In 1625, (says another,) Lady Moody went to London, where she remained 
in opposition to a statute, directing that no person should reside beyond a limi- 
ted time from their own homes. April 21, 1635, the court of star chamber 
ordered dame Deborah Mowdie and others to return to their hereditaments in 
40 days. In 1640, she arrived at Lynn, Mass., and united with the charck 
there, and on the 13th of May, 1640, the court granted her 400 acres of land. 
In 1641, she bought the farm called Swamscut, of Deputy Governor Hum- 
phrey, at the price of jC 11 00. She after, says Winthrop, became imbued 
with the erroneous doctrine, that infant baptism was a sinful ordinance, for 
which she was excommunicated, and in 1643 removed to Long Island. Again 
it is recorded, " that in 1643, Lady Moody was in the colony of Mass., a wise 
and anciently religious woman, and being taken with the error of denying 6dtp- 
tism to infants, was dealt with by many of the elders, and admonished by the 
church of Salem, but persisting still, and to avoid further trouble, she removed 


to the Dotch, against the advice of all her friends. Many others, infected 
with anabaptisin, removed thither also.*' We shall see that in expecting en- 
tire toleration here, they were doomed to disaypointment. 

It was to avoid the religious intolerance which prevailed in the 
Plymouth and Massachusetts colonies, toward quakers, that drove 
the Lady Moody, her son. Sir Henry Moody, Ensign Baxter, Ser- 
geant Hubbard, William Goulding, John Tilton, Thomas Spicer 
and their associates, to seek an asylum in some part of tliis pro- 
vince, where they might be allowed to exercise and enjoy free- 
dom of opinion in matters of conscience. This, as experience 
showed, they vainly imagined to have been amply assured to them 
in the patent of 1645, which, however, in a little time, proved to 
be in a great measure illusory. Even the Lady Moody herself, 
whom Judge Benson designates as the " Dido, leading the col- 
(myy^ was arraigned, with others, before the authorities of New 
Amsterdam, for merely asserting that " infant baptism was no or- 
dinance of God,^^ 

This gifted heroine, however, sustained herself in the conflict, 
and rendered very essential service to her afflicted companions. 
Her wealth and extraordinary abilities commanded universal re- 
specty and to which her virtue and courage were fully equal. 

The governor and council convened at her hospitable mansion 
on the 23d Nov., 1654, for the purpose of endeavoring to allay an 
excitement, principally occasioned by a refusal on the part of the 
former to sanction the nomination, which had been made for ma- 
gistrates of the town, the names of Baxter and Hubbard having 
been sent up for confirmation. In this exigency, his Excellency 
was anxious to secure the influence of her Ladyship in his favor, 
and finally, it is recorded, left the matter of the said appointments 
entirely to her discretion. 

June 18, 1655, the governor and council resolved that letters 
should be written to the sheriff", and to Lady Moody, " as eldest 
and first patentee, to make a nomination of magistrates for the 

It was during this same year that her house was assaulted seve- 
ral times by a company of Indians from the North River, when she 
was protected by a guard sent for that purpose from the city. The 


invaders had, however, previously landed upon Staten Island; 
where they murdered sixty-seven persons. 

The time of Lady Moody's death is unknown, but it was cer- 
tainly before 1660, having owned and occupied the farm of the 
late Van Brunt Magaw, Esq., a part of which was lately in pos- 
session of his son-in-law, the Rev. Isaac P. Labagh.* 

In Felt's Annals of Salem, it is said that in 1651, Sir Henry 
Moody had an action there, in regard to the farm owned by his 
mother, the Lady Moody, called Swamscot, which he obtained 
and afterwards sold to one Daniel King. 

April 10, 1656, the inhabitants of Gravesennd having secured 
their village by a palisade defence, petitioned the governor and 
council for three or four big guns, to be used in time of danger, 
which request was granted with a due allowance of powder and 

In the year 1654, a question having been raised and agitated, as 
to the validity of the title to Coney Island and Gravesend Neck, a 
release was obtained from the Indians therefor, which, after de- 
scribing the premises, concludes as follows. *^ The above quan- 
tity of land, being within the lymmits, graunted by Pattent to cer- 
taine Pattentees, Inhabit^" of Gravesend, by the late Gouenf Kieft, 

* In the council minutes of June 24, 1660, is the following entry. ^ Where- 
as Sir Henry Moody has informed us that he was arrived here as EmVassador 
of the Governor and Assembly of Virginia, it is resolved to compliment him in 
his lodgings, by two members of the Council, accompanied by Hcdbediers^ and 
communicate to him, tliat the Director-General and Council were convened to 
hear his message/^ 

"Sir Henry Moody, being complimented by the committee, appeared with 
them in council, and delivered a certain letter as his credentials,'' which, being 
read, was found to be sent by the governor and council of Virginia, soliciting 
a reciprocal arrangement for the encouragement of trade between the two pro- 
vinces ; and say " they have sent their well beloved friend, Sir Harry Moody, 
Knight and Baronet, (a person whose honor and integrity, as you cannot doubt, 
so we have abundance of confidence,) as our interested agent, to receive from 
you a confirmation of our former agreement, and to whom our desire is, yon 
would give full credence, we having given him full power and authority to re- 
solve any doubt that may occur in the articles agreed npon." This was ac- 
companied by a private letter from Gov. Berkley, desiring a loan of 4000 
pounds of tobacco, to be paid in ** excellent tobacco,*' in the Nov. following. 


the said Guttaquoh, acknowledges to have sould all his right and 

clayme to the said land called Narrioch, (the Island,) and Manna- 

haning, (the Neck,) unto the Honorable the Lords Bewint Heb- 

^ers, of the West India Company of the Chamber of Amsterdam, 

for the use of the said Pattentees and Inhabitants of Gravesend, 

having received 15 fathom of Sewan, two guns, three pound of 

powder, together with all the meadow land and marsh land there- 

uoto appertaining. In confirmation, I have put my hand this sea- 

venth day of May, 1654. 

Gutta[ ]x ]quoh." 

Other conveyances for lands in different parts of the town, were 
obtained at various times, and from which no little confusion some- 
times arose by the clashing of boundaries, the descriptions being 
not unfrequently, both inconsistent and obscure. A few extracts 
from the town books, will exhibit the manner of conducting the 
public business at this remote period, particulariy in the town 
meetings : 

Jan. 7, 1656. *' Att a generall assemblie of y^' Inhabitants, ordered, that all 
who tapp or drawe out stronnge beare to sell, shall provide that y^ i^ beare bee 
as good y^ w^^ is usually sould att the manhattoes, and they are required to sell 
itt att y* prise of ten n guilders the halfe fiatt." 

" And it is further agreed yt ye younge men shall bee grattifyed with soe 
moch as might buye 2 half flfatts of beare, out of the moneys recevd from Peter 
Simpson for the lott No. 37, and regard the sayd paye were in tobacco, that 
therefore Charles Morgan should receive jCIOO, and the overplush when the 
beare is payd fibr.*' 

Dec. 2, 1658. " Agreed that every inhabitant shall bring or cause to bee 
brought into y« commard yard, for fencing y® buriall place 22 pallisadoes of 
oakf betwixt 9, 10 and 11 inches broad, and 7 foot long, on forfeitture of 10 
shillings a man, to be distraynd." 

Sept. 27, 1644, it was voted that those who had Boweries^ 
(farms,) should have fifty morgen of upland, with meadow propor- 
tionable to their stock ; and it was further ordered, that any person 
who did not build a habitable house by the last of May (then) 
next, should be defaulted, and forfeit their land to the town. 

The records of this town, which were uniformly kept in the 
English language, are still preserved nearly entire. They com- 
mence with the year 1645, and for a series of years are chiefly 
occupied with the records of wills, inventories, letters of adminis- 


tration, and a variety of private contracts, bargains, sales, &c. In 
Jan. 1648, the town elected Sergeant James Hubbard, a man as 
has been seen of great respectabiHty and influence, to execute the 
office of scout or constable, which was considered at that period 
of much importance. 

On the 14th of April, 1649, John Furman agreed with the town 
to keep their calves three months for sixty guilders, " to be paid. 
in money, tobacco, or com, and some bitters, if desired." In March^ 
1650, it was required of every owner of a lot of ground, to pay onfe 
guilder toward the common charges of the town, to be collected 
and paid over by Mr. Stillwell and Jos. Tilton. In Dec. of the 
same year it was ordered that every man should fence the head of 
his lot, adjoining the town square, with a sufficiency of palisades, 
by the middle of April following. Within this palisade enclosure, 
which encircled the original town plot of ten acres, the inhabitants 
secured their cattle during the night, and themselves also, when- 
ever they were apprehensive of danger from the natives ; in which 
latter case an armed guard was also employed. 

That wolves were both common and mischievous at that time, 
appears from the fact, that on the 8th of August, 1650, three guil- 
ders were offered for every wolf which should be killed in the 
town, and two guilders for every fox. It was ordered also that 
every man should be provided with a gun, a pound of powder, and 
two pounds of lead or bullets. " Every owner of a house was like- 
wise required to provide himself with a ladder, twenty feet or more 
in length. It was also voted and agreed in town meeting, that 
whoever should transgress, in word or deed, in defaming, scanda- 
lizing, slandering, or falsely accusing any one to the breach of the 
peace and the reproach of the place, should suffer such condign 
punishment according to his demerit, as should be thought meet 
by the magistrates, either by fine, imprisonment, stocking, or stand- 
ing at a public post. 

Feb, 8, 1659. — "The town agrees with Henry Brazier flFor the 
building of a mill, within the towne, ffor y« grinding y" corn of the 
inhabitants, and y® towne will give him 500 guilders ; and every 
man has a team, to cart one day, and such as have none, to give 
2 days a peice, in making the dam." 

At a Court held at Gravesend, on the first Wednesday of Oc- 



^ober, 1666, it was resolred that tax burthens might be collected 

in grain, beef and pork, viz. in wheat at 5 shillings per bushel, 

Tye at 4 shillings, corn at 3 shillings, and oats at 2 shillings per 

bushel ; in pork at 4 pence per pound, and in beef at 3 pence. 
The following named persons were inhabitants, and probably 

freeholders of the town in 1656 : — 

William Goulding, 
Jacob Swart, 
Walter Wall, 
Charles Morgan, 
Peter Simsoa, 
John Cock, 
John Laus, 
Lawrence Johnson, 
John Broughman, 
William Wilkins, 
John Tilton, 
John Vaughan, 
BarV Applegate, 
George Baxter, 
Edward Griffing, 
Thomas Greedy, 
Samuel Spicer, 
John Lake, 
Laurens Wessell, 
William Barnes, 
William Compton, 
Charles Bridges, 
Jacob Spicer, 

J«»hn Van Cleef, 
Thomas Spicer, 
Ralph Cardell, 
James G rover, 
Carson Johnson, 
Thomas Baxter, 
William Bowne, 
Thomas Whitlock, 
Richard Gibson, 
Richard Stout, 
James Hubbard, 
Nicholas Siillwell, 
Pieter Abell, 
Richard Gibbins, 
James Hubbard, 
Joseph Goulding, 
William Bowne, 
Thomas Marshall, 
Christian Jacobsen, 
Samuel Holmes, 
William Smith, 
Thomas Delaval, 
Joachim Guylock, 

William Nicolls, 
Edward Brown, 
John Thomas, 
Lady Deborah Moody, 
Elizabeth Applegate, 
John Bowne, 
John Peters, 
John Applegate, 
Lyman Law, 
Thomas Morrell, 
James Curlear, 
John Bowne, 
Thomas Applegate, 
William Stoothoff, 
John Johnson, 
Thomas Tilton, 
Richard Still well, 
Jacob S warts, 
John Emans, 
Edward Brown, 
Thomas Morgan, 
John Pollard, 
David Arbuthnot. 

A general patent of confirmation was obtained from Governor 
Nicoll, Aug. 13, 1667, in which the boundaries coincide with those 
of Kieft's patent of 1645, in substance. And July 1, 1670, an 
additional patent was executed by Governor Lovelace, which is 
as follows : — 

" Francis Lovelace, Esq^r, one of the Gentleman of his Magesty^s Honora- 
ble Privy Chamber, and Govenor General, under his Royal Highness, James, 
Duke of Yorke and Albany, &c., of all his Territories in America — ^To all 
to whom these Presents shall come, sendeth Greeting. Whereas, there is a 
certain Town in the West Riding of Yorkbhire, npon Long Island, commonly 
called and known by the name of Gravesend, situate, lying and being on or 
aboQt the Westermost part of the s^* Island, containing a certain quantity or 

Vol II. 23 


parcel of Land, beginning at the mouth of a creek adjacent to Coney laUady^ 
and being bounded on the Westward part thereof with the land herelofore ^ 
appertaining to Anthony Johnson and Robert Pennoyer, and bo to ruii as far 
the WeslermoBt part of a certain Pond in an old Indian Field oo the doi 
aide of the Plantation of the ed Robert Pennoyer, and from thence to ran 
East as far as a valey, beginning at the Head of a Fly or marsh sometim^a 
belonging to the Land of Hugh Gerritsen, and being bounded on the south sid^ 
with the main Ocean, for which h^ quantity or parcel of Land, there was bere^ 
tofore a Patient or Ground* brief granted from the Dutch GoTcnor, Wiltiaia 
Keifl, unto several Patentees, thier Associates, and Heirs, Executors^ Ad- 
ministrators, Successors or Assigns, and all other appurtenances, as also to 
put what cattle they thought fittmg to grase and feed upon the aflforemeotioned 
Coney Island, with Liberty to them the b^ Patentees tu build one or more towns 
upon the s^' Lands, with manyotlier particulars and privileges, as in the 94 Pa- 
tent or Ground-brief, bearing date the 19ih of Dec, 1645, relation being there- 
unto had, is at large set forth. Now for a Confirmation unto the present free- 
holders and Inhabitants of the sd Town, in thier Possession and enjoyment of 
the Premises. Know ye, that by virtue of the commission and authority onto 
me given me by His Royal Highness. I have ratified, confirmed and granted, 
and by these presents do ratify, confirm and grant unto Thomas Delavall, 
Esq'r, Mr. James Hubbard, Ralph Carall, William Bowne, John Tilton, Wil- 
liam Goulding and Samuel Spicer, as Patentees for, and on behalf of them- 
selves and thier associates, the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the s' town, 
their Heirs, Successors and assigns, all the forementioned quantity, tract and 
parcel of Land set forth and bounded as aforesaid, together with the Inherit- 
ance of all Coney Island, (reserving only the privilege of erecting Huts for 
fishing and drying of ne^s there, upon occasion for all persons who shall under- 
take that design for the public good,) including all the Land within a line 
stretching from the westermost part of the sd Island unto the southermost pait 
of the old Bowery of Antony Jansen, thier East bounds being the Strome KiH 
which comes to the marsh or Fly of Mathew Gerritsen^s Land aforementioned : 
as also the meadow ground and upland not specified in thier former Patents, 
concerning which there have been several disputes and diflferences between 
the Inhabitants of the said town and thier neighbor, Francis Brown, which, in 
part, was issued by my Predecessors and myself, but since fully concluded and 
determined between them by articles of agreements, the which articlea I do 
hereby confirm and allow, with all Havens, Creeks, &c., — and all other profits, 
commodities, emoluments and Hereditaments to the s^ town, tract of land and 
premises within the limits and hounds aforementioned, described, belonging, 
or in any wise appertaining, and also to have freedom of commonage for range 
and feed of cattle and horses in the woods, as well without as within thier 
bounds and limits with the rest of thier neighbors, with liberty to cut timber 
there upon, for thier public or private occa&ions. To have and to hold all and 
singular, Stc, unto the said patentees and their associates, heirs &c., — and that 


the place of thier present Habitation shall continue and retain the name of 
Oravesend^ and by that name shall be known, &c., rendering and paying aU 
dues and duties, according to the good and wholesome laws already made, or 
that hereafter shall be established in these. His Royall Highness, his territories. 

GiYcn under my hand, and sealed with the seal of the Province at Fort 
James in New York, this first day of July, in the 32d year of his Majestie^t 
Reign, Annoque Domini, 1670/* 

•• Matthias Nicoll, Sec'y, " Francis Lovelace/' [l. s.] 

On the 26th of March, 1777, an agreement was entered into be- 
tween the towns of Gravesend and New Utrecht in relation to their 
boundaries, which was confirmed in the patent granted by Gov. 
Dongan on the 10th of Sept. 16S6. The boundaries mentioned 
in this instrument are as follows : — 

** Beginnmg at the westernmost part of a certain place called Coney Island, 
and from thence to the westernmost part of Anthony Jansen and Robert Pen- 
XK>yer*8 land ; and so from thence by New Utrecht fence, according to agree- 
mentt to the bounds of Flatbush, and from thence along John Ditmas his land 
unto the bounds of Flatlands, upon a line agreed upon between Flatlands and 
Gravesend, which, from John Ditmas his land, runs to a certain bound stake, 


tod from thence to a white-oak tree, marked and standing near New Utrecht 
wagon path, and so to the north-west corner of Albert, the weaver^s field, and 
so going to a certain marked white oak tree that stands by the highway side in 
the Hollow, and from thence running along the Hollow to the head of a cerlaia 
creek commonly called and known by the name of the Strome Kill, and along 
the said creek to the main Ocean, and so along the sea-side to the westernmost 
pan of Coney Island/' 

The patentees in this instrument are James Hubbard, John 
Tilton, Jan., Wilham Goulder, Nicholas Stillwell, and Jocham 
Guilock ; and the quit-rent reserved was six bushels of good win- 
ter merchantable wheat, to be paid on the 20th day of March an- 
nually, for his majesty's use, at the city of New York forever. 

To exhibit the peculiarity of the times, we present a copy of an 
ancient document, or prohibition of certain pastimes, on the first 
day of the week. 

" Whereas thier is a prohibition expresse by an order from 
y* Goueno' of all such exercises upon y® first day of y* weeke, as 
gunning, ball-playing, horse-races, nine-pins, excessive drinking, 
and royetting, with others y* like, which greatly tende to ye dis- 
honour of God, y* hindrance of many from and in religious du- 



ties to y« reproach of ye Govern' and shame of the place ; foi 
y« prevention whereoff, the oflScers of this toune, according to their 
dutye, have given due notice, that what person soever shall in the 
like trangresse, shall pay 10s. and answer it before the Govenor. 
This act proclaimed y* 13th of 8th month, 1675." 

" At a eourt of Sessions held at GrsTeaend, June 21, 1676, John Cooke am 
John Tilton, being Quakers, and refusing to take the oath, were ordered 
give their engagement to Justice Hubbard to perform their office as overseers , 
under the penalty of perjury. '^ At the same court, holden Dec. 1679. Mr. 
Jos. Lee, deputy sheriff, presented Ferdinahdus Van Strickland for refusing to 
give entertainment to a btranger who came from Huntington about business at 
this court ; upon which the court do order, that if the said Ferdinahdus does 
not make his submission to the sheriff and the justices to-morrow, that he be 
dismissed from tapping. ^^ 

Coney Island, whose shores are incessantly lashed by the ocean 
wave, has long been a favorite resort for visiters in the sultry season 
of the year. It is more than half encompassed by the sea, and is, of 
course, almost constantly fanned by cool and refreshing sea 
breezes, and affords an iUimitable view upon the broad Atlantic. 
* The island is separated from the main land by a narrow creek, 
meandering through a body of salt meadow or marsh, which is 
crossed by a bridge erected by the Coney Island Turnpike and 
Bridge Company. On the island are about 60 acres of arable 
land, the remainder being a singular looking mass of sand-hills, 
drifted about in wild confusion, by the action of high winds and 
severe ocean storms. The extent of the island, from east to west, 
is about five miles, including the points of the projecting beaches, 
and in width about one mile. 

This sea-girt isle is probably the first land impressed by the 
feet of the venerable Hudson and his sailor companions, on their 
approach to the harbor of New York, in 1 609, whose appearance, 
as well as the ship, must have produced surprise and consterna- 
tion in the native inhabitants of the country. The accommoda- 
tions here are upon a liberal scale, the Coney Island House being 
well kept by James B. Cropsey, and has been thus far duly sup- 
poit3d by the public. Its distance from N. Y. is eleven miles, and 
the road almost unequalled. Regarding the loose materials of which 


"^is island is composed, and its greatly exposed situation, it may 
Tbe assumed that another century will nearly annihilate it. 

We have not been able to find whether any other religious edi- 
tf ce existed in this town, except the Dutch church, which was first 
T)uilt on one of the original squares, in 1 655. It was rebuilt in 
1T70, and in 1 833 the present reformed Dutch church was erected 
It was, from the beginning, associated with the other churches of 
the same denomination in the county, and so remained until the 
settlement of its present pastor in 1832. 

Rev. Isaac P, Labagh, is the son of the Rev. Peter Labagh, an 
aged and respected minister of the reformed Dutch church at Har- 
lington, N. J. Mr. Labagh was bom at Leeds, Greene county, 
N. Y. Aug. 14, 1804, and graduated at Dickerson College, Penn. 
1823. He studied theology at New Brunswick, and was settled 
at Waterford, N. Y. in 1826. In 1832 he removed hither and was 
the first pastor whose services have been confined exclusively to 
this church. His wife is a daughter of the late Van Brunt Magaw, 
who was a son of the brave Col. Magaw, of the American Revolu- 
tionary army, and the noble defender of Fort Washington, in Nov. 

The population of this town is less than 1000, consisting almost 
entirely of industrious and enterprizing farmers, who are supposed 
to raise over their own consumption, more than 40,000 bushels of 
grain annually. 

Besides all this, the shad fishery upon the shore, is a never fail- 
ing source of wealth to those engaged in it, occupying only a few 
weeks in the spring. 



This town, called by the Dutch, New Amersfort, is bounded 
northerly by Flatbush, southerly by Jamaica Bay, and westerly 
by Gravesend. Barren Island, situated on the west side of Rock- 
away Inlet, and at the mouth of Jamaica Bay, is attached to this 
town, the south part of which islndented by numerous small bays. 
Along the south side and on the shore of Jamaica Bay, is an ex- 
tensive salt marsh, which yields abundance of hay, but of an infe- 
rior quality. With the exception of this marsh, there are no waste 
lands in the town, the whole being divided into farms, which are 
well cultivated and highly productive. 

The settlement was commenced in 1636, cotemporaneously 
with Gravesend ; and one of the first grants for land was that for 
Barren Island, which was at that time a great deal larger than at 
present, and was also covered with cedar and other timber. The 
woods have long since disappeared, and much of the island is com- 
posed of sand hills, affording but a scanty subsistence to a few 

Ex-Governor Van Twiller had a tobacco farm or plantation in 
this town, about the time of the first settlement, and called Van 
Twiller's Bowery for a long time after. The village of Flatlands 
is a very pretty spot, in the centre of which is the Dutch church, 
which was originally erected in 1661, and has since been twice 

By the Duke's laws, passed in 1665 in relation to public officers, 
it was declared that the overseers should be eight in number, men 
of good fame and life, chosen by the plurality of freeholders in 
each town, whereof, four were to remain in their office two years 
successively, and four to be changed for new ones every year ; 
which election should precede the election of constables, in point 
of time, that the constable for the year ensuing, should be chosen 
out of the number dismissed from the office of overseer. The 
following is a copy of th^ oath required to be administered to the 
overseers elect : " Whereas you are chosen and appointed an 
Overseer for the town of fflitlanis, you doe sweare by the Ever- 
Living-God, that you will ffaithfully and diligently discharge the 
trust reposed in you, in relation to the publique and towne affaires, 


accordinge to the present lawes established, without favoure, af- 
fection, or partiality to any person or cause which shall fall under 
your cognizance ; and at times, when you shall bee required by 
your superiors to attend the private differences of neighbors, you 
will endeavor to reconcile them : and in all causes conscientiously, 
and according to the best of your judgment, deliver your voyce in 
the towne meetings of constable and overseers. So help you God." 

It was the duty of the overseers, assisted by the constable, to 
hold Town Courts, for the trial of all causes under five pounds. 
They, with the constable, were likewise, frequently to admonish 
the inhabitants " to instruct their children and servants in matters 
of religion and the lawes of the country ; also to appoint an officer 
to record every man's particular marke, and see each man's hdrse 
and colt branded." The constable and two overseers were author- 
ized to pay the value of an Indian coat for each* wolf that should 
be killed ; and to " cause the wolf's head to be nayled over the 
door of the constable, there to remaine ; also to cut off the ears, iy 
token that the head had been brought in and payd for." 

The records do not afford us any certain evidence that a patent 
was ever issued to the people of this town by the Dutch govern- 
ment, yet it is highly probable that such a document had been ex- 

The first English patent was granted by Governor Nicoll, in 
Oct. 1667, and is in the word;i following : 

"Richard Nicoll, Esq. &c. WhAu there is a certain towne w^in this 
Governing situate and being in y^ west Riding of Yorkshire upon Long Island 
commonly called or known by y^ name of Amersford als Flattlands which said 
town is now in y^^ tenure or occupation of severall freehold)^ and inhabitants , 
who having heretofore been seated there by authority and likewise made law- 
full parchase of y« greatest parte of y^ lands there unto belonging have also 
improved a considerable proportion thereof and settled a competent number of 
Familyes thereupon. Now for a confirmation unto y^ said Freehold^ and in- 
habitants in their possession and enjoyment of the p'^mises. Know Yee, that 
by virtue of y« commission and authority unto me given by his Royall High- 
ness, I have given, ratified, confirmed and graunted, and by these presents do 
give, ratifye, confirm and graunt unto Elbert filberts, Govert Lockermans, 
Roeloffe Martens, Pieter Claes, Willem Garrits, Tho: Hillebrants, Stephen 
Coertsen and Coert Stephens, as Patentees for and on behalfe of themselves 
and tbier associates y« Freeholders and inhabitants of y® said towne their 
heirs, successors and assigns. All that tract togeth*^ w^ y« severall parcels 




of land w^^ already have or hereaf\<' shall be purchased or proeurad for and M 
y^ bbehalfe ofy® said towne whethrfrom y® iiative Indian proprietors or othei* 
Wthin y" bonds and lymits hereafter set forth and exprest (viz) that in to sayi 
from thier western bounds w^b begins at a certain creek or kill commonly call- 
ed y® stromme kill, they stretch to ffilkins or Varkens Hook which is also in- 
cluded wii^in thier limits neare whereunto comes a certain point of land oot 
of y® town of New Utrecht and those belonginf( to this town w^ this distioc- 
tion — that Flattlands meadows or valley runs about y*^ end of y** said point as 
well as on y^ one side of it, and New Utrecht meadurws lye on ye North East 
side only, then from y^ limits of Middewout als. Flattbush w^^'^lye about Nortk 
West from y^ said towne of Flattland, beginning at a certain tree standing up- 
on y* little Flatts, markt by y' ord'' and determination of severall arbitrators 
appointed by me to veiw and issue y« difference between y' two towns con- 
cerning y^ same which accordingly they did upon y** 17th day of October 1666^ 
A lyne stretching South East to Canarise, it includes w^in its bounds and ly- 
mitts severall other parcels of land, in particular that parcel or tract of land 
graunted by patent or groundbriefe from y*^ Dutch Governor Petrus Stuy vesant 
unto Jacob Steendam and Welkin Jans bearing date y® 12th day of Nov. 16S9 
and upon y® 30th day of Nov. 1662, transported and made over to y* tqwa 
aforementioned ; as also all those lands and Canarise, parte of which y« native 
Indian proprietors did heretofore permit and give thier consent, that ye inha- 
bitants of y^ said towne of Flattlands should manure and plant, and since have 
for a valuable consideration sould ye same unto them wih its appurtenances, as 
by thier deed bearing date y« IBih day of April 1665, acknowledged by some 
of them before me. doth and may appear, toj^eth^ with all that meadow groaod 
or valley, lying and being at Canarise, divided between y^ said town and the 
town of Flattbush aforemenconed, by an East line, to run half a point north- 
erly without variation of ye compass, and so to go to y^ mouth of y* Creek 
or kill ; which said meadows were upon y^ 20ih day of April last by common 
^eonsent staked out and by my approbation allowed ; of all w^^ said tract or 
parcelsof land, meadow ground and premises wthin y< bounds and limits afore- 
menconed described, aud all or any plantation or plantations thereupon, froDEi 
henceforth are to appertain and belong to y^ said town of Amersfort als. I*lalt- 
lands, together wtb all Havens, Creeks, dec. — to the s*' lands and premises 
wi'^'in yc said bounds and limits set forth, or appertaining; and also freedom 
of commonage for range and feed of cattle and horses, into y^ woods as well 
without as vf^Hn their bounds, with y^ rest of thier neighbors. To have and 
to hold all &c — and that the place of thier present habitation shall continue 
and retain the name of Amersfort als Flattlands and by which name to be dis- 
tinguished and known in all bargains &c. Given under my hand and seal at 
Fort James in New York y« 4th day of October in y* 19th year of his Ma*** 
Raigne, Annoque Domini, 1667.^' 
"Matthias N icoll, Stfc/y." "Richard Nicoll." [l. s. ] 


By desire of the inhabitants, expressed in an application bear- 
ing date Jan. 19, 1668, setting forth a mistake or defect in the for- 
mer patent ; another, which was intended also as a confirmation 
patent, was issued by Governor Lovelace, bearing date Feb. 6, 
1668, for the land purchased at Canarise, (or Canausie,) the bounds 
of which, it seems, were not suflSciently definite and explicit, in 
the patent of Governor Nicoll above recited. 

Another very ample patent of confirmation was given by Gov- 
ernor Dongan, dated March 11, 1685, in which the names of the 
patentees are Elbert Elberts, Roeloffe Martens, Pieter Classen, 
William Garretsen, Coert Stevensen, Lucas Stevensen, and John 
Teunissen, for themselves and associates, the freeholders and in- 
habitants of said town, their heirs, dec. according to the tenor of 
East Greenwich, in his majesty's kingdom of England, rendering 
and paying therefor annually fourteen bushels of good merchant- 
able winter wheat, at New York. 

An interview of rather an extraordinary character took place at 
New York, on the 2d of April, 1691, between Governor Slaugh- 
ter and a sachem of Long Island, who was attended by his two 
sons and twenty other Indians. The sachem, on being introduced, 
congratulated Slaughter, in an eloquent manner, upon his arrival, 
and claimed his friendship and protection for himself and his peo- 
ple ; observing also, that he had fancied his Excellency, as a 
mighty tall tree^ with wide, spreading branches ; and therefore, 
prayed leave to stoop under the shadow thereof. Of old, (said 
he,) the Indians were a great and mighty people^ but now they 
are reduced to a mere handful. He concluded his visit by pre- 
senting the governor with thirty fathoms of wampum, which he 
graciously accepted, and ordered the sachem to attend him again 
in the afternoon. 

On taking leave, the son of the sachem, handed to the officer 
in attendance, a bundle of brooms, saying, " that as Leisler and 
his party had left the house very foul, he had been advised to 
bring the brooms with him, for the purpose of making it clean 
again." In the afternoon, the sachem and his party again attended 
the governor, who made a speech to them, and on receiving a few 
presents, they departed. 

To exhibit the relative value of some kinds of property, at that 

Vol. II. 24 


time, the following is extracted from an inventory of the effects of 
a deceased person, which was taken Dec. 16, 1719: A negio 
wench and child, valued at £60 ; while five milch cows, five calves, 
three young bulls, and two heifers, were valued together at £20 

In 1706, the negroes had so much increased in number, and 
become, by vice and intemperance, so disorderly, and dangerous 
to the peace and safety of the inhabitants, that it was found ne- 
cessary to call in the aid of the civil power, to repress, or punisb 
their repeated depredations. On a representation of facts to the 
governor, he forthwith issued the following proclamation : 

'* Whereas. I am informed that several negroes in Kings county have ii- 
sembled themselves in a riotous manner, which, if not prevented, may prore 
of ill consequence ; Yon, the justices of the peace in the said coanty, in 
hereby required and commanded to take all proper methods for the seising and 
apprehending, all such negroes as shall be found to be assembled in sach man- 
ner, as aforesaid, or have run away or absconded from their masters or own- 
ers, whereby there may be reason to suspect them of ill practices or designs; 
and to secure them in safe custody ; and if any of them refuse to sobmit, then 
to Jire apon them, kUl or destroy them, if they cannot otherwise be taken ; and 
for so doing, this shall be your sufficient warrant. Given under my hand, it 
Fort Anne, the 22nd day of July, 1706. 


In many Dutch patents or briefs, it was required, that after the 
expiration of ten years from the issuing thereof, the patentees and 
their heirs, should allow to the governor, as his prerogative, and 

From the following publication, in Rivington^s Gazette of Nov. 1, 1780, ft 
will be seen, that horse racing and other sports were celebrated here, doring 
the occupation of Long Island by his Brittanic Majesty^s forces, and of course, 
whatever odium may be attached to the custom, the people of this town weze 
not responsible for it. 

" It is recommended, that hj permission, on Monday, the 13th inst., will be 
run for on Flatland Plains, five miles from Brooklyn ferry, a purse of £fSO; 
other prizes on the 2d day. There will be fox hunting, also, during the races; 
and on the 2d day, to be run for by women, white or black, a Holland smockf 
and a chintz gown, full trimmed, with white ribbons, to be run in three quarttr 
mile heats : the first to have the smock and gown ; the 2d best to have a 
guinea ; and the 3d, half a guinea. God save the King, will be played eveiy 


by way of quit-rent, one tenth part of dl the produce of the lands 
cultivated by them. And as difficulties were sometimes the result 
of this extraordinary gubernatorial reservation, it may be remarked, 
that the director general, on the 6th of June, 1656, issued a pe- 
remptory order, thereby wholly prohibiting the people of this 
town, as well as those of Flatbush and Brooklyn, from removing 
their grain out of their fields, until the tithe, reserved in their 
patents, was taken by the officers, or commuted for by the own- 

This proceeding was of course a right which the government 
had the legal power to inforce, if it saw cause so to do, biit it is 
easy to conceive that the honest hearted farmers of the country 
had not expected, such a power would ever have been asserted 
or put in execution by the noble minded old soldier, the gallant 
Peter Stuyvesant. 

Barren Island belonging to this town, lies on the south-east part 
of it, in the ocean, east of, and separated from Coney Island by a 
channel or strait, which is the inlet to Jamaica Bay, and generally 
known by the name of Rockaway Inlet, having Rockaway beach 
on the east,* which is about ten miles long. 

The island was once much larger than at present, and was for- 
merly covered with trees, principally red cedar, but much of its 
contents has been removed by the action of the sea, and is like 
the other islands in its immediate neighborhood, now- nearly desti- 
tute of any kind of forest, and being the property of a few indivi- 
duals, is reserved entirely for the pasturage of cattle and sheep, 
for which it is well calculated, except the inconvenience attending 
getting them on to it. 

It was upon a part of this island that the notorious pirate Gibbs 
and his associates in crime, secreted a portion of their ill gotten 
plunder, which was mostly in Mexican dollars, the rest having 
been lost, while attempting to land, by the upsetting of their boat.* 

* The names of this abandoned and plundering gang, were Charles Gibbs, 
^Thoinas J. Wansley, Robert Dawes and John Brownrig, who had been en- 
gaged as hands on board the Brig Vineyard, and while upon the passage from 
th» aoatbem part of the United States, contrived to murder William Thornby, 
Ihe captain of the vessel, and his mate, William Roberts. The life of Brown- 
rig was tared, by his volunteering to give evidence against his companions in 


A large amount of the money buried by the pirates, has since 
been found, in consequence of violent storms and a heavy sea ^v- 
ing disturbed the sand of which the beach is composed, and sooie 
which was lost from the boats, has probably been'washed on shore 

The reformed Dutch church, the only one in the town, is situa- 
ted in the village of Flatlands, and was erected in the year 1663, 
since which time it has been twice rebuilt, the last occasion being 
in 1804. The church and the few buildings situated around it, 
give to the village a very neat and interesting appearance, which 
cannot fail to please the eye of a stranger. 

Rev. William Crookshank, was the first clergyman engaged as 
pastor of this church, unconnected with any of the other churches 
in the county. He was a native of Washington Co., N. Y., and 
was settled here in 1825, soon after which, another society was 
organized, and a church erected in the village of New Lots, a pait 
of the town of Flatbush, in which Mr. Crookshank officiated al- 
ternately with the church here. After remaining here ten years, 
he removed to Newburgh in 1835, and was succeeded by the 
Rev. John Abeel Baldwin^ who is the son of the late Jesse Bald- 
win, a respectable merchant of New York, where he was bom 
April 25, 1810, graduated at Yale in 1829, and at the Theological 
Seminary at Princeton in 1834. His installation over the churches 
of Flatlands and New Lots, by the classis of Long Island, took 
place March 22, 1836. His wife is a daughter of Lawrence Van 
Kleekf Esq., late of Albany. 

The surface of this town is, as it name indicates, a perfect level ; 
the soil, a light sandy loam, warm and fertile, and from the skill 
and industry of its farming population, yields a large amount over 
and above the wants of the inhabitants. The people, as a whole, 
are conspicuous for habits of economy ; and modem fashions have 
not yet extinguished their love of simplicity and substantial com- 
fort. Indeed, the character of the people is tolerably well por- 
trayed by Stewart, the traveller, when he says that " some of the 
farmers of Long Island are wealthy, but are, in general, contented 

guilt, all of whom were coovicted of piracy and murder, and executed together 
upon Gibbet Island in the harbor of New York, April 28, 1831. 


to lire comfortably and hospitably, with all the ordinary necessa- 
ries and conveniences of life, without ostentation or parade, and 
without seeming to care so much, as other classes of people in this 
country do, about money." 

In order to show the universal prevalence of good order and 
morality in this, as well as in the adjoining towns, the following 
facts may be considered as affording pretty satisfactory evidence. 
Elias Hubbard, Esq., a respectable magistrate of this town, states 
that he has held the office of justice of the peace for more than 
twelve years, and for that period has transacted most of the judi- 
cial business in Flatlands, Flatbush, New Utrecht, and Graves- 
end ; during which time he has had scarcely a dozen trials, and 
only two in. which a jury was demanded. Another gentleman, 
who held the office of justice in Gravesend for eight years, had, 
during that period, but one jury trial, and even in that instance, 
the difference was compromised by the parties, before the jury 
were prepared to deliver their verdict into court. Such a pacific 
temper is highly honorable to the character of the people, and cre- 
ditable to the government under which they live. 

The following form of a commission issued by Gov. Stuyvesant, 

and another by the usurper Leisler, are inserted as matters of 

some curiosity. 

** Fort Amsterdam, April 24, 1660. 
" Loving Friendes. 

*• Out of the nomination presented unto us we have maade 

choice, as you may know bee theese presents off Tunis Guisbert, 

the which wee for the yeare foUowinge doe confirme and establish 

flfor magistraate off the towne called New Amersforte, requiringe 

all and every one whome these may conceme to esteeme them as 

our elected and confirmed magestraate ffor the towne, so after mee 

respects, I rest, your lovinge friende and Governor. 

" P. Stuyvesant." 

Form of a Commission from Lieut, Governor Liesler. 

" By the Lieut. Gov. and commander in chiefTe, &c. By vir- 
tue off the authoritie unto mee, I do hereby authorise and em- 
powwer you Jacobus Van De Water to be Clark and Register 
ffor Kings County, giving you ffull power and authoritie to acte 
and officiate therein as a Clark may and ought to doe, and this 


commission to continue till I receive further orders from his Ma- 
gesty King William. Given under my hand and seal 20 off 
Dec. 1669. " Jacob Liesler." 

The population of this town, according to the United States cen- 
sus of 1840, was eight hundred and two. 


This town is bounded north by Brooklyn and Flatbush, east by 
Gravesend, west and south by Gravesend Bay and the Narrows, 
opposite Staten Island. It was settled in 1654 by twenty or more 
families from Holland, and a few Palatines. They at first erected 
a block house, as well for security against their Indian neighbors, 
as the hordes of other Indians, robbers, and pirates, which at that 
time and for years after, so infested the country, and particularly 
places near the coast, that the interposition of government became 
necessary for their protection, from such predatory attacks. And 
it was, doubtless, owing to the exposed situation of the town, and 
the constant apprehensions of danger from enemies, that the in- 
crease of population was comparatively slow and gradual. 

Tlie first effectual attempt to organize a separate community 
here took place in 1660, when, upon application made to Gover- 
nor^ Stuyvesant, a scout and clerk were appointed, and also an 
assessor vested with authority to allot to individuals some of the 
lands held in common, to cause the same to be enclosed and cul- 
tivated, to lay out a street or highway through the town, to make 
arrangements for erecting a place of defence, which was ordered 
to be enclosed by a palisade, a horse-mill to be built within it, a 
well near by to be dug, and all to be at the common charge of the 
people. He was, moreover, authorized to decide differences be- 
tween individuals, and, in general, to execute the duties which the 
subaltern courts in other villages, were accustomed to perform. 

In 1 662, the governor gave a patent to the town, which not only 
confirmed the several purchases and divisions of land already 
made, but invested its inhabitants with the pre-emptive right, to 
all the lands not then purchased, and which were not embraced 


in the boundaries of any other town. By this charter, the town 
was not only incorporated, but vested with power to appoint magis- 
trates, subject to approval by the governor, also to hold courts for 
the trial of criminal cases not above the degree of petit larceny, 
and of civil causes likewise, not exceeding in amount five pounds. 
In 1668, the town was favored with a new patent, of which the 
following is a copy : — 

*' Richard Nicoll Esq. Govenor Generall under his Royall Highnesse James 
Duke of York and Albany &c. Whereas there is a certain towne within this 
Government, scituate in the West Riding of Yorkshire upon Long Island 
commonly called New Utrecht, now in the tenure and occupation of several 
Freeholders and inhabitants, who have heretofore been seated there by autho- 
rity, have been at very considerable charge in manuring and planting the lands 
there, and settled a competent number of families thereupon : Know ye that 
by virtue of the commission and authority unto me given, I have given &c, and 
by these presents do give &c. unto Nicasius De Sille, Jacques Cortilleau, 
Francis Browne^ Robert Jacobson and Jacob Swaart, as patentees &c. Ail 
that tract of land, together witli the several parcells of land which already 
have, or hereafter shall be purchased or procured, fur and on behalfe of the 
said towne, within the bounds hereafter set forth ; that is to say ; Begining 
from Nayack Point, stretching alongst the bay to the land belonging to firancis 
Bmyne, and from thence run into the woods along the said Francis Bruyne's 
land to the land heretofore belonging to Robert Pennoyer neare upon a N. E. 
line 1200 Dutch Rods from which goe againe in a direct line to the North 
River, ronning 300 rods to the north of the whole Hooke or Neck of land ; 
and then againe alongst the said North River to Nayack- Point, comprehending 
within the said bounds or lymitts, 20 lotts as they are now layd out, as also a 
parcell of valley or meadow land to the East of Varkens Hooke or Hogg- 
Necke, including both fresh and salt meadow and the reede-land thereunto be- 
longing, and containing about 260 acres or 130 morgen — Together with all 
harbors &c. — To have &c. to the said patentees and thier associates &c. — and 
that the place of thier present habitation shall continue and retain the name of 
New Utrecht by which name &c. 

Given under my hand and seal, at Fort James in New York on Manhattan's 
Island the 15^^ day of Aug. in the 20^ yerr of the Reign of our Sovreigne 
Lord Charles 2A of England &c. Anno Domini 1688." 

" Richard Nicoll.'' [ l. s. ] 

Another patent was granted by Governor Dongan in 1686, of 
which the following extract contains the most material parts : — 

Thomas Dongan, Lieut. Governor and Vice Admirall of New- 
Yorke and its dependencies imder his Majesty James the II, by 


the Grace of God of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, 
King, Defender of the faith, &c. Supreame Lord and proprietor of 
the Colony and Province of New-Yorke and Dd^endencies in 
America, &c. To all whome this shall come, sendeth greeting. 
Whereas there is a certain Towne in King's County on Long-Is- 
land, commonly called and knowne by the name of New-Utrecht, 
Beginning atrthe North-East comer of the land appurtaining to 
Mr. Paulus Vanderbeeck called GoanUs to the Bounds of Flattbush 
Patteilt, and soe along the said bounds of the said Pattent, and 
stretching from thence South-East and by South till they meete' 
the Limitts of Flattlands, Gravesend, and the said Utrecht, and 
from thence along Gravesend Bounds to the Bay of the North 
River, and soe along the said Bay and River till it meets the Land 
of the said Paulus Vanderbeeke as according to severall agree- 
ments and writeings and the pattent from Governor Richard Ni- 
coU, dated in the year 1666. And whereas applicacon hath to 
mee been made by persons deputed from the aforesaid Towne of 
New-Utrecht for a confirmation of the aforesaid Tract of Land and 
premises ; now Knowe Yee, that not only virtually by Virtue of, 
&c. I have Given, Granted, Ratified and Confirmed, and by these 
presents doe Give, Grant, Ratify and Confirme unto Jacques Cor- 
teljour, Ruth Joosten, John Verkerke, Hendrick Mathyse, John 
Kiersen, John Vandyck, Guisbert Thyson, Carol Van Dyck, Jan 
Van Cleef, Cryn Jansen, Meyndert Coerten, John Hansen, Barent 
Joosten, Teunis Van Pelt, Hendrick Van Pelt, Lawrence Janse, 
Gerrit Comelissen, Dirk Van Slutphen, Thomas Tierkson, Gerrit 
Stoffelsen, Peter Thysen, Anthony Van Pelt, Anthony Duchaine, 
Jan Vandeventer, and Comelis Wynhart, on Behalf of themselves 
and their associates, the present Freeholders and Inhabitants of 
the said Towne of New Utrecht, their Heirs, Successors and As- 
signs ; All and singular, &c. To have and to hold the said Tract 
and parcell of Land with their and every of their appurtenances 
to them the said Jackues Corteljour, &c. — To bee holden of his 
said Majesty, his Heires and Successors in free and common Soc- 
cage, according to the Tenure of East Greenwich in the County 
of Kent in his Majestyes Kingdome of England ; Yielding, Ren- 
dering, and paying therefor. Yearly and every year, on every five 
and twentyeth Day of March, forever, six bushels of good Winter 


merchantable Wheate att tHfee Citty of New-Yorke, &c. Given 
under my hand, and sealed with the seale of the Province att Fortt 
James, in New-Yorke, the 13th day of May, 1686, and in the 2nd 
yeare of his Majestyes Reigne. 

Although it is believed that no church was erected in this town 
before the year 1700, yet the people, most of whom attended the 
churches of Flatlands and Flatbush, contributed piy>portionably 
to the support of the ministry of the reformed protestant Dutch 
church in the county. The inhabitants, however, made choice 
of church officers, who at that period, also executed the duties of 
overseers of the poor ; being, as was supposed from their situation 
and intimate knowledge of the people, better qualified for the ex- 
ecution of the trusts confided to them. 

Indeed the ecclesiastical and civil affairs of the town seem to 
have been managed in great measure by the same individuals, and 
the practice was continued to a comparatively recent period. The 
records, although very defective, commenced to be kept in the 
English language in the year 1763, while in some towns they were 
continued in Dutch down to the American Revolution. About 
that period, church masters, (so called,) were elected at tovm 
meetings in the manner of other town officers, and were, ex officio^ 
overseers of the poor. 

In 1786, the deacons of the church were chosen as overseers, 
being thereby enabled to afford both spiritual and temporal assis^ 
tance, as circumstances might require. The union of these offices 
in the same hands, was frequently repeated, the duties of both 
having their foundation equally in the principles of human kindness. 
It was also common to confer the offices of constable, collector and 
pound master on the same individual, for the plausable reason that 
neither alone, was of much value, and might be considered a bur- 
den, rather than a favor to the incumbent. There was so little in- 
ducement for any one to hold the place of constable, that it was 
found necessary to institute a practice for the married men of the 
town, to take the office annually, in rotation, beginning with the 
eldest ; and in case of the inability of any one to execute the office, 
he was permitted to name a substitute, for whose fidelity, the 
person excused, was willing to be responsible. 

To induce any to accept the place of collector of taxes, the per* 

Vol. II. 25 


son was allowed for his compensation* a sum in gross, which was 
at first £5f and was afterwards increased to £10. 

Li 1799 the elders of the church were chosen commissioners, 
and the deacons, trustees of common schools, which regulation 
continued till 1812, when the present state common school system 
was adopted. 

It is a fact honorable to the inhabitants of this town, and one 
which speaks volumes in favor of their good sense and honesty of 
purpose, that political or party distinctions, have rarely, if ever, 
interposed in the choice of their public officers. The same inde- 
pendent conduct, has in a good degree, characterized the proceed* 
ings of the adjoining towns. 

The towns in this coimty having for alh)ost a century and a 
half, constituted but one ecclesiastical congregation or charge, 
each of course contributed to the common fund, that for some 
years prior to 1795, amounted to £300, of which sum, Flatbush 
raised £68, l4s. ; Brooklyn, £58, 16s.; and each of the other 
towns £43, 2s. 6d., annually.* 

In 1700, a reformed Dutch church was built upon the site now 
enclosed in the old burial ground of the village of New Utrecht 
It was built of stone and of the shape, then prevalent, an octagon. 
The British soldiers took possession' of it in 1776, and made of it 
a hospital, store house or prison, as best suited their purpose. It 
was repaired in 1783, at an expense of £500, which was raised by 
voluntary subscription in the county. In 1828 it was taken down 
and its materials used in the construction of the present church, 
built also of stone, and Which was dedicated Aug. 26, 1829. 

A few rods easterly of the place where the old church stood, is 
an antique stone dwelling, covered with tiles, which were imported 

* In the year 1G63, a minister in this town was accused before the sessions, 
of having performed the ceremony of his own marriage, and that, too, white he 
had another wife living. The reverend gentleman alleged, by way of excoae 
for so novel a procedure, that his first wife had eloped from him without cause ; 
and being minded to take another, he conceived he had the same right to per- 
form the ceremony for himself, as for any other person. Tiiis specious rea- 
soning did not, however, satisfy the court, which declared the marriage void, 
and the delinquent was fined in two hundred guilders, and forty beaver skins ; 
besides forty guilders more, for his iasoleoce and impertineaoe to the eoort. 


irom Holland, and has now stood for at least 140 years. It was 
formerly the property and residence of the late Rutgert Van Brunt, 
"being the identical house in which the lamented General Wood- 
hull, lay after he was wounded and where he breathed his last, 
Sept. 20, 1776. 

In 1787 this church united with the other collegiate churches of 
the county, in calling the Rev. Peter Lowe. He continued to 
officiate in the said churches till the year 1808, when the county 
organization was dissolved, the settlement of separate pastors 
over the particular churches took place, and the Rev, John Bea- 
tie, became the minister of this, in 1809. He was a native of 
Salem, N. Y. and a graduate of Union College. He continued 
here till Oct. 1824, when his pastoral relation was dissolved at his 
own request. 

Rev. Robert Ormiston Currie, the present esteemed pastor, is 
the son of James Carrie, Esq. a native of Scotland, and his wife, 
whose maiden name was Sarah Van Hoeson. 

Mr. Currie was <born at Clavarack, N. Y. Oct. 1, 1805, gradu- 
ated at Rutger's College, N. J. in 1829, and was engaged as rec- 
tor of the grammar school there, for nearly three years. 

He was licensed to preach by the classis of New Brunkswick, 
July 23, 1834, and was ordained and installed in this parish by the 
classis of Long Island, Feb. 15, 1835. His wife was Elizabeth 
T. Voorhees, whom he married in Jan. 1835. 

New Utrecht Bay, or as it is more commonly called, the Lower 
Bay, (that above the Narrows, being named the Upper Bay,) is 
formed by the coast of New Jersey on the west, and Coney Island 
beach on the east, covering a surface of about twenty square miles, 
being among the finest, as well as safest harbors in the world. On 
the northern margin of the bay is the celebrated Bath House, pos- 
sessing one of the pleasanlest sea-side views in this country. It 
is besides the oldest bathing establishment on Long Island, and 
the most contiguous of any other to ihe city of New York.* 

* The'site of this capacious establishment was selected by the late Drs. 
Bailey, Bard, Rogers, Tillary and others, their medical associates, as a place 
(»f retreat fur their invalid patients, whose cases required the invigorating in- 
floeaee of pure air and sea bathing. Here the physiciaos and those under tlieir 


The Atlantic ocean, and the bay, its fleets of ships, steambosti 
and smaller yessels, the light houses of Sandy Hook, Neveraink 
and Prince's Bay, with the distant points, altogether, form a pano- 
rama of natural scenery, rarely equalled in beauty by any other 
part of the world. 

Here a portion of the British troops, under Sir William Howe, 
landed on the 22d of Aug. 1776, a few days previous to the disas 
troiis battle of Long Island, and the commander immediately 
on landing established his head quarters at the village of New 

Another, and the most interesting locality in the town, is F<Ht 
Hamilton, situated on the east bank of the Narrows, wliich is the 
name given to the strait connecting the upper and lower bays, 
and through which all vessels must pass to and from the city of 
New York. The channel is nearly a mile wide, and of sufficient 
depth to admit vessels of any draught. 

The fortifications are so skilfully arranged, as to prevent, or ren- 
der imminently dangerous, any hostile attempt to reach the upper 
bay from the ocean. 

This place was called by the Indians Nyack, and it was While 
lying on board his ship the Guemey, at this spot, that Col. Rich- 
ard Nicoll, afterwards governor of New York, addressed to Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant his first communication of Aug. 20, 1664, de- 
manding the surrender of New Netherlands. This historical fact 
is intimately associated in the mind, with another of equal import- 
ance, that a considerable portion of the British army landed at the 
same place on the 23d of August, 1776, for the like purpose of 
capturing the country, just one hundred and twelve years and 
two days from the landing of Governor NicolL 

The state ceded to the general government, in 1812, thirty acres 
of land covered by water, called Hendnck's Reef, for the purpose 
of defence, and they subsequently purchased, from the individual 

care, enjoyed the laxnry of the scene, far removed from the heat and bastla of 
a great city.. 

But the building which had been erected by these gentlemen in 1794, was 
destroyed by fire in the year 1802. Having since been rebuilt on an extensive 
scale asa hotel and boarding house by the Messrs. Brown, they have it in their 
power to accommodate with every regard to comfort, mora than 150 vistion. 


^owners, one hundred acres more of upland, which is occupied 
^18 appurtenant to the military establishment. 

In this vicinity are three extensive works of defence, so placed 
in reference to each otlier, and the position of the bay, as to ap- 
pear almost impregnable to any of the ordinary forces, a)mmoa to 
the most maritime nations. 

Fort Richmond is upon the west or Jersey side of the Narrows, 
^ its entrance into the lower bay. Fort La Fayette — sometimes, 
from its shape, called Fort Diamond — is situated in the stream, 
and Fort Hamilton is on the Long Island shore, in a line nearly 
with the former. These fortifications werq located and planned by 
General Bernard, an eminent French engineer, employed by the 
United States, some years since, to make a reconnoisance of our 
coast, with a view to the selection of sites for its defence. Fort 
Hamilton is of permanent granite masonry, quadrangular in form, 
(me face of which is for water defence, and the other for the land. 
The part commanding the channel mounts 14 casemate and 26 
barbette, 32 pounders ; and 32 casemate guns of large calibre, 32 
and 26 pounders, are distributed along the land sides, which also 
admit of musketry defence. In addition to which, there are 18 
guns of similar calibre, for the defence of the ditches, which are 
dry and well flanked with musketry. A redoubt 200 yards in ad- 
Tance, on the landside, is designed to prevent a landing of the en- 
emy on the beach between the fort and Bath, and also to oblige 
him to establish his batteries at a greater distance, in case of a 
siege. It is completely defiled from the neighboring hills, which 
might otherwise be occupied by an enemy to advantage. 

Fort La Fayette is a dependency of Fort Hamilton, and is con- 
structed of solid free stone masonry, mounting 73 guns, in 3 tiers ; 
the lower, 42 ; the 2d, 32, and the upper, 24 pounders. Several 
of the new invented and greatly effective Paixham guns, of large 
calibre, have lately been added, which must render this one of 
the strongest defences in the country. For some years past, these 
works had become much deteriorated by the neglect of the gov- 
ernment, which remark would equally apply to every fort from 
the coast of Maine to the Gulf of Mexico. Since 1841, much 
has been done to place these defences upon a respectable footing. 

Here is also a splendid hotel, and boarding establishment, called 


the Hamilton House, which, for its magnitude, beauty of location, 
and elegance of accommodations will not suffer by comparison 
with any other in the vicinity. In J 836, a company was incor- 
porated for the construction of a rail road from Brooklyn to Fort 
Hamilton^ Bath and Coney Island, which, if executed, would 
doubtless add very greatly to the numbers visiting these places.* 

St. John's Episcopal Qhurch, at Fort Hamilton, was erected in 
1835, and of which the Rev. James Dixon Carder is rector. He 
is also chaplain of the United States' forces stationed at this post, 
and his chief parochial cure consits of the troops in garrison here, 
the church being used as the chapel of the fort. 

The soil of this town is in general of an excellent quality, and is 
highly cultivated, some farms yielding, besides other crops, more 
than one hundred tons of English hay. On the south side of the 
hills, the surface is smooth and level, but in the vicinity of the 
Narrows, stony and somewhat hilly. The woody ridge upon the 
north-west, is the western terminus of that singular range of high- 
lands, extending throughout the island, having its eastern termina- 
tion near Oyster Ponds Point, a distance of one hundred and 
twenty miles, and is very appropriately denominate^ the " Spine 
of Long Island." 

The shad fishery in this town, at the proper season, is une- 
qualled in any other part of the country, it being not uncommon 
to take at least ten thousand of these fish at a single haul. 

The following Dutch epitaphs are inserted as a curiosity to those 
unaccustomed to that language, and will be more so when the 
inscriptions themselves shall have become obliterated by time and 
the elements. 

* A few years ago, some workmen employed in excavating the earth at the 
Narrows, discovered, a few feet below the surface, a large quantity of Indian 
stone arrow heads lying together, which induces the belief that here was either 
a manufactory of the article, or place of deposiie. They were of all eixee— 
from one to six inches in length — finished and unfinished, together with hlocks 
of the stone of which they were made, in the same state as when taken from 
the quarry. How the savages, without the use of iron instruments, could 
make and polish axes and other implements of stone of flinty hardnees, is to 
ua, at this day, a matter ef utter admiration and astonishment. 


Hier Legt het Licham Hier legt HLeghaam 

Van Anne Vorhes de Van Jacobas Emans 

her is vrou, Van Barnardua Soon Van Abraham 

Vorhes is ge Storven • Emans, en Sara Schenck 

Nov'r 4<* 1768. Over leeden de 6d Ocl'r 

1770 In't 23"*« 


* Se ius Levin 

Hier Legt 

dem Lighhaam Van Feroetie Schenck 

hays vrouw van Pieter Stryker 

Gebooren den 29 July 1740, 

Over leeden den 14, December 


Oud Zynde 75, Yaaren, 

4 Maanden en 16 Daagen. 

The custom of putting Dutch inscriptions upon tombstones, was 
continued till about the year 1770, and some may be seen even of 
a much later date, in the burying grounds of this county. But for 
the last fifty years, the English language has been generally 
adopted. There are, besides, a few Dutch families, who still use 
the language, in their intercourse with one another. 

The following, from the pen of David Stephenson, Esq., a dis- 
tbguished engineer of Scotland, who visited this country a few 
years since, for professional purposes, is sufficiently valuable to 
be here preserved. 

" The bay of New Vork^ which extends about nine miles in length, 
and five in breadth, has a communication with the Atlantic Ocean 
through a strait of about two miles between Staten Island, and 
Long Island. This is called * the Narrows ;' and on either shore 
•stands a fort for protecting the entrance to the harbor. This 
magnificent bay, is completely sheltered from the stormy Atlantic 
by Long Island, forms a noble deep water basin, and offers a spa- 
cious arid safe anchorage for shipping to almost any extent. The 
shipping in the harbor of New York, therefore, without the erec- 
tion of breakwaters or covering piers, is^, in all states of the wind, 
protected from the roll of the Atlantic. Without the aid of docks, 
or even dredging, vessels of the largest class lie afloat during low 
water of spring-tides, moored to the quays which bound the sea- 
ward sides of the city. * 

The perpendicular rise of tide in the harbor of New York, is 


This ancient settlement of the Dutch, was begun by them in 
1651, upon which they conferred the name of Midwout (or Mid- 
dle Woods.) It is probable that isolated portions of the soil had 
been taken up before, but without an intention of founding a town 
or even village. It is bounded north by Brooklyn, south by Ja- 
maica and the Bay, Flatlands and Gravesend, and west by Graves- 
end, containing an area of about 7000 acres. * From the pleasant- 
ness of its situation and the excellence of its soil, it soon grew into 
importance, dwellings were erected on the site of the present 
village, and upon the road or path leading to Gravesend, die set- 
tlement of which latter place, preceded this by abt)ut ten years. 

In 1653 Governor Stuyvesant gave the inhabitants a patent for 
a portion of the present town, including the village. The paten- 
tees therein named are, Jan Snedecor, Arent Van Hatten, one of 
the burgomasters of the city, Johannes Megapolensis, a minis- 
ier at New Amsterdam, and some few others.^ By this instru- 
ment, they were not only empowered to erect a town or plantation, 
but were invested also, with the usual privileges of other Dutch 
corporations within the province. In 1656 another patent was 
granted to the *' indwellers and inhabitants of Midwout,'' for the 
Canarsee Meadows, lying east north-east of the 'Canarsee Indian 



only about five feet. The tidal wave, however, increases in its 
progress northwards along the coast, till at length, in the Bay of 
Fundy, it attains the maximum height of ninety feet. Towards J( 
the south, on the contrary, its rise is vefy. much decreased ; and, 
in the Gi^of Mexico, is reduced to eighteen inches, while, on the 
shores *ofirome of the. West India Islands, it is quite impercepu- 

A bar extends from Sandy Hook to the shore of Long Island, 
across the entrance to the harbour. Over this there is a depth of 
twenty-one feet at low water, which is sufficient to float the largest 
class of merchant vessels." 


i. ■' '': V 


1 ■ 



planting ground. Patents of confirmation were in like manner 
obtained by individuals who had made particular purchases from 
the natives, beyond the bounds of the original patent 

Oct. 11th, 1667, a general patent was issued by Gov. Nicoll, 
in which the patentees were the Rev. Johannes Megapolensis, 
Cornelius Van Ruyvcn, justice of the peace, Adrien Hegeman, 
Jan Snedeger, Jan Stryker, Frans Barents, (pastor,) Jacob Stryker 
and Cornelius Janse Bougaert, as patentees for and on behalf of 
themselves and associates, the freeholders and inhabitants of the 
said town, their heirs, successors and assigns, for the premises 
described therein, as follows : 

*' All y t tract wt ye severall parcells of land wh already have or hereafter 
shall be purchased or procured for and on ye behalf of ye sd town ; whether 
from ye native Indian proprietors or others, wt in the bounds and limits here- 
after set forth and expresst ; That is to say, bounded to ye south by ye hills, 
and to the north by ye fence lately sett between them and the town of Ams- 
fort, alias Flatlands, beginning at a certain tree standing upon ye Little-Flats, 
marked by ye order and determination of severall arbitrators appointed by me, 
to Tiew and issue ye difference between ye two toH^s concerning the same, 
wh accordingly they did upon the 17ih of October, 1666, and to ye east and 
west by the common woodlands, including two tracts heretofore called by ye 
names of Curler^s and Twillers tlatts wh lye to ye East of ye town ; As also 
a parcell of meadow ground or valley on ye East- north-east side of Canaresse 
planting land, and having to ye South ye meadow ground belonging to Amsfort 
als Flatbush, according to ye division made by an East line running half a point 
northerly between them without variation of ye Compass, and so to go to ye 
mouth of ye creek or Kill, which said meadows were on ye 20th of April last 
by common consent staked out and by my approbation allowed of." 

On the 12th of November, 1685, a further confirmatory patent 
Was executed by Governor Thomas Dongan, to the following per- 
sons named therein as patentees : 

Corneleus Yanderwyck, 
John Okie, 
Joseph Hegeman, 
Art Jansen Vanderbilt, 
Lafford Peiterson, 
William Guilliamson, 
Hendrick Williamse, 
Peter Guillamse, 
Arien Ryers, 

Vol. II. 

Peter Lott, 
Daniel Polhemus, 
Cornelius Vanderveere, 
Direck Johnson Hoogland, 
Denise Teunis, 
John Johnson, 
Detimus Lewis Jansen, 
Okie Johnson, 
Jan. Jansen, 



Peter Stryker, WUliam Jacobs, 

John Stryker, Hendrick Hegemaa, 

John Ramsen, Jan. Stryker, 

Jacob Hendricks, Garret Labbert^e, 

Direck Vandervleet, Hans Bogaert. 
Hendrick Rick, 

The premises are in this patent described, as ^* A certain town in King*i 
Coanty known by the name of Middwout, alias Flatbnsh, the bounds whereo 
begin att the mouth of ye frees Kill, and soe along by a certain ditch whiefe 
lyes betwixt Armsford and Flatbush meadows, and soe running alongst ihe 
ditch and fence to a certain white oake markt tree ; and from thence upon a 
straight line to the westernmost point of a small island of woodland lying befon 
John Striker's bridge ; and from thence with a straight line to the north-wett 
hooke or corner of the ditch of John Okie's meadow ; and from thence aloogit 
the said ditch and fence to the swamp of the Fresh-Kill, and soe alongst the 
swamp and hollow of the aforesaid Kill to the land of Krewier's hooka ; thea 
alongst the same to a marked white oak tree ; from thence with a straight Km 
to a black-oake markt tree standing uppon the north-east side of Twiller's 
Flatts, having a small snip of flatts upon the south-east side of the line, and 
soe from thence to a white-oak tree standing to the west side of Mustahole 
upon a small island, leaving a snip of flatts in the Flattlands bounds ; and from 
thence to a certain markt tree or stump standing by the highway which goes 
to Flattlands upon the Little Flatts, about twenty rod from Flattbaah Letts, 
and soe alongst the fence six hundred Dutch rodd to the corner of Flattbash 
fence, and soe alongst by the rear of the Letts to a sassafras stump standing 
in Cornelius Jansen's Bowery lott of land ; and from thence with straight line 
to a certain old marked tree or stump standing by the rush-pond under the hills, 
and so along upon the south side of the hill till it comes to the west end of the 
long hill, and soe along upon the south side of the said hill till itt comes to the 
east end of the long hill ; and then with a straight line from the east end of the 
said long hill to a markM white-oak tree standing to the west side of the roade 
near the place called the gale or porte of hills, and so from the east aide of the 
porte or gale along upon the south side of the maine hills as far as Browklia 
pattent doth extend, and soe along the said hills to the bounds of Jamaica pat- 
tent ; and from thence with a southerly line to the Kill or creeke by the east 
of the Plunder's Neck, and soe alongst the said Kill to the sea, as according 
to the several deeds or purchases from the Indian owners, the patent from 
Governor Nicolls, and the award between Browkline and the town of Flatt- 
hush, as by reference thereto will fully and at large appear. 

Dec. 17, 1654, Goveraor Stuyvesant, who was equally officious 
in ecclesiastical, as in civil and military affairs, ordered the erec- 
tion of a church in this plantation, to be sixty or sixty-five feet 
long, twenty-eight wiple, and from twelve to fourteen feet in height 


under the beams ; and Feb. 9, 1655, he again ordered the people 
of Amersfort and Brooklyn, to assist those of Midwout in procur- 
ing timber for the house. 

Those who had charge of the work reported, in Sept., 1660, 
that the building had cost 4637 guilders, (or about $1800,) of 
which sum, 3437 guilders had been collected in New Amsterdam, 
Fort Orange, and on Long Island ; whereupon, the governor gave 
400 guilders more out of the public funds, leaving the balance of 
800 guilders against the church. 

This edifice was built of wood, and occupied the site of the 
present Dutch church. The commissioners appointed to direct 
the building, were the Rev. Johannes Megapolensis, John Snedi- 
cor, and John Stryker. 

In June, 1656, the governor ordered the people of Brooklyn, 
Midwout, and Flatlands, to enclose a place in each of them, with 
palisades for their cotnmon defence. In 1660, the Rev. Mr. Pol- 
hemus petitioned the governor to have a window placed in the 
church, which request was granted ; and it being reported that the 
church was indebted to the amount of six hundred and twenty- 
four guilders, it was ordered to be satisfied out of the treasury as 
soon as funds should be received. 

Complaint being made that the minister was inattentive to his 

calling, holding service but once di fortnight ^ and then only for a 

quarter of an hour, giving the people a prayer instead of a ser- 

fnorij upon which the governor gave orders ** that lie should attend 

fnore diligently to his work^ 

Oct. 1, 1673, an ordinance of the governor and council was 
{Published, enjoining it upon the sheriff and constables to take spe- 
oial care that the reformed religion be maintained, to the exclusion 
of all other sects. 

The first Dutch church erected in this country, was doubtless 
XJie one built in the city of New Amsterdam, in 1642, although a 
Society had been organized as early as 1629. And the inhabitants 
of King's county attended religious worship in the city, until the 
cihurch was built in Flatbush, as above mentioned. 

The Rev. Everardus Bogardus was the first minister, and offi- 
ciated in the city from 1638 to 1647 ; and was succeeded by the 


Rev. Johannes Megapolensis, who continued till the conquest in 

The church here was directed to be built in the form of a cross ; 
and the rear part of the edifice was reserved and fitted up, for the 
accommodation of the minister and his family. 

The original subscription list of this building, is still preserved 
among the records of the church, and exhibits the names of 
the principal male inhabitants of full age, in the Dutch towns at 
that period. 

A church was also ordered to be built at Flatlands, in 1662, 
which was completed the following year, and another was erected 
in Brooklyn in 1 666, all of which constituted one general charge, 
under the pastoral care of the same minister. 

Rev, Johannes Theodorus Polhemus, the ancestor of the fami- 
lies of that name in this county, was engaged as minister, soon after 
the completion of the church here, at a salary of fourteen hundred 
and forty guilders, or $416, a year, and the same Was raised by an 
assessment or tax, upon the estates of those who resided in the 
towns where he officiated. 

He was required by an order from the governor, in Mardh, 1656, 
to preach every Sunday morning at Midwout, and in the afternoon 
alternately at Amersfort and Brooklyn. He died June 9, 1666. 

Rev, Henricus SoHnus or Solyns, was installed here Sept. 3, 
1660, at a salary of six hundred guilders, one half of which waste 
be paid by the inhabitants, and the other half by the Father-land. 
In 1662 the people of Brooklyn requested that he might reside 
there ; and the governor agreed to it, and also to pay a part of his 
salary, provided he should preach every Sunday evening in the 
church, erected upon his farm or bowery. In 1664 he returned to 
Holland, having sustained a high reputation in the ministry. 

He was a distinguished man, possessed of a good education and 
no inconsiderable degree of literdry enterprize. About two years 
after his arrival in America, he addressed to Dr. Cotton Mather, 
on the appearance of his " Magnalia Americana,^* a latin poem, 
which is still extant, in some of the editions of that work of the 
learned author. 

This may be called the second period of the Dutch church in 
America. It extended from the year 1664, to the year 1693. 


During this period, the Dutch churches in New York, though under 
the civil government of Great Britain, still acknowledged the autho- 
rity of that classis and that synod in Holland, to which they had 
formerly submitted, and still received ministers from them, as be- 
fore. And that classis and synod also continued to watch over 
these American churches, and to cherish them with paternal care 
and affection. 

During this period, the Dutch church in America was somewhat 
extended. Two or three more congregations were organized on 
Long Island, near the city of New York. Another was formed in 
the city of Schenectady ; one on Staten Island, or Richmond 
county ; three or four in different towns on the Hudson ; and seve- 
ral, it is •believed, in the colony of New Jersey. The precise 
dates, however, of these establishments, it is now difficult to de- 

* Such was the situation of the Dutch church, from 1664 to 1693 ; not, in- 
deed, established by law, but greatly predominant in numbers, and decidedly 
pre-eminent in wealth, and respectability. This pre-eminence, however, was 
in a considerable degree, surrendered in the year last mentioned. In that year, 
Cdbael Benjamin Fletcher, who had been appointed governor the year before, 
a man of great ardor, and boldness, and one who was inordinately devoted to 
the episcopal church, urged a kind of religious establishment in favor of that 
charch. It assumed the air of bigotry. The episcopalians were not the domi- 
Dsnt sect. There were at that time, indeed but few episcopalians in the colony. 
These chiefly resided in the city of New York, and in the counties immediate- 
ly adjacent. They consisted, for the most part, of the officers of government, 
and their dependants, and a portion of the military force. To establish the 
episcopal church, under these circumstances, was so evidently unreasonable 
tod unjust, that scarcely any one would have proposed it, but a person of Gov- 
ernor Fletcher*s bigotted character. He met, and justly too, wiih no small 
difficulties in the attainment of his object. The house of assembly, when it 
was first prup<ised to them, were decidedly hostile to the measure. But, being 
partly hoodwinked, and partly threatened and bullied into the measure, by the 
goveraor, they at last reluctantly agreed to the plan, and passed an act on the 
Slat of September, 1693, establishing the episcopal church in the city, and 
couDty of New York, and in the counties of Westchester, Queen* s and Rich- 
mond. The act was drawn, and the whole business conducted in a roost art- 
ful and cunning manner. The inhabitants of each of the counties above-men- 
tioned, were directed by this act, twchoose annually ten vestrymen, and two 
charch- wardens. Then these vestrymen, and church- wardens were empower- 


It has been seen that the right of soil was early obtained by the 
first Dutch settlers, from the neighboring tribe inhabiting the place 
called Canarsce, (or Canausee,)and that to confirm the same sev- 
eral patents had been issued by the governor ; notwithstanding 
which, in the year 1670, a claim was interposed to the said lands, 
by EskemoppaSj sachem of Rockaway, and his brothers, as being 
the true owners thereof ; and the inhabitants, to prevent the con- 
sequences of perpetual hostility with the new claimant^ preferred, 
for the preservation of peace, and to establish more firmly their 
title to the lands in dispute, agreed to the payment of a certain con- 
sideration, which was mutually fixed upon between the parties. 
The deed or release executed by the said Indians, on this occasion, 
is as follows : — 

To all christian people to whom this present writing shall come : Eskemop- 
pas Sachem of Rockaway upon Long Island, Kinnarimas and Ahawaham, his 
brothers, send greeting ; Whereas they the said Sachem Eskemoppas and kii 
two brothers aforementioned do lay claim to the land now in the tenure and^ 
occupation of the inhabitants of Midwout, alias Flatbush, as well aa to othe^ 
lands'thereto adjacent as the right born Indian owners and proprietors thereof ^ 
know ye, that for, and in consideration of certain sums of seewant, a certaiia 
sum of wampum and divers other goods, unto the Sachem, and his brothers, ia 
hand paid, and received from Adrian Hegeman, Jacob Stryker, Hendrick Jo* 
rise and Jan Hansen, for and on behalf of themselves and the rest of the in- 
habitants of Midwout, alias Flatbush, the receipt whereof they do hereby ac- 
knowledge, and themselves to be fully satisfied and paid : Have given, granted, 
contracted and sold, and by these presents, freely and absolutely do, give, 
grant, bargain, and sell unto the said Adrian Hegeman, Jacob Stryker, Hen- 
drick Jorise and Jan Hansen, for and in behalf of themselves and the inhabit- 
ants aforesaid, their heirs and successors : All that parcel and tract of land 
where the said town of Midwout stands, together with all the lands lying 
therein, stretching on the east side to the limits of Newtown and Jamaica, on 
the south side to the meadow ground and limits of Amersfort ; on the west 
side to the bounds of Gravesend and New Utrecht, and on the north side along 

ed to make choice of the minister, or ministers for each district. And for the 
support of these ministers, a certain sum was directed to be assessed on the 
inhabitants at large, of all denominations, and raised in each county. The act, 
indeed, did not explicitly enjoin that the ministers thus chosen should be of the 
episcopal church ; and by an explanatory act, passed several years afterwards, 
it was even declared that dissenting ministers might he chosen. Bat by lodg- 
ing the right of choice with the vestrymkn^ and church-wardens alone^ it 
well known that episcopal ministers, would be always, of course, elected. 


the Hills ; that is to say, all those lands within the limits aforementioned, that 
have not been already purchased by any of the inhabitants of the town afore- 
mentioned, nor is granted to any in their respective Patents. And also except- 
ing such meadow or valley in the possession of the said inhabitants and in thier 
patent particularly set forth. To have and to hold, all the said parcel and 
tract of land and premises, together with all and singular, every thing there- 
anto belonging, together with the said valley or meadow ground, unto the said 
Adrian Hegeman, Jacob Stryker, Hendrick Joris and Jan Hansen, for and on 
behalf of the inhabitants aforesaid, their heirs and successors, to the proper 
use and behalf of the said inhabitants, their heirs and successors forever. In 
witness whereof, the parties to these presents have hereunto set their hands 
and seals, this 20^ day of April, in the22<i year of his Majesty^s Reign, in the 
year of our Lord, 1670. Eskemoppas, ^r, mark. [ l. s. ] 

In the presence of Kinnarimas 4*, mark. [ l. s. ] 

Thomas Lovelace, A^awaham C, mark. [ l. s. ] 

Cornelius Van RuFven. 

The consideration 10 fathoms of black seewant — 10 of white — 5 ihatch 
coats— 4 blankets — 2 guns — 2 pistols — 5 double handfulls of powder — 5 bars 
of lead — 10 knives — 2 aprons of Duffels — 1 half fat (or barrel) of strong beer — 
S cans of brandy and 6 shirts. 

Acknowledged before me to have been received. Francis Lovklace. 

That part of the town now called " New Lots,^ was by the 
Dutch called Ostwout, or East Woods, lying eastward of the old 
settlement of Midwout, or Flatbush, but whether purchased, if at 
all, before the execution of the deed last recited, has not been dis- 
corered ; yet the inhabitants obtained a patent for it from Gover- 
nor Andros, March 25, 1677, and in which, about forty of the 
principal inhabitants are named as patentees.* 

On the 7th of Nov., 1685, an act was passed by the assembly, 
to renoove the court of sessions from Gravesend to this town, it 
being nearer the centre of the county, and of easy communica- 
tion with the city. 

A court house was accordingly erected here in 1686, and re- 
mained until another was built in 1758, in which the court-room 

* Id the minutes of the court of aeasiona, it appears, that in 1682, some 
peraoDS having refused payment to the minister, a complaint was made thereof 
\rj the eonstable, whereupon the court ordered, that the amount due from such 
pettODS should be taken by distress. 

In 1685, one Theodoms Polhemus having been elected to the office of con- 
stable, and refusing to serve, was fined JE?5, to the public. 

* » 


and jail were contained under the same roof, they having pw^* 
viously been separate buildings, one of which was burnt down m 
the winter of 1 757-8. 

The British officers, during the Revolution, ordered the seats 
to be ripped up, and converted the hall of justice into a ball-room. 

The original cost of this building was jC448 ; having undergone 
some necessary alterations and repairs, it remained till 1792, when 
a new and large edifice was erected in its place. The superin- ' 
tendents of this building were John Vanderbilt, Johannes E. Lett, 
and Charles Doughty. Here the county courts continued to be 
held, till the destruction of the court house and jail by fire, Nov. 
30, 1832, from which time Brooklyn has been, and is now, estab- 
lished as the shire town of tlJe county.* 

In 1 667, the churches engaged the Rev, Casperus Van Zuren, 
who, in about ten years, being called to his former church in Hol- 
land, returned there in 1685. 

Rev, Johannes Paulinus was employed in 1 670, but was soon 
after succeeded by the Rev, James Clarke, who remained here 
1695, when he was succeeded by the Rev, Wilhelmus LuparduSf 
whose death occurred in 1702. 

Rev, Vicentius Antonides next followed, and was settled here 
in 1706, where he continued till his death in 1714, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev, Bemardus Freeman, from Schenectady, who 
settled here in 1705, and closed his life in the year 1741. He 
was a man of fine talents, well educated, and possessed a good 
store of general literature. 

He published, among other things, a volume of sermons, and a 
work entitled " i)e Spiegel der Selfkennis,^^ (or Mirror of Self 
Knowledge,) being a collection (in Dutch,) of ancient moral and 

* It has been mentioned, that the Rev. Mr. Solinus left the church in 1A64, 
and returned to Holland. At the earnest solicitation of the people of New 
York, he was induced to revisit America in 1682, and continued the pastor of 
the Dutch church in that city till his decease in 1701. He was, as aliove 
mentioned, a man of classical taste and learning, and was highly esteemed in 
his day. He also cultivated a love for poetry, of which a few specimeiis in 
Latin and Dutch are preserved. He left a complete list of the members oP~~ 
his congregation in 1186, which are contained in the last volume of the New 
York Historical Society's Collections. 


philosophical maxims. The work has been recently translated by 
the Hon. Jeremiah Johnson, and is intended for publication. 

Oct. 6, 1704, by request, the classis of Amsterdam, commis- 
sioned the Rev. Vicentius AntonideSy to proceed to this country, 
h ebeing at that time pastor at Bergen, in Friesland. He arrived 
here in 1705, and in connection with Mr. Freeman, entered on his 
duties in the collegiate churches of Kings county. 

At the decease of Mr. Freeman in 1741, the Rev. Johannes 
Arondeus was called, and remained as the colleague of Mr. An- 
tonides, till the death of the latter in 1744. Mr. Arondeus died in 
the year 1754. The Rev. Anthony Curtenius, was settled as as- 
sociate minister in 1730, and continued here till his death, Oct. 19, 
1756.* • 

On the death of Mr. Antonides, the Rev. Ulpianus Van Sin- 
dereny was called from Holland, and arrived in time to enter upon 
his duties here, in 1747. 

At this time existed the great and disturbing controversy among 
the Dutch churches, concerning the necessity of foreign ordina- 
tion. The coiius party, as we have seen, warmly insisting on es- 
tablishing an independent judicatory in America ; and the classis 
of Amsterdam in the end assenting to it, Mr. Van Sinderen was 
made the happy messenger of their letter of approbation. Perfect 

* The following notice of this gentleman, is extracted from a newspaper 
poblished in 1756 : — *^ On Tuesday the 19th uhhno, the Reverend Mr. Anthont 
CuBTCKivs, departed this transitory Life, at Flat-Bush, Long Island, in the 
59th Year of his Age, after an Illness of about four Weeks, being Pastor of the 
five Dutch Reformed Churches in King's County on Long Island : He was a 
Gentleman regularly educated, and remarkable for his indefatigable Diligence 
in the Ministration of his Function ; his Actions in all the Affairs of Life, have 
ever been accompanied with the strictest Rules of Justice, so that none could 
with more Propriety claim the Title of a Preacher and a sincere Christian, 
which not only his Morals manifested, but his glorious Resolutions to launch 
into endless flternity, saying with St. Paul, O Death I where is thy Sting t 
O Orave^ where is thy Victory ? His Remains were decently interred on 
Tbortday following, in the Church of the above mentioned Place ; his Death is 
nniveraally lamented by his Relations, and all those that knew him, particular- 
ly his Congregation, who are highly sensible of the Loss of so inestimable a 
Shepherd, whose every Action displayed the Christian.'* 

Vol. IL 27 


harmony was not however, fully restored to the churcheSy till many 
years after. 

Mr. Van Sinderen was reputed a man of good acquirements^ 
yet at the same time he was eccentric, and often injudicious. 

The Rev. Johannes Casparus Rubel, was established here in 
Aug. 1759, as the colleague of Mr. Van Sinderen, but was for 
some reason, not now known, deposed in 1784. In tiie same year 
Mr. Van Sinderen resigned his charge, and died July 23, 1796. 
The death of Mr. Rubel took place in 1799. 

In 1785 an invitation was given to the Kev, Martinus ScJuxm" 
maker, then preaching at Gravesend and Harlaem, which he ac* 
cepted, and remained here till the close of his life, at the age of 
87, May 20, 1 824. V^^ith thft venerable pastor, ended the custom 
of preaching in the Dutch language, a practice to which he was so 
much attached, that only once (1788) did he attempt to officiate in 

He was the second son of Joachim and Lvdia Schoonmaker. 
and was bom at Rochester, Ulster county, N. Y. March 1, 1637. 
He commenced classical studies with the Rev. Mr. Goetchius of 
Schraawlenburgh, N. J. 1753, and his theological, with the Rev. 
Mr. Marenus of Aquakanock in 1759, and June 27, 1761, he 
married Mary, daughter of Stephen and Ann Bassett, of that place. 
He was licensed to preach in 1763, and first received a call from 
the congregations of Harlaem and Gravesend, which he accepted. 

In 1781 , he received a call from the particular churches of Graves- 
end, Success and Wolver Hollow, in which he served till 1784, 
when he was elected to preside over the six collegiate churches of 
Kings county, at a salary of jC150 a year. He took up his resi- 
dence at this time in Flatbush, where he spent his days. His wife 
died in 1819, aged 80. 

He left issue six. sons and five daughters ; nine of whom arrived 
to full age, and seven survived their father. He had at the time 
of his death, 59 grandchildren and 21 great grandchildren. 

In his 80th year, he was heard to declare, that he could not 
complain of a single bodily infirmity, even his sight and hearing 
being perfect ; yet that his age admonished him he had not loQg 
to live. " His labors in the ministry (says his successor) for six- 
ty-one years, were arduous, yet was he never known to faint in 


his master's cause, and few men have gone to the grave, with a 
character more unblemished, or one more universally respected 
and beloved." 

T%e Rev. Peter Lowe, of Ulster county, was installed Oct. 28, 
1787, as colleague with Mr. Schoonmaker, and continued to preach 
in the old church, till it was taken down in 1794. The. new 
church, which 'Was commenced the year before, was not finished 
till Dec. 1796. It is built of stone. The former church, com* 
pleted in 1 655, had stood till that now removed, was erected in 
1718, which was also of stone, and stood on the same site as the 
other. This building, which was 50 by 65 feet, fronted to the 
east, and had a double arched door-way in the centre. It was 
repaired and altered in 1775, at an ^!tpense of $700. 

The present building is composed, in part, of the same mate- 
rials as the last, and has a fine bell, which was imported from 
Holland, and presented to the church by John Vanderbilt, Esq., 
who also brought over some Dutch brick, which were placed 
around the doors and windows of the church. The expense of 
this edifice was over $12,000, exclusive of much labor performed 
by members of the congregation without charge. 

Mr. Lowe, who was much beloved by his people, died June 10, 
1818 ; and in the fall of that year the union churches of Flatbush 
and Flatlands, called the Rev. Walter Monteith, who was installed 
in 1819, but resigned April 13, 1820, having accepted a call to the 
church at Schenectady, from which time the church remained va- 
cant, till May, 1822, when a call was presented to the present 
respected pastor, the Rev. Dr. Thomas Morris Strong, who was 
installed Nov. 17, 1822. 

He is the second son of the late Joseph Strong, Esq., a coun- 
sellor at law of the city of New York. He was bom April 18, 
1797, graduated at Columbia College in 1816, and in 1819 Was 
settled in the associate reformed Dutch churches of Chambers- 
burgh and Shippenborough, Penn. His first wife was Ellen, 
daughter of William Campbell, Esq. of Baltimore, and her death 
occurred in August, 1832. In 1834 he married Elizabeth Cooper, 
daughter of the late Rev. Dr. Isaac Grier, pastor of the presby- 
terian church, Northumberland, Penn. ; her maternal grandfather 


was the Rev. Dr. Robert Cooper, pastor of the Middlespring 
presbyterian church, Cumberland county, Penn. 

St. PauVs Episcopal Church, the only one of that denomination 
in the town, was begun in ld:)6, the comer stone being laid by the 
bishop of the diocese, Aug. 13, 1836. It is a beautiful edifice, 
the oost of which, including the organ, dec. was $8,480, about 
two-thirds of which sum was the liberal contribution of Matthew 
Clarkson, Esq. a wealthy resident of the village. Of this church, 
on the 23d Dec. 1836, the Rev. Thomas S. Brittain was chosen 
rector, and the Rev. Mr. Messenger, assistant. The latter resign- 
ed Sep. 1, 1837, and the Rev. James Coglan officiated in his place. 
Mr. Brittain resigned the rectorship March 29, 1838, when Mr. 
Coglan succeeded as rector. ' The latter resigned OcU 21, 1839, 
and the Rev. WiUiam Barlow was inducted into the rectorship 
March 30, 1840. He resigned April 1, 1842, and became an in- 
structor at St. Thomas' Hall, Flushing. The present rector of this 
church is the Rev. George Burcher.* 

* Died in this village, Aug. 20, 1815, Richard Alsop, Esq. in the 54th year 
of his age, leaving a widow, who died at Middletown, her native place, in Oct 
1829. Mr. Alsop was bora at Middletown, Ct. 1761, and was bred a merchant, 
but devoted himself chiefly to literature, for which he had an unusual fondness, 
and became familiarly acquainted with the literature not only of bis own conn- 
try, but with that of the principal European nations. His love of poetry was 
enthusiastic. Numerous pieces issued from his pen, and were received by the 
public as evidencfe of his genius and industry. All his compositions are cha- 
racterised by great purity of expression, and indicate the peculiar delicacy of 
thought which appeared in his private life. As a man, a scholar, and a writer, 
he will be remembered v^ith affection and regret by his acquaintance, and by 
men of letters. His pieces met with considerable success, besides several 
translations from the Italian and French. The principal one is the Natural 
and Civil History of Chili, from the Italian of Molina^ in 2 vols. 8vo. In 1800 
he published a Monody in heroic verse on the death of Washington. He wrote 
principally for amusement, and made little effort at literary distinction ; yet his 
intellectual powers were much above the common level. With a luxurious 
fancy, he united a great facility of expression and a keenness of wit. In 1791 
the Echo was set on foot at Hartford, being a series of burlesque pieces, de- 
signed to ridicule the inflated style adopted by the Boston editors in describing 
common events. The writers were Alsop, Hopkins, Dwight, Cogswell, 
Trumbull and others, called, by way of distinction, the Hartford Wits. fVom 
the pen of the first, is the following burlesque imitation of a piece in one of the 


Erasmus Holly which has always been among the most popu- 
lar institutions of learning, was projected by the Rev. John H. 
Livingston and the Hon. John Vanderbilt, soon after the declara- 
tion of peace, in 1783. In 1786 the sum of $2287 was raised 
toward the object, of which Mr. Vanderbilt gave $250. The 
building, 100 feet by 36, was erected the same year, the whole 
expense of which was $6250. It was incorporated by the re- 
gents of the university, Nov. 20, 1787, and the first trustees 
were : — 

Comfort Sands, John Vanderbilt, George Martense, 

Phillip Nag«l, Walter Minto, Jacob Leflerts, 

Peter Cornell, Peter Lefferts, William B. Giflbrd, 

John H. Livingston, Johannes E. Lott, Hendrick Saydam, 

James Wilson, Aguilla Giles, John J. Vanderbilt, 

Samuel Provost, * Cornelius Vanderveer, Martinus Schoonmaker, 

John Mason. 

Among the Ust of contributors to the building, are the names of 
George Clinton, John Jay, Robert R. Livingston, Aaron Burr, 
John Sloss Hobart, Richard Piatt, Brockholst Livingston, Alex- 
ander Hamilton, Edward Livingston and 32 others. 

The Rev. John H. Livingston^ D, D., was appointed principal 
in 1787, but resigned in 1792. His successors were, Peter Wil- 
son, L. L. D., Rev. Peter Lowe, Rev. Joseph Penny, Rev. Tim- 
othy Clowes, L. L. D., Jonathan W. Kellogg, Rev. WiUiam H. 
Campbell, Rev. Dr. Penny, and Mr. James Ferguson, the present 

The edifice is large, spacious and airy, and is a very complete 
establishment in all respects ; having sufficient grounds, filled 

public papers, giving in prose a bombastic account of the burning of a barn by 
lightning, and is a fair 9ample of others. 

"At Cambridge town, the selfsame day, 
A barn was burnt, well fiUM with hay ; 
Some say, the lightning turnM it red, 
Some, that the thunder struck it dead ; 
Some say, it made the cattle stare. 
Some, that it killed an aged mare, 
But we expect the truth to learn 
From Mr. Rythe, who ownM the bam.** 


with forest and ornamental trees, shrubbery and flowering plants. 
It has also a library of more than 1500 volumes, besides a philoso- 
phical apparatus and mineralogical cabinet.* 

In the year 1807, one of the most extensive printing establish- 
ment in the United States was established here by the late Isaac 
Riley, who married the sister of Richard Aslop, Esq. It contin- 
ued in operation about seven years, and was then broken up, not 
answering the expectations of its projector. 

The Poor House of the county of Kings, is located at a short 
distance from the village ; the farm appertaining to which, con- 
tains sixty acres of excellent land, the cost of which was three 
thousand dollars.- The main building is forty-four feet square, 
with wings, each sixty by thirty-five feet. The whole is two 
stories in height. There is also a detached building, which is ap- 
propriated to patients laboring under infectious diseases ; and an- 
other intended for deranged persons, where the unfortunate indi- 
viduals are treated with all the attention that humanity requires. 

East New York is already a village of no small importance in 
the northeast part of the town, and owes its existence to the en- 
* terprise and untiring exertions of John R. Pitkin, Esq., a gentle- 
man not more distinguished for his intelligence, than for his sin- 
gular industry and indefatigable perseverance in whatever he un- 
dertakes. With him, a failure is not considered a defeat ; and 
instead of relaxing, adds additional stimulus to exertion. 

The place will doubtless become an important location for man- 
ufactures and mechanical industry, being advantageously situated 
on the line of the Long Island Rail Road, and only six miles from 
the ferry. Several streets and avenues are partially built up, and 
a good deal of manufacturing has already been accomplished. A 
reformed Dutch church was erected in 1839, of which the Rev. 

* Among the number who have received a classical education at this semi- 
nary, may be mentioned the following: — William A. Duer, late president of 
Columbia. College, his brother John Duer, John McPherson Berrien, late At- 
torney General of the United States, Geo. M. Troup, governor of Georgia, 
Rev. John Blair Linn, late minister of the Dutch church, N. Y., Rev. John 
H. Meyers, Rev. Jacob Schoonmaker, Rev. Peter Labagh, Rev. Peter Van 
Pelt, Rev. Phillip Duryee, and the Hon. John A. Lott. 


Martinus Scboonmaker, son of Jacobus and grandson of the Rev. 
Martinus Schoontnaker, ivas installed pastor Sept. 25, 1S42. 

The following persons have held the office of town' clerk at 
various periods, from 1650: — Adrien Hegeman, Jacop Joosten, 
Francays De Bruynne, Michael Hainell, Jan Gerrit Van M arckje, 
Derick Storm, Johannes Van Eklen, Johannes Schenck, Abraham 
Lott, John Gancell, Adrian Hegeman, Jeremiah Van Der Bilt, 
Petrus Van Steenbergh, John Lcflferts, Phillip Nagle, John Van 
Der Bilt, John C. Vanderveer, Garret Stryker, Abraham Vander- 
▼eer, Adrian Hegeman, William Ellsworth, William Hegeman, 
and John A. Lott.* 



This ancient town, the whole of which is now included in the 
city of Brooklyn, lies upon the western end of Long Island, opposite 
the southern portion of the city of New York, and'separated from 
it by the East River, which is about one mile in width. The 
length of the town, from northeast to southwest/ is six miles, and 
its greatest breadth four, giving an area of 9,200 acres, a very con- 
siderable part of which is laid out into streets, avenues and build- 
ing lots. The general surface is quite elevated, and wasoriginal- 
ly hilly and stony, hence the ancient name of Breucklandy or 
broken land. 

The soU, in common with the residue of the county, was a part 
of the territory claimed by the Canarsee or Canavsie Indians, in- 
habiting the northeastern portien of it, and from whom it is pre- 
sumed, some sort of title was obtained by the Dutch authorities. 

The position of this tribe, so near to the bay and at the conflu- 
ence of the North and East Rivers, rendered them obnoxious to 

* It is with great pleasure that the compiler acknowledges himself indebted, 
for moch of the matter contained in this article, to a copious and feithful 
** History of the Town of Flatbush,'' lately published by the Rev. Dr. Strong, 
justor of the reformed Dutch church there, in which he has exhibited much 
iodostrj, ability and antiquariaa research. 


invasion from other more numerous and warlike tribes, and they 
were therefore, nrobably tributary to them. They were, likewise, 
compelled to concilitate the forbearance of their enemies, and thus 
preserve themselves from extermination, by repeated contributions 
of dried clams, and wampum also, both which articles, their local 
advantages enabled them to supply, in great abundance. At an 
early period of the settlement, by the white people, the natives 
were advised by them to withhold the accustomed tribute to the 
other Indians, being promised by their new neighbors full protec- 
tion, on account of what they considered a most unjust exaction. 
But it seems, that in consequence of adopting this advice, they 
were afterwards unexpectedly assailed by a hostile force from dif- 
ferent points, and great numbers of them, either destroyed on the 
spot or carried away captives. 

The name conferred upon this town by the Dutch was Breuck- 
len, (or broken land ;) and in the act for dividing the province into 
counties and towns, passed November 1, 1685, it is called Breuck- 
lyn ; the present manner of spelling the ijame not appearing to have 
been adopted tintil after the Revolution. Many changes have 
doubtless taken place upon the shores of the town, and it is be- 
lieved that Governor's Island was once connected with Red Ho(dc 

It is well known that, at no long period anterior to the war of 
our Independence, cattle were driven across. what is now c^led 
Buttermilk Channel, which at this time is of sufficient depth to af- 
ford a passage to vessels of the largest class. The alteration is no 
doubt attributable, to the vast extension of the wharves on both 
sides of the river, thereby diverting the course, and increasing the 
force of the currents. 

The first European settler in this town is supposed to have bee 
George Jansen de Rapclje, at or near the Waalboght, or Waaloonae 
Bay, dujring the directorship of Peter Minuit, and under the char- 
ter of the West India Company. In a family record still pre— ; 
served, it is stated that the first child of Rapelje, was Sarah, boi 
in 1625, who was unquestionably the first white child, bom o" 
Dutch parents, upon Long Island. Watson says, she was bomoi 
the 9th of June, and honored as the first-born child of the Dutc 
settlers ; also that, in consideration of such distinction, and of h 



widowhood, she was afterwards presented, with a tract of land at 
the Wallabout. 

She was twice married ; first to Hans Hanse-Bergen, by whom 
she had six children, namely, Michael Hanse, Joris Hanse, Jan 
Hanse, Jacob Hanse, Breckje Hanse^ and Marytje Hanse, Her 
second husband was Teunis Guisbertse Bogert, by wh(Mn also 
she had six children, namely, Auriie, Anlje, Neelje, Aultje, Catal- 
yntje, and Guysbert. The account of this remarkable woman, in 
the archives of the New York Historical Society, contains the 
iiames of the persons, to whom eleven of her children were mar- 
ried, and the places also, where they settled. The twelfth child, 
Breckje Hanse, it seems, went to Holland. 

In the journal of the Dutch council, 1656, it is related that " the 
"Widow Hans Hanson, the first-born christian daughter in New 
Netherlands, burdened with seven children, petitions for a grant 
of a piece of meadow, in addition to the twenty morgan granted to 
lier at the Waale-Boght." There is also a tradition in the family, 
'ftliat the Indians induced by the circumstance, of her being the first 
"Vrhite child born here, gave to her father and brethren, with the 
IFrench, who followed them, the lands adjacent to the bay ; hence 
^zalled (says Judge Benson,) Het-Waale-Boghty which has been 
<:orrupted to Wallabout Bay. 

A few of the other associates of De Rapelje were Le Escnyer, 
3)aryee, La Sillier. Cershow, Conscillaer, Musserol ; these, with 
some changes in the mode of spelling, arc still found among us. 
3t appears by the Dutch records, that in 1634 a part ot the land at 
IRed Hook, was the property of Wouter Van Twiller, being one 
of the oldest titles in the town. The earliest deed for land was 
^iven by Governor Kieft to Abraham Rycken (or Riker) in 1638. 
He was the only son of Guisbert, and the common ancestor of the 
Riker family upon Long Island. The land mentioned in this deed 
was situated near the head of the bay, formed by the projections 
of Red and Yellow Hook, and described as " a certain piece of 
land situated upon Long Island, over against Rennegaconck, ex- 
tending from the creeke in the Hole, E. N. E., and W. S. W. ; 
in size the length of the creeke, and in right breadth 500 rods, to 
which is added a third part of the Hay-Vly, situated behind the 
land of George Rapelje and Guisbert Ryken, upon condition that 
Vol. II.- 28 


said Abraham and his heirs, shall acknowledge the noble Lo: 
Managers as his Lords and Patrons, and recognize the 80vereignt.;3^ 
of the High and Mighty Lords, the States General ; and their D x— 
rector and Council here in all things obey, as good citizens.** 
This conveyance was further confirmed by an instrument, dated a/ 
Fort Amsterdam, Aug. 8, 1640. 

The most ancient grant found upon record, was given to Tho- 
mas Besker in 1639, and must be considered as the commence- 
ment of permanent Dutch settlements on Long Island, as there is 
no evidence of any direct and systematic efforts, being made for 
the purpose, till that period. 

In 1641, the governor and council, in order to strengthen their 
claim to Long Island, consented that English emigrants should 
settle under their jurisdiction also, on taking the oath of allegiance 
to the States General, and the Dutch West India Company. The 
following grant for land in 1642, is given as a specimen of the 
mode of conveyances at that remote period ; 

" By William Kieflt, Director General and Connsellor, about the high and 
mighty Lords, the States General of the United Low Country, and his high- 
ness of Orange, and the Lords Commanders of the privileged West India 
Company, residing in the New Netherland, do ratify and declare by these pre- 
sents, that we, upon the date hereinafler written, did give and grant to Jan 
Manje, a piece of land, greatly twenty morgan, stretching about south-east 
one hundred and ninety rods inward the woods, towards to Sassians maise 
land — ^long is the limits of the said maise land fifiy rod, and then again to the 
water side, two hundred and twenty rod, about north north-west, well so north- 
erly and along the strand or water side, seventy rod. Which above said land 
is lying upon Long Island, between Andries Hudde and Claes Janse Ruyter. 
With express conditions, &c. Dated at Fort Amsterdam, in the New Neth- 
erland, the 11th day of September, 1642. 


" By order of the Lord the Director General, and Counsellor of New Neth- 

" Cornelius Vantiknhoven, Sec^ry.*^ 

Between the years 1 642 and 1 647, grants v^rere made by Gover- 
nor Kieft, to different individuals, for all the lands lying near the 
Brooklyn shore, from Red Hook Point to the Wallabout Bay, 
which were generally in the above form. 

Jan. 29, 1652, Pieter Linde, having married the widow of Jan 


anjey transported (sold and conveyed) the above tract of land to 
Janse. August 23, 1 674, before Nicasius de Sille, admit- 
ted secretary of the Dutch towns, appeared Jan Barentse,* and 
^uke Janse, with Simon Hansen, as guardian of the other chil- 
dren of Barent Janse, deceased, " procured by his wife Styntie 
neterse, deceased, all living within the town of Midwout Fflack- 
bush," and declared that they transported the above tract of land 
to Dirck Janse Woertman. ^ 

Sept. 12, 1645, WilHam Kieft, Director General, &c., patented 
to Andries Huddeu, " a piece of land lying upon Long Island, 
over against the fort, to the south-west of Jan Manje," containing 
37 morgen. Dec, 10, 1651, Pieter Comelissen, by virtue of a 
procuratie of Andries Hudden, and for the consideration of 400 
guilders, transported to Lodewyck Jongh the above tract. July 
19, 1676, Lodewyck Jongh transported to Jeronimus de Rapelje, 
eight morgen of the above tract Feb. 12, 1679, Harmatie Jan- 
«en, relict of Lodewyck Jongh, transported to Dirck Janse Woert- 
man, 12 morgen of the same tract. May 3, 1685, Dirck Janse 
"Woertman, transported to the heirs of Jooris Dirckse, a small 
stroke off land lying at the cast side off the highway, being all 
the claime they can pretende by virtue off the abovesaid Pattent. 
" Sept. 30, 1645, William Kieft, Director General, &c., patent- 
ed to Claes Janse, from Naerder, a piece of land, containing 20 
morgan, lying south-east, a little easterly, just over against the 
Fort, upon Long Island. March 11, 1660, the above tract of land 
was transported by Claes Janse Ruyter, to Machiell Tadens, who 
transported the same to Machiell Hainielle. 

The three patents to Manje, Hudde, and Janse, from Naerder, 
were located near the ferry in this town, and all subsequently 
were purchased by Derick Woortman, alias Dirck Janse Woert- 
man, and were sold by him to Joras Remsen, on the lOlh day of 
October, 1706, for the sum of £612 10s. current money of New 
That a general and prior patent had Acen granted to the town, 

* The costom of changing the names of sons, or rather substituting the sur- 
aames for the christian name, prevailed at this period ; as in the above iustance, 
tiwfather^s name was Barent Janse, and the son was called Jan Barentse. 



is certain, from the circumstance^ that such a patent is particula.jr/^ 
referred to, in the one subsequently executed by Governor Nico7/^ 
and also in conveyances between individuals, at a period still mcr^ 
remote, as the follov^ring extract from the records evince : — 

" Aug. lO/lA, 1695. — The patentees and freeholders of the town 
sold unto Stephanus Van Cortlandt the neck of land called Red 
Hook, containing, by estimation, fifty acres ; which they state in 
their deed was formerly given aH granted to the town of Broock- 
lyn in the year 1657, by Governor Stuyvesant, the Dutch gover- 
nor, then, at that time, and since confirmed by the English gover- 
nors, NicoUs and Dongan." 

Oct 18, 1667, his excellency, Richard Nicoll, first English 
governor of New York, granted to the inhabitants of Brooklyn, 
the following full and ample patent, thereby confirming them fully 
in their most important rights and privileges. 

" Richard Nicolls, Esq. Governor General under his Royal High- 
[ L. 8. ] ness James Duke of Yorke and Albany, &c. of all his Terretorya 
in America, To all to whom these presents shall come, sendeth 
Greeting. Whereas there is a certain town within this government, aitaate, 
lying and being ia the West Riding of Yorkshire, upon Long Island, commonly 
called and known by the name of Breukelen, which said town is in the tenure 
and occupation of several freeholders and inhabitants, who, having heretofore 
been seated there by authority, and planting a considerable part of the land 
belonging thereunto and settled a competent number of families thereupon. 

Now for a confirmation unto the said freeholders and inhabitants in their 
possessions and enjoyment of the premises, Know ye. That by virtue of the 
commission and authority unto me given by his Hoyal Highness, I have given, 
ratified, confirmed and granted, and by these presents do give, latify, confirm 
and grant, unto Jan Everts, Jan Damen, Albert Cornel issen, Paulua Veerbeeck, 
Michael Eneyl, Thomas Lamberts, Tuenis Guysbert }3ogart and Joris Jacob- 
sen, as patentees, fur and on the behalf of themselves and their associates, the 
freeholders and inhabitants of the said town their heirs, successors and as* 
signs, all that tract together with the several parcels of land which already — 
have or hereafter shall be purchased or procured fur and on b«?half of the said^ 
town, whether from the native Indian proprietors, or in the bounds and limits 
hereafter set forth and exprest — viz. that is to say, the town is bounded west- 
ward on the farther side of Mr. Paulus Veerbeck, from whence, stretching 
southeast, they goe over the hills, and to the eastward along the said hills to ik 
southeast point which takes in all the lotis behind the swamp ; from which said 
lottsthey run northwest to the river and extend to the farm on the toother side 
of the hill heretofore belonging to Hans Hansen, over against the Kicke or 



Xfooke-oat, including wilhin the said bounds and limits all the lots and planta- 
tions lying and being at the Gowanis, Bedford, Wallaboucht, and the Ferry. 
AU which said parcels and tracts of land and premises within the bounds 
and limttts aforementioned, described, and all or any plantation or plantations 
thermipon, from henceforth are to bee, appertaine and belong to the said town 
towB of Breucklen ; together with all havens, harbors, creeks, quarryes, wood- 
land, meadow*gro4ind, reed-land, or yalley of all sorts, pastures, marshes, 
runs, rivers, lakes, hunting, fishing, hawking, and fowling, and all other pro- 
fills, Qommodiiies, emoluments, and hcgreditaments, to the said lands and pre- 
mises within the bounds and limitts aforesaid belonging, or in any wise apper- 

And withal to have freedome of commonage for range and feed of cattle 
and horse into the woods, as well without as within these bounds and limitts, 
with the rest of their neighbors ; as also one-third part of a certain neck of 
meadow-ground or valley called Seller^s Neck, lying and being within the lim- 
its of the town of Jamaica, purchased by the said town of Jamaica from the 
Indians, and sold by them unto the inhabitants of Breucklen aforesaid, as it has 
lately been laid out and divided by their mutual consent and my order, wbere- 
noU> and from which they are likewise to have free egress and regress as their 
oecasions may require. 

To have and to hold all and singular tbe said tract and parcell of land, mea- 
dow irround or valley, commonage, hereditaments, and premises with thier and 
^erjr of thier appurtenances and every part and parcel thereof to the said 
Jiatentees and their associates, their heirs, successors and assigns, to the prp- 
P^T oae and beboof of the said patentees and their associates, their heirs, suc- 
o^asors and assigns forever. Moreover, I do hereby give, ratify, confirm and 
^S^nt onto the said Patentees and their associates, their heirs, successors and 
^^•i^ns, all the rights and privileges belonging to a town witbin this govern- 
El^ent« and that the place of their present habitation shall continue and retain 
name of Breuckelen, by which name and stile it shall be distinguished and 
n in all bargains and sales made by them the said Patentees and tbeir 
dates, their heirs, successors and assigns, rendering and paying such du- 
and acknowledgments as now are, or hereafter shall be constituted and 
■^lablinhrd by the laws of this government under the obedience of his Royal 
iH^haess, his heirs and successors. 

Gifren under my hand and seal at Fort James, in New York, on the Island 
if Manhattat, this 18th day of October, in the nineteenth year of the reign of 
»«JBT Sovereign Lord, Charles the second, by the grace of God, of England, 
9B^5ot!and, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the faith, &c. Annuque Do- 
■iLxni, 1667. Richard Nicoll. 

In 1670 the inhabitants, being desirous of increasing the quan- 
of their common lands, by extinguishing the Indian claim to 


lands not yet purchased, made application to Governor Lovelace, , 
and obtained from him the following license : 

** Whereas, the inhabitants of Breucklyn, in the West Riding of ^ 
[ L. 8. ] Yorkshire, npon Long Island, who were seated there in a town 

ship by the authority then in being ; and haying bin at consider- — > 
able charges in clearing, ffencing, and manuring their land, as well as boilding 
fibr their conveniency ; have requested my lycense for their further 8ecuriiy« 
to make purchase of the said land of some Indians, who lay claim and interest 
therein. These are to certify all whom it may concerne, that I have and d 
hereby give the said inhabitants lycense to purchase their land according t 
their request, the said Indians concerned appearing before me, as in the law 
required, and making their acknowledgments as to fully satisfyed and payd fo j 
the same. Given under my hand and seal at ffbrt James, in New-Yorke, this, 
ffirst of May, in the 22d yeare of his Majesty ies reigne. Anno Dom. 1670. 

*' Francis Loyelacb.** 

The above purchase had been agreed upon, on the 14th of May, 
1670, between the town and five Indian chiefs, from whom the 
following conveyance was procured : 

" To all people to whom this present writing shall come, Peter, Elmohar, 
Job, Makagiquas and Shamese, late of Staten Island, send greeting : Whereas, 
they the said Peter, Elmohar, Job, Makagaquos and Shamese, aforementioned, 
doe lay claime to the land now m the tenure and occupation of the inbabitanta 
of Breucklyn as well as other lands there adjacent, as the true Indian owneia 
and proprietors thereof, Know Yee, that for and in consideration of a certaine 
sum of wampum and diverse other goods, the which in the Schedule annezt 
are exprest unto the said Sachems in hand payd by Monsieur Machiell Hai- 
nelle, Thomas Lambertse, John Lewis, and Peter Darmantier, on the behalf 
of themselves and the inhabitants of Breucklyn, the receipt whereof they doe 
hereby acknowledge, and themselves to be fully satisfyed and paid therefore ; 
have given, granted, bargained and sold, and by these presents doe fully, freely 
and absolutely give, grant, bargain and sell, unto the said Monsieur Machiell 
Hainelle, Thomas Lambertse, John Lewis and Peter Darmantier, fibr and on 
behalf of themselves, and the inhabitants aforesaid, their heyrs and succea- 
sors ; all that parcell of land and tract of land, in and about Bedford, wiihin 
the jurisdiction of Brucklyn, beginning (from Hendrick Van Aamhems land 
by a swamp of water and stretching to the hills, then going along the hills to 
the port or entrance thereof, and soe to Rockaway fibot path as their purchase 
is more particularly sett fTorth. 

To have and to hold all the said parcell and tract of land and premises with- 
in the limits before described unto the said Monsieur Machiell Hainelle, Tho- 
mas Lambertse, John Lewis, and Peter Darmantier, fibr and on the behalf of 
the inhabitants aforesaid, their heyres and successors, to the proper use and 


and demands whatsoeTer, as a qait rent to his most sacred Majesty aforea^^aitf^ 
his heirs and successors, at the city of New York, twenty bashels of goodn^ «r. 
cbantable wheat. In testimony whereof, I have caused these presents Xt^ be 
entered and recorded in the Secretary's office, and the seal of the Province to 
be hereunto affixed this thirteenth day of May, Anno Domino, one thousand six 
hundred and eighty-six, and in the second year of his Majesty's reign. 

" Thomas DonoAN.*' 

Under this and other patents, considerable sums have been paid 
at different times as quit-rents, for which receipts have been pre- 
served. June 8, 1713, there was paid to Benjamin Vandewater, 
treasurer, the sum of £96 7s. Id. for upwards of sixteen years 
quit-rent. April 6, 1775, Charles Debevoice, collector of the town, 
paid to the receiver-general of the colony, twenty bushels of wheat 
for one year's quit-rent; and, Nov. 9, 1786, Fernandus Suydam 
and Charles C. Doughty, two of the trustees of the town, paid to 
the treasurer of this state, £105 10s. in full for arrears of quit-rent 
due from the town. 

During the early years of the colony, the ferry then in use went 
from near the foot of Joralemon street to the Breedc Graft, now 
Broad street, in the city of New York ; but it is difficult, sa 
Judge Furman, to ascertain the exact period when the ferry wa 

first established at its present situation, on the Brooklyn side. Iv^ .t 
appears that, in 1693, John Areson, then lessee of the ferry, com 
plained of his inability to pay the rent of £147, and it was in coi 
sequence thereof, reduced to £140. 

At this time the ferriage for a single person, was eight stivers 
wampum, or a silver two-pence ; each person in company, h^i^f 
that sum ; and if after sunset, double price ; for each horse or bea^^s^ 
one shilling if single, or nine pence if in company. In 1698 I&^ip 
Van Dam took a lease of the ferry for seven years at £165 p^er 
annum. During the Revolution the old ferry was kept by V" 
Winkle and Bukett, when the usual charge for crossing was j 

The town having acquired so great an extent of common lai 
by the purchase made in 1670, as above mentioned, the inhabitafll 
thought proper to make a division of it, as well as of their oth( 
lands ; accordingly, " At a town meeting held on the 25th day o- 


Feb. 1692-'3 at Breuklyn, they Resolved to divide the common 
lands and woods, into three parts, as follows, to witt : 

" 1 . All the lands and woods after Bedford and Cripplebush, 
over the hills to the path of Newlotts, shall belong to the inhabi- 
tants and freeholders of the town of Gowanis, beginning from Ja- 
cob Brewer and soe to llie uttermost bounds of the limits of New 

" 2. And all the lands and woods tliat lyes betwixt the above- 
said path and the highway from the ferry towards Flatbush, shall 
belong to the freeholders and inhabitants of Bedford and Cripple- 

" 3. And all the lands that lyes in common after the Gowanis, 
betwixt the limits and bounds of Flatbush and New Utrecht, shall 
beloi\g to the freeholders and inhabitants of Brooklyn, fred. neck, 
the ferry and the Wallabout." This proceeding of the town meet- 
ing was allowed of by the court of sessions, held at Flatbush on 
the 10th of May, 1693. 

The following will serve to show the manner in which the in- 
habitants of the town elected trustees of common lands, and the 
duties of such trustees. ** Att a towne meeting held this 29th day 
off Aprill, 1699, at Breucklyn, by order off Justice Machiel Hans- 
seen, ffor to chose townsmen ffor to order all townes business and 
to deffend theire limitts and bounds, and to dispose and lay out 
sum part thereoff in lotts, to make lawes and orders ffor the best 
off the inhabitants, and to raise a small tax ffor to defray the towne 
charges, now being or hereafter to come, to receive townes re- 
venues, and to pay townes debts ; and that with the advice off the 
Justices off this said towne standing the space and time off two 
years. Chosen ffor that purpose by pluralitie off votes. Benja- 
min Van de Water, Joores Hanssen, Jan Garretse Dorlant. By 
order of the inhabitants aforesaid. I. Vande Water, Clarke." 

In consequence of the very great deficiency of records in this 
town, it has been found impossible to give so connected a history 
of ancient events, as is on many accounts desirable. That full 
and interesting records once existed, is undoubted, and it is be- 
lieved they were either destroyed, or carried away by the person 
in possession of them, during the Revolution. 

It was to be expected that, in a state of hostility, every measure 

Vol. n. 29 


would be adopted by either party to afHict its enemies, yet it may 
be questioned whether, abstracting the records of a country, was 
strictly justifiable, by the customs and usages of civilized warfare.* 
The hope is by some still entertained, that these important do- 
cuments yet exist, and that by proper exertions they may yet be 
found, deposited in some one of the public offices in England. 
Some facts of recent occurrence seem to corroborate this opin- 
ion ; and a correspondence was set on foot a few years since, 
between Gen. Jeremiah Johnson, supervisor of the town, and 
Governor Clinton, which led to an imperfect examination in one 
or more places in London, where it was supposed the said records 
might chance to be deposited ; but, as might have been expected, 
nothing satisfactory was elicited. The subject matter of this cor- 
respondence is sufficiently important, to justify its insertion in this 

General Johnson to Governor Clinton, 

Albany, April 11, 1837. 

I visited this city, in December last, for the purpose of exiLmining the Dutch 
records and public papers in the secretary's office, particularly the Dutch pa- 
tents of the towns of Brooklyn, Flatbush, Flatlands, and Jamaica ; and not 
finding them, the search was continued among the English records to the year 
1684, wherein I found that in that year the governor and council of the colony 
issued an order commanding all the inhabitants of the Dutch towns in the pro- 
vinces of New York and New Jersey to bring their Dutch patents and Indian 
deeds into the secretary's office in New York. This measure^ in my opinion, 
accounts for the absence of many papers supposed to be lost. Subsequent to 
my search in the office in 1826, 1 had been informed that many old papers re- 
lating to this state are in the colonial office in London. And, as the reco 
of the town of Brooklyn were removed during the Revolutionary war, 1 enter 
tain a hope that wo may regain them. This information is presented to yo 
Excellency in the expectation that inquiry may be made in London whethe 
the papers alluded to, or authenticated copies, cannot be obtained. The reco — 
very of the records of the town would be of great importance, and the patents 
and Indian deeds serve to improve the history of the town. 

Yours, respectfully, 

Jeremiah Johnson, Siqi)ervisor. 

His Excellency, Governor Clinton. 


Governor Clinton to Albert Gallatin, Esq, 

• Albani/y I2lh May, 1837. 
I take the liberty of transmitting to you a letter from General Johnson, a 
ipectable citizen of this state, and of requesting your attention to it. Ac- 
cording V> A report made at the last session of congress, there will be no diffi- 
salty on the part of the British government. The papers wanted may be found 
Ln the former plantation office. 

Yours, &c. 

De Witt Clinton. 
Albert Gallatin, Esq. 

Mr. Gallatin to Governor Clinton. 

London, 25M August, 1837. 


I had the honor to receive your Excellency's letter 13th May last, enclosing 

one from General Johnson, and requesting that application might be made to 

this gov^nment for certain town records, and other papers therein mentioned 

ma having been carried away, and being now either in the colonial office, or that 

«f trade and plantations in London. I regret to say, that after diligent inquiry, 

mod although the various departments here were anxious for the restoration of 

the papers if they could be found, there is no trace of them whatever. There 

are two deposites for records and documents connected with the colonies ; the 

<»ffice of the Board of Trade and Plantations, and the State Paper office, where 

the records and papers of the colonial, as well as the home and* foreign depart- 

sieots, are kept. There is nothing in the colonial office ; and you will perceive 

\rf the enclosed letters, that nothing was found in the others ; and that it is 

lielieved the papers in question were carried away by individuals who never 

deposited them in any office. Mr. Charles Grant, the writer of two of the 

aotes, is the vice-president of the board of trade, one of the commissioners 

appointed to treat with me, a gentleman of distinguished merit and obliging 

disposition. Another search may nevertheless be made, if Gen. Johnson will 

atate the time when the records were carried away, and other circumstances, 

which may afford a cue to the inquiry. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

Albert Gallatin. 
His Excellency, De Witt Clinton. 


Charles Grants Esq. to Albert Gallatin, 

London^ August 14, 1827. 
Dear Sir : 
1 have only this morning received the enclosed from Mr. Rice, whose ab- 
sence from town prevented hia sooner transmitting it to me. I regret mach 
the result. As a last hope, I have sent Governor Clinton's letter to the cdo- 
Dial office, that inquiries may be made ; but I fear there is little probability of 

I am, Sir, &c, 

C. Grant. 
A. Gallatin, Esq. 

Spring Rice, Esq. to Charles Grant, Esq. 

My Dear Grant : 
On coming down to the office this morning, I found the enclosed, which re- 
lates to your communication with me. I enclose it as the best meaos of an- 
swering Mr. Gallatin's request, regretting that we cannot do more to furnish 
you with the information requested. 

Ever and most truly yours. 

Spring Rice. 

The Hon. Gabriel Furman, in speaking of the history of this 
town, observes, ** its great antiquity is apparent from the fact, that 
the English colonists, who came from Holland, for professed pur* 
poses of settlement, were those brought out in 1623, only two 
years before the settlement of Brooklyn, in the ship of Capt. Kor- 
nelis Jacobse Mey ; and that soon after, two ships of the 
India Company brought, as agriculturists, the Walloons, who set- — 
tied in Brooklyn." 

In 1646, the town was allowed to choose two magistrates, wh(^ 
were authorized " to give judgment in all events as they shouU^ 
deem proper, not contrary to the charter of New Netherlands '^ 
and, to give complete effect to their authority, the governor or^ 
dered, that if any one disobeyed the decision of the magistrates^ 
he should forfeit his right to the lands within the village. Thi9 
privilege seems not to have been extended to any other town, pro- 
bably because no other was, at that time, so populous as to re— 
quire it. 

The first public officer appointed by the government, for thi^ 
town, after the settlement was commenced in 1625, was that o^ 


,^ruperintendenty whose particular duty it was, to preserve the pub- 
lic peace of the plantation, and in general, to regulate whatever 
sappertained to the police of the town. But a few years after, 
't:,hi8 office was abolished, and those of scout, secretary and as- 
sessor, created. 

These latter officers, like most others, received their appoint- 
xnent immediately from the executive, either upon the recommen- 
dation of the people, or without, as the case might be. 

The inhabitants suffered greatly from the despotic exercise of 
j[>ower by the government, and frequently remonstrated against it, 
T)ut without the desired effect. However, it eventually happened, 
*that a convention of delegates from this and the neighboring 
towns, or settlements, assembled at New Amsterdam, Nov. 26, 
1663, by invitation from the governor himself, yet so little satis- 
factory was the rfesult, that on the 11th of Dec. following, they 
drew up and signed a remonstrance, against the unjust and tyran- 
ical exclusion of the people from any share in legislation, and 
generally against the mode in which, the government was admin- 

The governor and his self-created council, did not conde scend 
to reply to the remonstrance formally, bjt nevertheless, entered a 
decision upon their minutes, in which they fully denied the right 
of the towns of Brooklyn, Flatbush and Flatlands to send depu- 
ties to the convention, and protested against the meeting also, 
notwithstanding it was held at the governor's own special request. 
Entertaining a proper sense of their responsibility, both to the 
government and their fellow citizens, the deputies made another, 
kut it seems, ineffectual attempt to obtain a recognition of their 
^^ul rights and privileges. They presented on the 13th of the 
***<i month, another remonstrance, in which they declared in the 
01031 spirited and resolute manner, that unless they could obtain 
yustj'oe from the governor and council, they should be even under 
^p xiecessity of appealing to their superiors in Holland. At 
^^^ crisis, the worthy governor, in a paroxysm of passion, dis- 
.^*^od the meeting, and sent the delegates, without further satis- 
fDn, to their homes, 
order more effectually to secure the inhabitants against In- 
dcpredations, the governor had, in 1660, required them to for- 


tify themselves. This was to be done by erecting palisades, set 
close to each other, made sharp at the top, and not less than 
eight feet above the ground. Within the enclosure thus made, it 
was ordered, that ihe whole number of families should be remo- 
ved during the night, and in other seasons of special danger. 

This regulation was probably made in consequence of threaten- 
ed hostilities from the North River Indians, who had, in 1665^ 
made a descent upon Staten Island and murdered a great number 
of persons, at which time the settlements of Gravesend, as has 
been seen, was only saved, by the timely arrival of soldiers sent 
from the city. There was, therefore, good reasons for believing 
that the opportunity was only wanting for them, to renew their de- 
predations in this quarter. 

In May, 1661, Governor Stuyvesant recommended Charles De 
Bevoice as . a suitable person for school-master of the town, and 
also as clerk and sexton of the church, for all which he was to be 
allowed a fair compensation. • 

It was particularly enjoined upon the overseers of the poor, and 
the constables likewise, toccasionally to admonish the people, to 
cause their children and servants to be well instructed in matters 
of religion, and in the laws of the country. They appointed be- 
sides an officer, to record every man's particular mark for cattle, 
and to see that horses and colts were properly branded. 

They were moreover .required to pay the value of an Indian 
coat for the killing of every wolf, and its head was ordered to be 
nailed over the door of the constable, as evidence that the reward 
had been paid. 

In Oct. 1675, an order was made by the court of assize, that 
a fair or market should be held yearly near the ferry, for the sale 
and exchange of commodities, especially cattle and other produce 
of the farmer, to be kept on the first Monday in November, and be 
continued for three days in succession. 

Although it appears that the population of the town was 
augmented more or less, during every year from the beginning of 
the settlement, yet previous to the incorporation of the village of 
Brooklyn in 1816, the increase was generally much less than after 
that event ; indeed within the last twenty years the accession of 


population, business and wealth, has been greater in amount, than 
during the period of one hundred years preceding. 

In the year 1706, the real and personal estate in the town, were 
estimated at the sum of JC312 only, the taxes upon which amount- 
ed to the inconsiderable sum of j£41 ; whereas in the year 1824, 
valuation of real and personal property exceeded two millions 
hundred thousand dollars, and the taxes thereupon to between 
and seven thousand dollars.* 
The oldest building supposed to be now standing in the town, 
is situated at Gowanus, in the southern part of the city, owned, 
lor several generations, by the Cortelyou family, which was doubt- 
less considered a very fine and substantial edifice, at the period of 
its erection, in 1699. It is a double house, built of stone, and 
was occupied by the commander-in-chief of the American army 
in 1776, a short time, anterior to the battle of Long Island. A 
correct view of this venerable mansion of by-gone days, is here 
presented, and shows it to have been no mean affair at the time of 
its completion. 

*In 1706, the whole number of freeholders in the town was sixty-four, and 

slow was the increase afterwards, that in 1802 they amounted to eighty- 
mx only, being an addition of twenty-two in a period of ninety-six years. 

The population in 1814 was 3,805 ; in 1816, 4,402 ; in 1820, 7,475 ; in 1825, 
10,791 ; in 1830, 15,295 ; in 1835, 24,310 ; and in 1840, 36,233 ; exhibiting an 
increase of nearly twelve thousand inhabitants, in five years. The population 
at this time is probably little, if any, short of forty thousand. 

In 1834, when the city of Brooklyn was incorporated, the real and personal 
property were assessed for the purpose of taxation, as follows, to wit : — Real 
esUte, $13,391,734 ; personal estate, 2,250,556 ; total, $15,642,290. In the 
year 1840, the real estate was valued at $22,546,675; personal estate, 
#9,900,471 ; making the sum total, $25,447,146. 



Another liousc, still more ancient, stood, a few years since, on 
the spot now occupied by Market street, and was owned by Jacob < 
Patchen, who will be long remembered, in the town, for his untir- — 
ing resistance to every measure, taken by the corporation, to get ^ 
possession of the ground, on which the mansion stood. Itwas.^ 
built by the Kemsen family, immcfliatcly after their arriTal iiiK-a 

We are indebted to Judge Funnan'a interesting sketch of Brook — . 
lyn, for the following items collected from the ancient records, 'a^B 
well as for many other particulars, in relation to this town : — _ 

" For tlie first two or three years under the English govern- - 
ment, the magistrates of this town were but temporary officers -^ 
Nearly all that we know about the government, previous to 1669 ■"" 
is, that town courts were established in the colony. The infer — ■ 
ence would be, that as this town ^^s granted ' all the rights anc=^ 
privileges belonging to a town within tlie government,' a towr — ' 
court was also organized here. 

" The town clerk, it seems, was appointed by the governor' 
and confirmed by the court of sessions, as will appear by the fol^ — ■ 
towing record. At a court of sessions held at Gravesend for th^^ 
West Riding of Yorkshire upon Long Island, December 15, 166^ 
' Whereas Derick Storm presented an order from his Hon. ih^^ 
Governor, for the approbation of the Court of Sessions, to allov^ 
him to be towne clerk of Breucklen, taking his oath, the clerft-* 
being allowed thereof, and doe hereby confirme him as Gierke c» — 
the said towne.' 


"In the year 1669, the first mention is made in the records of 
the ' Constable of Breucklen ;' which office at that period was 
held by Michael Lenell. The duties of constable, as laid down 
in the Duke's laws were, holding town courts with the overseers, 
and with them making assessments, &c., whipping, or punishing 
offenders, raising the hue and cry after murderers, manslayers, 
thieves, robbers, burglarers ; and also to apprehend, without war- 
rant, such as were overtaken with drink, swearing, Sabbath break- 
ing, vagrant persons, or night walkers ; * provided they bee taken 
in the manner, either by the sighte of the constable, or by 
present informacon from others ; as also to make searche for all 
such persons either on y« Sabbath daye, or other, when there shall 
bee occasion, in all houses licensed to sell beere or wine, or any 
other suspected or disordered places, and those to apprehend and 
keepe in safe custody till opportunity serves to bring them before 
the next Justice of y* peace for further examinacon.' The con- 
stable was chosen out of the number of overseers, whose term of 
service had expired." 

" August 30, 1701. John Bybon sold to Cornelius Vanderhove, 
for j£^d7 10s. the one equal half part of a brewhouse, situate at 
Bedford, in the town of Brookland, fronting the highway leading 
firom Bedford to Cripplcbush ; together with one equal half part 
of all the brewing vessels, &c. 

" In 1685, a Windmill was erected in this town by John Vannise 
and Peter Hendricks, for Michael Hainell. There is great reason 
to believe that this was the first mill erected in this town. August 
19, 1689, an agreement was entered into between Cornelius Se- 
bering, of Brookland, and John Marsh of East Jersey, relative to 
building a water mill on Graver's kill in this town." 

A few years since there were seven water mills and two wind 

" Feb. 16, 1823, to Feb. 15, 1824, 5825 barrels of superfine flour, 
960 barrels of fine flour, and 124 hogsheads of com meal were in- 
spected in this county. The most, if not all of which, was manu- 
factured at the mills in this town. 

"1671, This town, with five others in the West Riding of 
"Yorkshire upon Long Islandj petitioned the Court of Sessions * for 
liberty to transport wheate,' which was referred to the Governor. 
Vol. II. 30 


" 1687. The Clerk's oflSce of Kings County was kept in this 
town, by the Deputy Register, Jacob Vandewater, who was also a 
Notary PubHc at the same period. The Register, Samuel Bayard, 
Esq. resided in the city of New York." 

About the year 1691, there was a custom prevalent in this town 
of calling a widow the ** last wife" of her deceased husband ; and 
a widower the " last man" of his deceased wife. 

The controversies which have heretofore existed between this 
town and the corporation of the city of New York, in relation to 
the right of establishing and regulating ferries over the East 'River, 
and the right of the latter to the soil upon the Brooklyn side of the 
river, below the ancient high water mark, are matters of the highest 
interest to the citizens of Brooklyn, but the statement and discus- 
sion of them in this place, would require much research and occup 
more room, than could well be spared by us, for the purpose. Equaldy 
and exact justice between the parties, would seem to require, thai 
some concessions should be made, by which the people of Brook* 
lyn might have a small share at least in so important a franchise, 
and where the intercourse between the two cities is so immense. 
Doubts have also been entertained, and not without reason, as to 
the validity of the title of the United States, to much of the terri- 
tory claimed by them at the Wallabout, and now enclosed within 
the Navy Yard fence. 

Aug. 1, 1795, a ferry was established from the foot of Main 
street across the river, by the Hon. William Furman and the late 
Theodosius Hunt, on a lease from the corportion of New York ; 
and Jan. 24, 1814, a lease for the ferry from Beekman Slip to the 
foot of the present Fulton street, was granted for the term of twenty- 
five years, to the late Robert Fulton and William Cutting, at the 
rent of $4000 a year, which, doubtless, proved a very profitable ar- 
rangement for the lesspes and their successors. 

The ferry at the foot of Atlantic street, has been established, in 
connection with the Long Island Rail Road, which with the one 
now in operation, at the foot of Fulton street, are included in the 
same lease. The steam boats on these ferries are of the first class, 
and which cross the river almost constantly day and night, through- 
out the year. The same may also be said of the ferry from the 
foot of Main street, to Catherine Slip, New York. 


The steamboat, called the Nassau, which cost $33,000, com- 
menced running on the Fulton Ferry, May 1, 1814 ; — the first 
tinoie steam was ever used, for propelling boats between the two 

April 2, 1801, an act was passed vesting certain powers in the 
freeholders and inhabitants of a part of the town of Brooklyn, the 
sixth section of which, authenticates the copies of old records 
of roads, which had recently been transferred from the town 
clerk's office, to the citv clerk's office. The limits of the fire dis- 
trict were first established in 1807. 

The most compact part of the town was incorporated into a vil- 
lage, on the 12th of April, 1816, which although, violently opposed 
by some of the inhabitants, as well from ignorance, as from the 
most deep rooted prejudice, gave nevertheless, a new impetus 
to the spirit of improvement, which animated the minds of others, 
and has resulted in raising Brooklyn from the condition of an in- 
significant hamlet, to the second in rank among the cities of the 

The village charter authorized the election, thereafter, of five 
trustees, and those named in the act of incorporation were, An- 
drew Mercein, John Garrison, John Doughty, John Seaman, and 
John Dean, all of whom are now deceased. This charter was 
subsequently amended, and the powers of the corporation repeat- 
edly enlarged, till it became, in a manner, indispensable to confer 
upon the place the name and privileges of a city. 

April 8, 1834, the entire territory of the town was incorporated, 
as the " City of Brooklyn^'' and its inhabitants were constituted 
a body corporate and politic, by the style of " The Mayor and 
Common Council of the city of Brooklyn." 

The city is divided into nine wards, and the powers of the cor- 
poration are vested in the mayor, and a board of aldermen, com- 
posed of two freeholders, elected by the voters of each ward. 
This board have the appointment of most of the subordinate offi- 
cers of the city, with power in the mayor to preside at all the 
meetings of the board, but without any vote, even in case of an 
equal division of the members ; and the board may pass any or- 
dinance or resolution, notwithstanding the objection of the mayor. 
The election of mayor and aldermen to be made on the second 


Tuesday of April. The common council to appoint a clerk, trea- 
surer, attorney, marshals, collector, &c. ; also fix the salary to be 
paid to the mayor, and to do many other things, particularized in 
the said act, and usual in other cities. 

In the fire department, which is under the control of the com- 
mon council, there is a chief engineer and five assistants. The 
city now contains some fifteen or more engine, hook and ladder 
companies, who constitute a yery efficient corps of officers and 

The ancient village of Bedford^ upon the eastern part of the 
town, has lost its identity, and is swallowed up in the general pro- 
gress of improvement. 

Gowanus is that part of the city which adjoins Flatbush and 
the waters of Gowanus Cove, and consists principally of a lo 
tract of salt marsh, ponds and creeks, over which a highway 
bridge have been constructed. The village or settlement of Gow- 
anus, separately considered, contains a respectable population, 
and from whence a fine road leads to Fort Hamilton. 

The Wallabouty or WaaUBoght, is the name of an integral por- 
tion of the town, in the northeast part thereof, and separated fro; 
the compact part of the city by some half a mile of sand, and other 
unoccupied lands. The cove, or bay, is rendered famous, as be 
ing the theatre of the most heart-rending sufferings of some thou..^ 
sands of American citizens during the Revolution, as has bee 
particularly related in a former portion of this work. 
, This part of Brooklyn has, like others, much improved within 
a few years, till it now contains, within the compass of a mile 
square, more than 2000 persons. 

The United States Navy Yard is established in this part of the 
city. The government, having purchased, in 1801, about forty 
acres, including the old mill pond, where they have erected a spa- 
cious yard, enclosed on the land side by a high brick wall. There 
are here two large ship houses, seven timber sheds, two ranges of 
public stores and shops, for the different mechanical departments, 
connected with the building and equipping of vessels of war.* 

* Here have been built the Fulton the I., intended as a floating steam 
battery, which cost $300,000, the Ohio seventy-four, and several sualier 


On the easterly side of the Wallabout Bay, upon an elevated 
ite, 18 the United States Naval Hospital, composed of marble, 
nd is truly a magnificent building. Here is an asylum where the 
ged, sick and crippled sailor, who has devoted his youth and 
Igor, in exalting and preserving the honor of the American navy, 
lay find a home, where every comfort is afforded which his situ- 
tion requires. 

The Naval Lyceum was founded at the Navy Yard in 1833, 
nd includes, among its members, most of the oflBcers of the 
Lmerican navy, many prominent citizens and some distinguished 
[>reigners. The library and museum are valued at more than 
wenty thousand dollars, and are constantly receiving additions 
ram every part of the world. The society has published two 
ateresting volumes, and possess many rare curiosities from distant 
[uarters of the globe. 

The jail of King's County is located on the south side of Fort 
yreen, and is a dark heavy looking castellated gothic stone edifice, 
laving little beauty, but is well adapted to the purposes of its erec- 
ion. The cost of this building was about $100,000, and in one 
>f its large rooms are now held, the county courts and the court of 
>yer and terminer. 

The Brooklyn Apprentices^ Library Association was incorpor- 
.ted in 1822, the corner stone of the building was laid by the 
klarquis La Fayette, on his last visit to the United States in 1824, 
The edifice now belongs to the city, and is called the " City Build- 
ags,^ in which the corporation business is usually transacted, the 
aty courts held, and in which its ofiicers are accommodated. 
The oflBce of the clerk of the county is adjoining it. 

The books belonging to the library are deposited in the building 
mginally erected by the Brooklyn Lyceum Company, which was 

ie1«. Besides, about two-thirds of the American navy have been either built, 
sqaipped, armed, or fitted for service at this place. 

The amount of naval stores here, is at least a million and a half dollars. 
iftar the war in 1815, the Fulton I. was used as a receiving ship, and was 
noored within 200 yards of the shore. On the 4th of June, 1829, her maga- 
uoe exploded, by which means the vessel was entirely destroyed, and thirty- 
Jiree individuals, including Lieut. Breckenridge and three females, were killed, 
ind as many wounded. 



incorporated the same year as the city of Brooklyn. This nipab 
edifice, which is now the property of the Brooklyn Institute, is 
situated upon Washington street, and is used by several other cor^ 
porate bodies. The institution itself is an extension of the char- 
ter of the Brooklyn Apprentices' Library Association, and this 
splendid building has been secured to it by the hbendity and j 

munificence of Augustus Graham, Esq., president of the institute. _ 

The library now contains about 2500 volumes, and is a highly ^ 
popular institution. 

The City Library was incorporated under the general act in 
February, 1839, and contains a capital collection of about 3000 
volumes. The president is at this time the Hon. Henry C. Mur- 
phy, late mayor of the city. Its collections are kept in the build- 
ing of the Brooklyn Institute above mentioned. 

The Brooklyn Lyceum aforesaid, was organized October 10, 
1833, for intellectual and moral improvement, by gratuitous publico mc 
lectures, and a course of lectures was commenced Nov. 7, 1833^ 
and varied occasionally by essays, principally from the pens or 
ladies. Pecuniary difficulties defeated the primary objects of th 
institution, and the splendid granite building now belongs^ as w< 
have said, to the corporation of the Brooklyn Institute. 

The Brooklyn Collegiate Institute for young ladies, must, w^ 
are sorry to say, be named among the things that were. It was 
incorporated in 1829, with a capital of $30,000, the whole of 
which was expended in the completion of the splendid brick build- 
ing on the east side of Hick's street, one of the most eligible loca- 
tions in the city. The institution was abandoned in a few yean 
for want of patronage, and is now occupied as a hotel and board- 
ing house, under the name of the Mansion House. 

The Brooklyn City Hall was commenced on a very magnificent 
plan in ] 836, upon the corner of Jarolemon and Fulton streets, 
and, as far as it progressed, was constructed of beautiful white 
marble. After expending a large sum in materials and building, 
its further progress was arrested, and its future prosecution, at 
least of the dimensions originally contemplated, is more than 

Almost the only celebrated garden and place of amusement ir 
the city, is that at the junction of Joralemon and Fulton streets 


formerly owned by John F. Duflon, and known as the Military 
Garden. This gentleman was a native of Switzerland, and had 
the management of the garden for more than twenty years : it had 
however been a place of resort for many years, before it became 
the property of Mr. Duflon. 

The ground situated at the intersection of the Jamaica and 
Flatbush Turnpike Roads, was once the site of an extensive hor- 
ticultural estabHshment, but which was discontinued soon after 
the decease of the late Andre Parmentier.* 

The Colonnade Garden is situated on the Heights, and has been 
devoted, for three or four years, to theatrical and other amuse- 
ments. The situation is highly picturesque, overlooking the Bay, 
the city of New York, the islands in the vicinity, and the Jersey 


Among other accessories which must contribute to the advance- 
ment of this city, is the construction of the Atlantic Basin, now 
nearly completed under the direction of the Atlantic Dock Com- 
pany, incorporated May 6, 1840, with a capital of one million 

* Mr. Parmentier was born at Enghein, department of Jemmapcs, province 
of Hainaolt in Belgium, July 3, 1780. His family was highly respectable, 
mod he enjoyed the advantages of a liberal education. His relative, Anthony 
Parmentier, was the individual that introduced the potato into France. 

Pecuniary losses led Mr. Parmentier to this country, where he allowed his 
love of botany and gardening to be useful, both to himbelf and others. He 
porchased twenty-five acres at the place above named, Oct. 4, 1825, for 
$4000. The surface was a bed of rocks, some of which were used in en- 
closing the ground with wall. In a short time a dwelling and green house 
were erected, and the land stocked with a great variety of trees and plants, 
usefol and ornamental, indigenous and exotic. The garden grew into impor- 
tance, and visiters from all quarters flocked to see it. 

He was the next person, after the Messrs. Prince, in introducing the Moras 
Matlicaulis plant into America, which is probably destined to be of great and 
endoring importance to our country. Mr. Parmentier died in the prime of 
life, after a short illness, and greatly regretted, Nov. 27, 1830. 

His widow strove hard to continue the business, and to preserve the garden 
and its contents ; but failing in her endeavors, the trees and plants were dis- 
posed of, and the grounds occupied by them, converted into streets and build- 


The object of this undertaking is the construction of extensiTe 
piers and bulkheads, forming a noble basin, which will contain a 
water surface of forty-two acres, to be surrounded by Bpacious 
ware houses, to which ships of any class may approach, receive 
or discharge freight, and go in or out, at any stage of the tide, re- 
main in perfect security in all states of the weather and at every 
season of the year. The location of this great and important de- 
bign, is upon the shore of Long Island, between Red Hook and 
Governor's Island. The piers are to be one hundred and fifty feet 
wide, forming the front of the basin on the stream, divided by an 
entrance two hundred feet wide, and4,he depth of water at low tide, 
to be twenty-five feet. It is intended also for the accommodatimi 
of foreign steam ships and other large vessels, where they can lay 
more safe from stonns and be less exposed to other dangers, than 
at the docks and wharfs of New York. It is a magnificent design 
and when finished, will not only prove a very profitable invest- 
ment for the stockholders, but of immense importance to the com- 
mercial interests of the two cities. 

In addition to the other and numerous attractions, which will in- 
duce strangers to visit this beautiful city, in connection with its wide 
and airy streets, the splendid scenery from the heights, and the. 
many elegant public and private edifices which every where striki 
the eye, is the place selected for the repose of the dead, and knoi 
by the name of the Greenwood Cemetary. 

This is situated upon the high grounds above Gowanus, andE:^ id 
comprises an area of two hundred acres. It was incorporate^^ ^ 
April 18, 1838, with a capital of $300,000, in shares of $100 each ^rJi. 
It is a place of exceeding beauty and loveliness, and admirabl]^^ -ly 
adapted to the solemn and holy purpose for which it is designed JtU. 
The surface has great variety, and is shaded by forest trees of dil^:^ *' 
ferent kinds and sizes. Here the eye surveys from various point 
the silver surface of the waters beneath, with its numerous islands, 
the green hills of Staten Island and New Jersey, the cities oz^ ^^ 
Brooklyn and New York, with their vast number of spires spreac::^-*^ 
out as on a map, and the adjacent bay pictured with a multitude -^^ 
of vessels of all descriptions, from the tiny skiff and fishing boat:^^^ 
to the largest merchant ships, vessels of war and steamboats. 

A winding path for carriages, leads from the gate at the entranc*^' ^ 


to the highest eminence^ called by way of distinction, Mount Wash" 
ington, traversing a distance of many miles, with every Tariety of 
scenery, and a lake of four or five acres. The general plan re- 
sembles that of Mount Auburn, near Boston ; already many graves 
are discerned, and many beautiful monuments have been reared 
by the hand of affection to the memory of the dead* 

The first printing press set up in this town, was introduced by 
Mr. Thomas' Kirk, at the close of the last century, and from wliich 
he issued the first number of the " Courier, and New York and 
Long Island Advertiser," June 26, 1799, which he continued four 
years. The first number of the " Long Island Star," was issued 
by the same gentleman June 8, 1809, no paper having been print- 
ed here between the years 1803 and 1809. 

The Star was transferred to Alden Spooner, Esq. May 30, 1811, 
which has been conducted by him ever since, and is one of the 
oldest and best weekly newspapers in this country. 

The first number of the Long Island Weekly Intelligencer was 
issued by William C. Robinson and William Little, May 26, 
1806, but was discontinued for want of support at the end of the 

* An intelligent and eloquent stranger, thus describes this rural repository of 
the dead : — *' As we proceeded, says he, every turn of the carriage wheel 
brought to view some new development of striking sylvan beauty, or opened 
upon us some new feature of loveliness or grandeur, in the surrounding prospect. 
At one point we were completely embosomed in trees, where all was stillness 
mod deep repose, then again we emerged into smiling plains, and sunny fields, 
mnd smooth lawns of deepest green. Again our path conducted us into a dense 
forest, and we found ourselves upon the wooded brow of a steep declivity, 
sweeping off down to the margin of a silent lake, whose dark shaded waters 
gmve back with more than pictorial beauty, every tree, and limb and leaf, whose 
shadows fell upon the surface. The winding avenue, brought us, every few 
rods, to a pdint of observation, where the surrounding scenery, made up of 
bays and islands, rivers and mountains, cities and villages, farms and country 
hoases, and forests, put on a new pha^e, and, like the turn of a kaleidescope, 
presented a new and still more beautiful picture to the eye. From the elevated 
point of Mount Washington, a panoramic view of surpassing beauty, in almost 
illimitable perspective, opens upon the eye. Turning around and the whole 
hay of New York, with its beauteous islands, and the two magnificent rivers, 
together with the great metropolis itself, burst upon the sight." 

Vol. IL 31 


The Long Island Patriot was commenced by Mr. George 
Birch, May 7, 1821, and was continued under a succession c^ 
editors for several years. 

The first daily paper in the city was begun by Dr. William 
Northalland Samuel G. Arnold, March 2, 1841, and was conduct J^f 
cd by the former from Oct. of that year, to some time in 1842. ^^ 
was called the Brooklyn Daily News, and still continues to \^^ 
pubUshed under the title of the Brooklyn Daily News "and Lon -^^ 
Island Times. 

The first number of the Brooklyn Eagle and King's Couni^^ ^ 
Democrat was issued Oct. 26, 1841, by Isaac Van Anden, dail3r^'^ *J ' 
and the weekly Eagle was begun by him, March 10, 1842. 

The Brooklyn Evening Star has been issued daily from th^-^^-*^^ 
office of the Long Island Star, since the 1st of March, 1841. 

The first directory for Brooklyn was published by Aldeix^^-'^n 
Spooner, Esq. on the 23d of May, 1822, and continued to be pub-^Jxib- 
lished by him for several years ; after which it was published bjr^cdT by 
William Bigalow. It is published at present by Thomas Leslies Hie, 
Henry R. Hearne and William J. Hearhe, containing muc-^i^Mch 
valuable matter, in relation to the statistics of the city. 

Lithe war of 1812 with England, this town was the scene m of 
considerable preparation for defence against an invasion, which w« ^^ivas 
almost daily expected. At this time. Gen. Jonas Mapes ws ^^airas 
stationed at Bath with one regiment of militia, and a detachment ^^A of 
his command on the present site of Fort Hamilton. In the spriK^fing 
of 1814, a line of intrenchment and fortification was construct>^;^l*ted 
by volunteer labor, extending from the head of Gowanus Cove g*=? to 
the foot of Fort Green, on which a fort and barracks were erected — ed. 
Here was encamped, Sept. 3, 1814, the twenty-second brigade -as of 
infantry, consisting of seventeen hundred and fifty men, under W^ tbo 
command of Gen. Jeremiah Johnson.* Gen. Samuel Haight 

* This gentleman is descended from Anthony Johnson, who settled at Grai 
end in 1639, and there married a quakeress, by whom he had fi?e sons, on^^ ®f 
whom was Henry, who remained upon a part of his father^ plantatiora- ^ 
Gravesend, as did his brother Barnet also. The latter married a Stillv^^^^> 
and had sons John, William, Nicholas and Barnet ; William remaine<^ ** 
Gravesend and John settled at Jamaica, where many of his descepdents 


commanded a corps, consisting of fifteen hundred men, stationed 
near the heights, most of which was then vacant ground ; he had 
also one hundred and fifty dragoons. About one thousand troops 
were stationed at New Utrecht, making in all nearly five thousand 
effective men. 

The Long Island Bank, the first institution of the kind in this 
town, was incorporated April 1, 1824, with a capital of $300,000, 
in shares of ^60. Since which, the charter has been extended a 
few years longer. This has always been considered a sound and 
well managed institution, Leffert Lefferts having been president, 
and Daniel Embury, cashier, from its commencement. 

The Brooklyn Bank, was the second established here ; incorpor- 
ated Feb. 21, 1832, with a capital of $200,000, but in 1840 
was reduced to $150,000. Its first president was Samuel A. 
Willoughby, Esq. 

side. He married the widow Catalina Schenck, and had sons Barnet, bom 
April 2, 1740 ; Martin and John, th6 last being the father of George and John 
Johnson, now living upon the paternal estate in Jamaica. 

The last named Barnet married Anne Remsen, of Newtown, Sept. 8, 1774, 
by whom he had issue six sons and two daughters. He was an active friend 
of the revolution, and, as an officer of the Kings county militia, encamped with 
them at Harlaem in 1776. He was taken prisoner in 1777, but obtained his 
parole through the interposition of a masonic brother, with Gen. Howe. His 
eldest son, Jeremiah, the subject of this memoir, was born Jan. 23, 1766, and 
at the death of his father in 1782, inherited the valuable estate at the Walla- 
boat, upon which he has ever since resided. His mother was a descendent of 
Jeremiah Remsen Vanderbeck, who came from Holland in 1640, and married 
Jane, second daughter of George Jansen De Rapelje, in 1645. She was botn 
at the Wallabout in 1627. Her father obtained a patent in 1649 for the farm 
BOW owned by his great-great grandson, and which has remained in the 
family, nearly two hundred years. The name of Remsen has been retained, 
while that of Vanderbeck has been discontinued. Gen. Johnson has enjoyed 
unasual health and vigor for nearly eighty years, and an uncommon share of 
the public confidence for more than half a century. He has held the office of 
aopervisor of the town, more than forty years in succession ; has several times 
represented the county in the legislature, and risen from a private to the rank 
of major-general in the militia. He has be^n a judge of the common pleas, 
aod was mayor of the city in 1837, ^38, and '39. He is a man of indefatigable 
industry, of business habits, and his excellent, translation of Von der Donk^s 
History of New Neiherlands, evinces his knowledge of the Dutch language. 


The Atlantic Bank was incorporated May 10, 1836, with a cap- 
ital of $500,000, of which Jonathan Trotter, Esq., was the first 
president, and John S. Doughty, cashier. 

The Brooklyn Savings^ Bank was incorporated April 3, 1834, 
capital, $102,000. 

The Brooklyn Fire Insurance Company was incorporated April 
3, 1824, capital, $150,000. 

The Long Island Fire Insurance Company was incorporated 
April 26, 1833, capital, $200,000. 

This city has now four ferries connecting it with New York. 
The South Ferry^ from the foot of Atlantic street to White Hall 
•lip. New York, is 1300 yards in length. The Fulton Ferry ^ 
from the foot of Fulton street to Fulton slip, New York, is 730 
yards distant. The Main street Ferry, from the foot of Main 
street to Catherine slip, is 470 yards, and the Jackson street Ferry, 
from the foot of Jackson street, near the Navy Yard, to Walnut 
street. New York, is 700 yards. 

The following gentleman have held the office of mayor of th( 
city of Brooklyn, successively, for the periods mentioned : — 

1834 to 1835, George Hall, 1839 to 184*2, Cyras P. Smith. 

1835 to 1837, Jonathan Trotter, 1843 to 1843, Henry C. Murphy. 
1837 to 1839, Jeremiah Johnson, 1843 to 1844, Joseph Sprague. 

The present board of supervisors, is composed of William M^P^- 
Udall, William Ellsworth, Stephen Hajmes, David A. Robbins^s -s, 
James Friel and A. Orville Millard. 

Of the board of education, Theodore F. King is president, 
phen Haynes, vice president, and Alfred G. Stevens, secret 
who is also clerk of the common council. 

Treasurer of the city, John S. Doughty ; comptroller, Ashbur^ 
W. Kirk ; counsellor, John Greenwood ; attorney, Nathaniel F. 
Waring ; health physician, Dr. John C. Fanning ; city inspector, 
Jesse M. Folk; chief engineer, Burdett Slryker; city surveyors, 
Silas Ludlam, Rufus K. Page, Willard Day, John Rolfe, and 
Isaac H. Herbert. 

Court of common pleas, John Greenwood, first judge, and Sam* 
uel Smith, Joseph Consylyea, Garret L. Martense, and Peter G. 
Bergen, judges. Adrian Hegeman, clerk. 

Of the municipal court, the justices are Coe S. Downing, Rod- 


^3Dey S. Church, and Samuel Garrison. Samuel C. Blachley, 

Of the city hospital, Dr. Purcell Cooke is president of the med- 
ical board, Dr. J. Sullivan Thome, secretary, and the Hon. Cyrus 
P. Smith, treasurer. 

The ecclesiastical concerns of Brooklyn have become so ex- 
tensive within a few years, and it institutions multiplied with such 
astonishing rapidity, that it may, with entire propriety, be deno- 
minated tlie city of churches. These are not only large and sub- 
stantial edifices, but many of them can compare, advantageously, 
'with those of any other city in the United States. We have taken 
some pains to collect information on this subject, but have, in re- 
gard to some of the churches and their pastors, been thus far un- 
successful. The greater part of the churches are of recent origin ; 
their history is necessarily brief, and therefore soon told. 

The account of the Dutch church in this county, has been so 
fully detailed under the history of Flatbush, that little more re- 
mains to be said concerning it. 

In 1659, the inhabitants of this town applied to Governor Stuy- 
vesant, who was considered as the political head of the church in 
the province, for permission to call a minister, assigning as a rea- 
son for their application, the badness of the roads to Flatbush, the 
difficulties of attending divine service in New York, and the ex- 
treme age, and consequent inability of Mr. Polhemus, to perform 
ministerial labors at Brooklyn. 

The governor was pleased to consider the request as reasonable, 
and sent Nicasius de Sille, fiscal of New Netherlands, and Mar- 
tin Kregier, burgomaster of New Amsterdam, as a committee of 
inquiry, who reported in favor of the application. A call was 
thereupon prepared for the Rev. Mr. Selyns, who, being approved 
of by the classis of Amsterdam, Feb. 16, 1660, they gave him a 
dismission from his charge in Holland, wishing him a safe and 
prosperous journey, by land and water, to his congregation in New 
Netherlands. The time of his arrival is not known, but he was 
installed Sept. 3, 1 660, in presence of the fiscal, and burgomaster 
Kregier, by order of the governor. His salary was fixed at six 
hundred guilders, but the marriage fees received by him, were to 
be paid over to the church ; and it appears, that Oct. 29, 1662, he 


paid over to the consistory, seventy-eight guilders and ten stivers, 
for fourteen marriages performed by him. 

July 23, 1664, he returned to Holland, when Charles Debe- 
voice, schoolmaster and sexton, was directed to read the prayers 
of the church, till another minister should be called. 

The first Dutch church edifice was built in 1666 on the site, 
now a part of Fulton street, near the intersection of Joralemon 
street, and stood about one hundred years, when another was erect- 
ed in its place, which was taken down in 1810, and a new church 
built in Joralemon street the same year. This last, not being 
found large enough, was removed in 1834, and the present large 
and substantial building was completed and dedicated May 7, 
1835. It is composed of brick, and has six noble columns in front 
and the same in rear. 

The trustees obtained incorporation Dec. 18, 1814, at which 
time the Rev. Peter Lowe and the Rev. Martinus Schoonmaker 
were the ministers of the collegiate churches in the county. 

Rev, Selah Strong Woodhull, D. D., was the only son of James 
Woodhull, a respectable merchant of New York, and Keturah, 
daughter of the late Judge Selah Strong of Setauket. He was 
born in New York, Aug. 4, 1786, and lost his father by yellow 
fever in 1798. He graduated at Yale in 1802, was licensed 
to preach by the presbytery of New Brunswick in 1805, and set- 
tled the same year at Boundbrook, N. J., but was called the next 
year to this church, as successor of the Rev. John B. Johnson, 
deceased, the duties of which he assumed in 1806. He was for 
many years the able and indefatigable secretary of the American 
Bible Society, for domestic correspondence. In the fall of 1825, 
he removed to New Brunswick, and accepted the professorship 
of ecclesiastical history, church government, and pastoral the- 
ology, in the Theological Seminary of the reformed Dutch church, 
and of metaphysics and the philosophy of the human mind, in 
Rutger's College. He died the next year, Feb. 27, 1826, in the 
40th year of his age. His wife was Cornelia Van Cleef, of Prince- 
ton, N. J., whose death took place Jan. 3, 1841. 

Rev, Peter P, Rouse, was the successor of Dr. Woodhull, and 
died at New Brunswick, N. J. in June, 1832. 

Rev, Maurice W, Dwightj is the son of Dr. Maurice W. Dwight 


of Kempsville, Virginia, (brother of the late president Dwight,) 
and grandson of the celebrated president Edwards, of Northamp- 
ton, Mass. He was bom at the place first named. May 4, 1796 ; 
graduated at Columbia College in 1816, and was settled at Water- 
ford,. N. Y. in 1823, where he continued till 1826, when he re- 
moved to, and settled in the parish of New Hackensack, Dutchess 
county, N. Y. In 1833 he resigned, and was settled in this church 
the same year. 

His wife is Catherine, daughter of Major John C. Ten Broeck 
of Hudson, N. Y. whom he married May 9, 1825. 

The Central Reformed Dutch Church in Henry street, was 
erected of brick in 1839, and is a stately building. Its present 
pastor is the Rev. Jacob Broadhead, D. D. 

He is descended of English ancestors, who came from York- 
shire in 1666, and settled in Ulster county, N. Y. His father was 
a farmer there, and his son was born at Marbletown, May 14, 1782. 
He graduated at Union College in 1802, and was licensed to 
preach by the classis of Albany, in April, 1804. He was first 
settled at Rhinebeck, Dutchess county, N. Y. In 1809 he ac- 
cepted a call from the collegiate reformed Dutch church in the 
city of New York, as associate with the venerable Dr. Livingston, 
Drs. Kuypers, Abeel and Shureman. 

In 1813 he settled in the Reformed Dutch church, Crown street, 
Philadelphia, the first church of that denomination established in 
that city. He remained there till 1826, when he removed to the 
reformed Dutch church in Broome street. New York, where he 
continued till 1837. In that year he accepted an invitation to the 
reformed Dutch church in Flatbush, Saugerties, Ulster county, 
N. Y. and remained there more than three years. In 1841 he re- 
ceived and accepted a call to this church, where he continues to 

The South Reformed Dutch Church, at Gowanus, was likewise 
completed in 1839. Its present pastor is the Rev. Samuel M. 
Woodbridge. He is the son of the Rev. Sylvester Woodbridge 
of Westhampton, L. I., and descended of a long line of ministers 
in New England. He was born at Greenfield, Mass., in 1838, 
and was installed here Dec. 12, 1841. 

St. AnrCs Episcopal Church is the oldest society of this denomi* 


nation in the city. During the Revolutionary war, efforts were 
made to collect a congregation, and in 1784, religious serfices 
were held by the Rev. George Wright, first in a dwelling on Ful- 
ton street, (pulled down in 1834,) and afterwards in a bam of Mr. 
Middagh, near the comer of Fulton and Henry streets. 

Meetings were subsequently held, in a building erected by the 
British, on the comer of Fulton and Middagh streets, by the Rev. 
Mr. Ritune; soon after which, a small frame house wa» put 
up, on a part of the present episcopal burying ground, in Fulton 
street, which was for a time occupied by the Rev. John Matlock, 
It was consecrated by Bishop Provost in 1787, about which time 
the society was incorporated, by the name of St. Anns. 

In 1805, the comer stone of a new church was laid, on the 
south-east comer of the present church lot. This building, which 
was of stone, stood till 1824, when the present edifice was erect- 
ed. The ministers of this church, after Mr. Wright, Mr. Ritune, 
and Mr. Matlock, were the Rev. Mr. Lisbin, Mr. Doty, Mr. Sam- 
uel Nesbit, and Mr. John Ireland, the last of whom was settled 
in 1798, and removed in 1806. The Rev. Henry J. FeltuSj from 
Ireland, was settled in 1807, but removed in 1814. Rev. John P. 
K. Henshaw became rector in 1814, and removed to St. Peter's 
Church, Baltimore, in 1817, where he continued till April 1843, 
when he was elected Bishop of Rhode Island, and rector of Grace 
Church, in Providence. 

Rev. Dr. Hugh Smith, of New Utrecht, was chosen rector in 
1817, from whence he removed, in 1819, to St. Paul's Church, 
Augusta, Geo., where he remained till 1831, when he went to 
Christ Church, Hartford, Conn., and from thence to the city of 
New York, where he is now rector of St. Peter's Church. 

His successor in this church, was the Rev. Henry Ustick On- 
derdonk, D. D. He is the son of Dr. John Onderdonk of New 
York, deceased, graduated at Columbia College in 1805, and 
as M. D. in 1810. He subsequently appUed to theology, and was 
first settled in Canandaigua, from whence, in 1819, he became rec- 
tor of this church, where he remained till 1827, when he was 
elected Assistant Bishop of Pennsylvania, and on the death of the 
Right Rev. William White, in 1836, was promoted to the ofiice of 
Bishop of that diocese. 


Rev. Charles Pettit McHvaine was bom at Burlington, N. J., 
in 1797, graduated at Princeton in 1616, and settled at George-^ 
town, in the District of Columbia. He was afterwards appointed 
professor of moral philosophy, and chaplain also, of the United 
States Military Academy, at West Point, from whence he became 
rector here in 1827, and continued till 1833, when he was conse- 
crated Bishop of Ohio. 

Rev. Benjamin Clarke Cutler, D. D., was born at Roxbury^ 
Mass., in 1800, graduated at Brown University in 1822, and first 
became rector of Christ Church, in Quincy, Mass., then of Str 
James parish in Leesburgh, Va., afterwards of the Mission 
Church of the Holy Evangelist, in the city of New York, from 
whence he removed to this church, where he became rector, Feb^ 
II, 1833. 

St. John^s Church was built by its present rector, the Rev. Evan 
Malbone Johnson, in 1 826, consecrated by Bishop Hobart July 
10, 1827, and enlarged in 1832. 

This gentleman was bom at Newport, Rhode Island, June 6, 
1792, and completed his education at Brown university in 1812^ 
He settled at Newtown, Long Island, in 1814, and became rector 
of this church in 1827. His present assistant is the Rev. Caleb 
S. Henry, professor of moral philosophy in the university of the 
city of New York. 

St. Luke^s Churchy Clinton Avenue, was erected in 1 835, the 
comer stone of which was laid in the summer of that vear. It 
was at first called Trinity Church, and was then under the pas-' 
toral charge of the Rev. Daniel V. M. Johnson, now rector of St^ 
John*s Church, Islip, Long Island. He was ordained deacon 
June 28, 1835, and remained here till 1838, when he removed ta 
Michigan City, Indiana, and was succeeded by the Rev. Dr.^ Coity. 
who left in about one year, and is now settled at New Rochelle^ 
Westchester countv, N. Y. The Rev. R. C, Shimeal succeeded 
Dr. Coit, and remained rector for about two years, when owing ta 
pecuniary embarrassment, the parish was dissolved^ and a new 
organization took place in 1841, when the church assumed the 
name of St. Luke's. 

The Rev. Jacob W. Diller became rector June 29, 1842. He 
was born at Groverstown, Penn., Sept* 25^ I&IO, and acqt&ired his 

Vol. II. 32 


classical and theological education, under the direction of the Rev, 
Dr. Muhlenburgh, former pastor of the episcopal church in Lan- 
caster, Penn., and now rector of St. Paul's College, Flushing, 
L. I. Mr. Diller was engaged in teaching about eight years, in the 
employ of Dr. Muhlenburgh, and in lh35 removed to Brooklyn, 
having accepted the place of assistant minister in St. John's 
Church. He was admitted to the priesthood June 2S, of that year. 
In 1 842, he assumed the office of rector of this church, as above 
mentioned. He married, Nov, 15,1836, Angelina, daughter of 
Losee Van Nostrand, Esq., of this city. 

Calvary Free Churchy in Pearl street, was originally occupied 
by the baptist society, now worshiping in Nassau street. It then 
passed into the hands of the episcopahans, and under the rector 
ship of the Rev. Mr. Pine, was called St. Paul's church. He was 
succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Brittan. In 1840, it was purchased 
by a member of the present vestry, and the Rev. William H, 
Lewis, commenced his labors in it as rector, in the month of No- 
vember of the same year. 

A new vestry being formed, the building was enlarged, and was 
incorporated by the name of Calvary Free Church. Mr. Lewis is 
a-nalive of Litchfield, Conn. He preached a while in Bridgeport, 
and at Walden, Orange county, N. Y. In 1827 he settled at Hun- 
tington, Conn, from whence he removed to Flushing, L. I. in 1828. 
In 1833 he went to Marblehead, Mass. and came to this church in 

Emmanuel Churchy Sydney Place, was organized in 1841, and 
the edifice was consecrated March 3, 1842. It is constructed of 
brick, is both large and convenient, and its interior is not only 
well, but elegantly finished. The Rev. Kingston Goddar d recloTy 
was born in the city of Philadelphia, April 20, 1814, graduated at 
the university of Penn. in 1834, and pursued divinity studies in 
the General Theological Seminary, N. Y. He received orders in 
June, 1836, and settled soon after in St. Ann's Church at Fishkill 
Landing, Dutchess county, N. Y. He next took charge of St. 
Peter's Church in the city of New York, in the absence of the 
Rev. Hugh Smith, then on a tour in Europe ; and became the rec- 
tor of this church in 1842. His wife is Susan, daughter of Wil- 
liam Seaman, Esq. of the city of New York. 


Christ Churchy South Brooklyn, is situated on the comer of 
Clinton and Harrison street. It is constructed of fine grained Jer- 
sey free stone, and cost independent of the land and church furni- 
ture, $33,000. It is a beautiful and purely gothic building, 155 
feet long, including the tower and chapel, by 60 feet wide. It is 
lighted with stained glass of German manufacture, and has a ceil- 
ing of heavy spandrels. It is embellished with corbels, alter 
screen, and screen for the orchestra ; it has ^even windows on each 
side, separated from each other externally by heavy buttresses. 
The tower also, is flanked with four octagonal buttresses, termina- 
ting in pinnacles 117 feet from tlie ground, and is intended to be 
surmounted by a spire 1 80 feet high. In short this is probably 
one of the most splendid and magnificent public edifices in the 
United States. It was designed by, and executed under the direc- 
tion of Richard Upjohn^ Esq. now employed as the architect of 
Trinity Church, N. Y. 

The rector of this church is the Rev. John Secly Stone, D. D. 
He was born at West Stockbridge, Mass. Oct. 7, 1795, and is the 
son of Ezekiel and Mary Stone. His first wife was Sophia Morri- 
son, daughter of the late Dr. William Adams of Schenectady, N. Y. 
For his second wife he married Mary, daughter of the Hon. James 
Kent, late chief justice, and chancellor of the state of New York. 

He graduated at Union College in 1 823, first settled in St. 
Michael's Church, Litchfield, Conn, and subsequently in All Saints 
Church at Fredericktown, Maryland ; Trinity Church, New Haven; 
and St. Paul's in Boston. His settlement, as rector of this church, 
took place July 11, 1841. 

The oldest Methodist Episcopal Church in the city, is the one 
in Sands street, which was erected in 1794 ; it has, however, been 
since rebuilt, and was considerably enlarged in 1810. 

The second church of this denomination, on the corner of York 
and Gold streets, was built in 1823. The third was built in 
Washington 3treet in 1831, which is of brick, and may be consi- 
dered a very noble edifice, far exceeding any other melhodist 
church in the city. 

The fourth, called the Centenary Church, on the comer of John- 
son and Jay streets, was erected in 1 839, being the expiration of 



^ne hundred years, since the origin of that denomination in Eng* 

The African Methodist Episcopal Wesleyan Church, in High 
jBtreet, was erected in 1817, and is still in a flourishing condition. 

The First Presbyterian Church, was organized March 10, 1822, 
in connection with the presbytery of New York ; and the edifice 
which is of brick, situated in Cranberry street, was completed in 
that year. The Rev. "Joseph Sanford was installed the first pas- 
tor, Oct. 16, 1823, continued till Jan. 11, 1829, and died at 
the age of thirty-four, Dec. 25, 1831. The Rev. Daniel Lynn 
Carroll, previously pastor of a church in Litchfield, Conn., and 
now the Rev. Dr. Carroll of Philadelphia, was installed March 
18, 1^29, and continued till July 9, lb35. 

The Rev. Dr. Samuel Hanson Cox, third pastor of this church, 
was born near Rahway, N. J., Aug. 25, 1 793. His parents be- 
longed to the society of Friends, who carefully educated their son 
in the principles of the quakers. He first devoted himself to the 
study of the law, but turping his attention to divinity, was licensed 
by the presbytery of New York in Oct. 1816, and was ordained 
by the presbytery of N'ew Jersey at Mendham, July I, 1817. He 
not only renounced the principles in which he was nurtured, but 
published, in 1833, a volume of nearly 700 pages, to prove that 
quakerism is not Christianity, with what success, must be left 
to the decision of those better skilled in polemics than ourselves. 

Dr. Cox was early appointed a professor in the theological se- 
minary at Auburn ; was for fifteen years pastor of the Laight 
street presbyterian church in the city of New York ; and inslalied 
in this church May 8, lb37. The presbytery of Brooklyn was 
erected Oct. J 7, 1838, to which this church was immediately at- 

The Presbyterian Church in Clinton street, near Fulton, was 
organized Oct. 25, 1831, the church edifice was erected in 1833, 
and dedicated May 4, 1634. It i« 65 feet wide by 110 deep, 
jand is built of brick in the Grecian Doric order. 

The Rev. Ichabod S. Spencer, D^ D., has been the only pastor 
isi this church. He is the son of Phineas and Olive Spencer of 
Rupert, Vermont, where he was born Feb. 24, 1798. He gradu- 
jated Bt Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., in 1822, and was or- 


dained over one of the churches in Northampton, Mass., Sept. 11, 
1828; dismissed from thence March 12, 1832, and installed in 
this church on the 22d day. of the same month. He married Han- 
nah, daughter of Joseph and Catharine Magoffin, of Schenectady. 
The Third Presbyterian Church, Jay street near High, was built 
in 1839, and dedicated Dec. 15th of that year. The society was 
first organized on the 22d of April, 1834, and the Rev. RoIIin 
Sidney Stone, who graduated at Yale in 1932, was ordained and 
installed the first pastor. He was dismisibed April 4, 1837, and 
soon after became, and still is, pastor of the congregational church 
in Danbury, Conn. 

The Hev. William Bcale Lewis, the present pastor, is the son 
of the late Zachariah Lewis, Esq. of Brooklyn, and grandson of 
the late Rev. Dr. Isaac Lewis, of Greenwich, Conn. He was 
bom in New YcJrk city, July 29, 1812, graduated at Yale in 18;n, 
and was ordained and installed pastor of the High street Congre- 
gational Church at Providence, R. L, April 16, 1835. He began 
his pastoral labors in this church in Aug. 1837. 

The Presbyterian Church corner of Fulton and Pineapple streets, 
is constructed of brick, in the Gothic style, and is among the 
finest church edifices in the city. The corner stone was laid Sept. 
3d, 1839, by the Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller of Princeton, and the 
house was finished during the ensuing year. 

A large portion of the congregation belonging to this church, 
was formerly attached to the church in Cranberry street, of which 
the Rev. Dr. Cox is pastor, and claim to be the legitimate repre- 
sentatives of those who erected the latter, in their religious opin- 
ions and sentiments, as belonging to the same ecclesiastical judi- 
catory under which the society was formed, and remained, until 
the great rupture, that took place in the presbyterian church, the 
circumstances of which are now familiar to all, constrained them 
to separate from those adopting the sentiments of the new school. 
The Rev. Melancthon Williams Jacobus is the pastor of this 
church. He is the son of Peter Jacobus, merchant of Newark, 
N. J., where he was bom in 1816 ; graduated at Princeton Col- 
lege in 1834, and at the theological seminary there in 1838, where 
he remained as assistant in the department of Hebrew instruction^ 
^ik1 fellow of the institution till the fall of 1839, when he was in- 



stalled here. His wife is the eldest daughter of the late Samuel 
Hays, M . D., of Newark. 

The Fifth Presbyterian Church in Willoughby street, corner of 
l^earl, is a wooden structure, but handsome and well proportioned. 
It was erected by the private liberality of Samuel A. Willoughby, 
Esq., and dedicated May 30, 1 839. 

The first pastor was the Rev, Henry P. Tappan, professor in 
the New York University.; and having resigned, on account of 
his health, was succeeded by the Rev. Absalom Peters, D. D^ 
who transferred the congregation to South Brooklyn, where, in a 
very short time, it became totally extinct. The present church 
was organized by the presbytery of Brookl)m in Nov., 1840, and 
called the Rev, George Duffieldy jun. to be their pastor, since 
when, the congregation has steadily increased in numbers. 

This gentleman was born at Carlisle, Penn., Sept. 12, 1818, and 
is the son of the Rev. George Duffield, D. D., now pastor of a 
church at Detroit, Mich., and grandson of the Rev. George Duf- 
field, D. D., pastor of Pine street church, Philadelphia, and 
chaplain to the congress of the United Colonies, in 1776. The 
mother of Mr. Duffield was the granddaughter of Mrs. Isabella 
Graham, of New York, the well known and benevolent founder 
of the Widows' Society, &c. He graduated at Yale in 1837, and at 
the New York Union Theological Seminary in 1840. On the 22d 
Oct. 1840, he married Anna Augusta, daughter of Samuel A. 
Willoughby, Esq., founder of the church, in which he was ordain- 
ed and settled in Dec. of the same year. A sixth presbyterian 
church was organized at the Wallabout, Dec. 20, 1842, in connec- 
tion with the presbytery of New York, and arrangements are now 
making for the erection of an edifice for the accommodation of the 
society. The Rev. Joseph Greenleaf was installed pastor of the 
congregation March 8, 1843. He is the son of Moses Green- 
leaf, of Newburyport, Mass., where he was born Sept. 4, 1785, 
educated in Maine, and pursued theological studies with the Rev. 
Francis Brown, of North Yarmouth, Mass. He was ordained 
pastor of the congregational church in Wells, Maine, March 8, 
1815 ; dismissed and settled as pastor of the Mariners' Church, in 
Boston, in Sept. 1828 ; removed to New York, and became cor- 
responding secretary of the Seamen's Friend Society, in Decern- 


ber, 1833, which he resigned in Nov. 1841, and commenced 
preaching here in Sept. 1842. 

The Presbyterian Free Church, upon the comer of Tillary and 
Lawrence streets, was organized March 22, 1841, and possess a 
building erected about six years since, by the baptists. The house 
has no pews, and the seats throughout are free to all persons who 
choose to occupy them. The Rev. Russell J. Judd is pastor, the 
duties of which he assumed on the 1st of May, 1841. He is the 
second son of Stephen and Pamela Judd, and was bom at Cairo, 
Green County, N. Y., Dec. 7, 1812. His theological studies 
were completed under the Rev. Dr. Beecher, at Lane Seminary, 
Ohio, April 7, 1836, when he assumed the charge of an academy 
at Ravenna, Ohio. Here he lost his wife, a daughter of Abel 
Hemenway, Esq., of Ogdensburg, N. Y. His second wife is 
Mary Jane, daughter of the late Talcott Woolsey, of Hartford, 

Mr. Judd was one of the passengers on board the steamer Wash- 
ington, on Lake Erie, which took fire near Silver Creek, June 16, 
1838, and bumed to the water's edge. Of 150 souls who were on 
board, more than one-third perished, and Mr. Judd was only, after 
great suffering, saved from a watery grave. From ^Oct. 1838, to 
May, 1841, be was settled over the Free Presb)rterian Church, 
Paterson, N. J , when he took up his residence in this city. 

'Y\ie. First Baptist Church, in Nassau street, near Fulton, has 
been recently erected, although the society has existed for many 
years. It is constructed of brick, and is a specimen of chaste sim- 
pHcity. There have been several pastors in succession, none of 
whom have however, continued for any considerable period. The 
members of this church number at this time, about eight hundred, 
and their pastor is the Rev. James L. Hodge. He is the son of 
the Rev. James Hodge, whose labors have been bestowed for 
some years in different parts of Suffolk county, and whose death 
occurred at Riverhead, Jan. 17, 1843, at the age of fifty-three 

Mr. Hodge was bom in Aberdeen, Scotland, came to the Uni- 
ted States, about the age of fourteen years, and graduated at the 
Literary Institution, Suffield, Conn, in 1835. He settled the same 
year as pastor of the first church in that place, where he remained 


four years, when he accepted a call from the mxteenth bapti9l 
church in the city of New York ; from thence he removed to the 
first baptist church in the city of Albany, and in the fall of 1841,. 
assumed the charge of this church. 

The Second Baptist Churchy was organized in 1840, under the 
name of the East Baptist Church, and soon after held their meet-* 
ings in the Classical Hall, Washington street, the building in which 
several new formed societies, have successively met, till their 
churches were completed. 

The congregation have purchased a location on Pierpont street, 
comer of Clinton, and are now erecting a goihic edifice, which is 
to be 60 by 76 feet. The corner stone was laid July 20, 1 84^, 
and it will probably be finished during the year. 

The pastor of this church, the Rev. E, E. L, Taylor ^ is the sol 
of Richard Taylor of Poropey, Onondaga county, N. V., grandson 
of the Hon. John Taylor, many years judge of Saratoga county, 
and nephew to the Hon. John W. Taylor, who for twenty succes- 
sive years was a member of congress from his district, and twice 
speaker of the house. He was bom in 1816, graduated at Hamil- 
ton College, county of Oneida, in 1 835, and came here in 1 839. 
His wife is Mary Jane, daughter of the Rev. Aaron Perkins, pas- 
tor of the Berean Baptist Church in the city of NewYork. 

St, PauPs Roman Catholic Church, in Court street, was found- 
ed in 1836, and is built upon a lot of ground, presented for the 
purpose by Cornelius Heneji^ Esq. The edifice is of brick and 
is one of the largest in the city, being 72 feet by 100, exclusive of 
the vestry, a semi-circular building attached to the rear of the 
church. The interior is tastefully finished, but the style of archi- 
tecture is not confined to any order. 

The present pastor is the Rev. Nicholas ODonnell, a native of 
Ireland, but was educated at Rome, in one of the colleges of that 
city. He was settled here in 1839, having been previously at- 
tached to the church of St. Augustine, in Philadelphia. His as- 
sistant is the Rev. James O'Donnell, both of whom belong to the 
order of St. Augustine. 

The First Universalist Society of Brooklyn was organized in 
Oct. 1842. The meeting-house, comer of Fulton and Pineapple 
streets, was commenced in Dec. 1842, and dedicated* June 22, 


1843. The building is of brick, of a good size, and. neatly, but 
plainly finished. 

The Rev. Abel C, Thomas^ pastor of the society, was bom in 
Berk's County, Penn. July 11, 1807. He is of quaker parentage, 
and his grandfather,»Abel Thomas, was, for many years, an emi- 
nent public speaker among the Friends. Mr. Thomas commenc- 
ed the gospel ministry in Dec. Ib28, and for a few months labored 
in the city of New York, when he removed to Philadelphia, and 
took charge of the first universalist society there, in which he con- 
tinued for ten years, then went to Lowell, Mass., where he re- 
mained three years, and in Sept. 1 842 commenced his ministerial 
labors in this city. His wife, whom he married during the present 
year, is Maria Louisa, daughter of Judge Palmer, of Pottsville, 

The^First Unitarian Congregational Church, on Pierpont street 
and Monroe place, is constructing of Jersey freestone, and, from 
its design, will be a large, elegant and substantial structure. 

The pastor of this church, is the Rev. Frederick Augustus Far- 
ley, who was born at Boston, June 25, 1800, and is the son of 
Ebenezer and Lydia' Farley, formerly of Ipswich, Mass. He 
graduated at Harvard in 1818, and studied law in the office of the 
late Hon. William Sullivan, an eminent counsellor of Boston, and 
was admitted to practice in the various courts of law. He next 
gave his attention to theology, and was admitted to the ministry in 
July, 1827. He was ordained pastor of the congregational church, 
Providence, R. L, Sept. 10, 1828, which he resigned in Aug. 
1641, and on the 31st of May, 1842, was elected pastor of this 
church. He married. May 27, 1830, Jane Carter Sigoumey,. 
youngest daughter of Charles and Mary Sigoumey, of Boston. 

There are several other churches, than t^se which have been 
mentioned, of different denominations, in the city, the particulars 
of which, after diligent exertion, the compiler has not been able to 
obtain. There is probably more than one church to every 1000 
inhabitants, a fact which can hardly be affirmed of many other 
cities in the Union. 

It was our intention to have given somewhat in detail, an ac- 
count of the more important and extensive manufacturing estab- 
lishments in the city, but it has been foujnd quite impracticable to 

Vol. IL 33 


procure, from those interested, the requisite materials for the p 
pose. There are Hkewise a variety of other matters, which 
only be properly described in a work to be denominated a Pictu; 
of Brooklyn^ which, it is presumed, will ere long be published, 
a resident of the city, perfectly competent in all respects, to do ja 
tice to a work, so interesting and valuable. 




furnished at thk request of the compiler, bv his obliguio 

James E. Dekat, M. D. 


Benj. F. Thompson, Esq. 

" Mx Dear Sir : — In preparing this liisti 
have aimed at brevity, although a few short characters, annexed, to 
each species, would have rendered it more valuable. This, how- 
ever, would have extended the catalogue to a length, inccnnpatibb 
with the plan of your compilation the * History op Lono Is- 
land.' • 

" The common or popular names, have been given, although it 
may be observed, that these vary so much in different states^ and 
even in different districts, that little reliance can be placed upon 
them. I have however, noted such, as are more usually recognized 
on Long Island,;and 1^ latin name, will enable the reader to find 
the description, in any treatise, on the birds of America. This 
mark (t) indicates such as breed here, so far as I am acquainted, 
but further observations will, doubtless, increase the number. 

" Few attempts have heretofore been made to elucidate the Na- 
tural History of Long Island. About seventy years ago an Eng- 
lish collector, named Blackburn, resided at Hempstead, and made 
a large collection of birds. Most of the new species indicated by 
Pennant, in his Arctic Zoology, were derived icom thia souice. 


One of these the Blackbumian Warbler, a beautiful little species, 
was named in honor of this zealous collector. 

" In the 3d vol. of the Medical Repository for the year 1800, 
there is a list of about 140 species, designated by their popular 
names, but I am unacquainted with any other essay, towards in- 
creasing our knowledge of the birds of this district. 

" From its peculiar geographical position, this island is particu- 
larly rich in the number and variety of its feathered inhabitants, 
and myriads of water birds which visit us, in their annual mi- 
grations, afford a livelihood to many hundreds of our citizens. 
The great variety of kinds or species, found on Long Island, will 
be apparent from the following facts. 

" Oq the whole continent of North America, from the Arctic re- 
gions to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the Atlantic to the shores of 
the Pacific, there are known at present, according to the latest 
systematic writers, 304 species of land birds. Excluding those, 
which are only«to be found toward the north pole, and on the north 
west coast, we have for the United States proper, 243 species of 
land birds. 

" On Long Island we have already observed 160 kinds, or 
species, being about two thirds of the whole number. Among the 
water birds the amount is still greater. In all North America and 
its waters, there are 187 species. In the United States (proper) 
161 species ; of these we have on Long Island 133 species. Thus, 
out of the whole number of birds in the United States, amounting. 
to 404 species, 293 have already been found in this district, and 
this number will, probably, be increased, by further attention to 
the subject. All of these have beea figured and described in the 
leport of the State Geological Survey. 

" Yours respectfully, 

June 1, 1843. " James E. Dekay." 

I. LAND BIRDS. (160 Species.) 

I. HAWKS. (14 Kinds.) 

Tarkey Bazzard (rare^i) Cathartes Aura. 

Bmid Eagle, Faico LeucocephaliiB.f 
Duck Hawk, Peregrinus. 

Golden (or ring tailed) Eagle, Chryaaetos. 



Pigeon Hawkf 

Sparrow Hawk, 

Fish Hawk, 

Slate colored Hawk (Blae Hawk,) 

Cooper's Hawk, 

Swallow tailed Hawk {rare^) 

Red tailed Hawk (Hen Hawk,) 

Red shouldered Hawk (Buzzard,) 

Hen Harrier, 

Rough legged Buszard, 

Falco Columbarius. 

n. OWLS. (10 Kinds,) 

Snow Owl, 
Mottled and Red Owl, 
Great Horned Owl, 
Great Grey Owl {rare,) 
Long eared Owl, 
Short eared Owl, 
Barred Owl (Hoot Owl,) 
Saw-whet Owl, 
White or Barn Owl, 
Hawk Owl, 

Strix Nye tea. 







Whip poor WiU, 
Night Hawk, 

m. NIGHT HAWKS. (2 Kinds.) 

Caprimulgus Voci ferns. f 

IV. SWALLOWS. (5 Kinds,) 

Bank Swallow, Ground Swallow, Hirundo Riparia.f 

Barn Swallow, Rustica et rufa.f 

White bellied Swallow, Bicolor.f 

Purple Swallow or Martin, Purpurea. 

Chimney Swallow, Cypselus Pelasgias.f 

V. FLYCATCHERS. (9 Species.) 

Blue gray Flycatcher, ^ucicapa Coerulea.f 

Small headed Flycatcher, {rare) Minuta. 

American Red start, Ruticilla. 

Phebe bird, Fusca-f 

Wood Pewee, Virens.f 

Fork tailed Flycatcher, {rare) Savanna. 

King bird, Tyrannus.f 

Olive sided Flycatcher, Inurnata.f 

Small Pewee, Acadica.t 



VI. WARBLERS. (26 Species,) 

Blackbarnian Warbler, 

Yellow crowned Warbler, 

Biack headed Warbier, 

Bay breasted Warbler, 

Chesnut sided Warbler, 

Pine Warbler, 

Black throated Green Warbler, 

Cerulean Warbler, 

Summer Yellow bird, 

Yellow red poll Warbler, 

Blue yellow breasted Warbler, 

Cape May Warbler, 

Black throat blue Warbler, 

Black and yellow Warbler, 

Prairie Warbler, 

Connecticut Warbler, 

Maryland Yellow throat, 

Mourning Warbler, 

Worm* eating Warbler, 

Prothonotary Warbler, 

Golden winged Warbler, 

Tennessee Warbler, 

Blue winged Yellow Warbler, 

Qrange crowned Warbler, 

Nashville Warbler, 

Black and white creeping Warbler, 

Sylvia Blackburnia. 



. Maculosa. 












VII.. WRENS. CREEPERS. (6 Species.) 

Brown Creeper, 

House Wren, 

Great Carolina Wren 

Winter Wren, 

Marsh Wren, 

Short billed marsh Wren, 

Certhia Familiaris. 
Troglodytes JE6onA 





Black Cap, 

Vm. TITS. (2 Species.) 

Pams Atricapillus. 




IX. KINGLETS.— (3 Species.) 

Golden crested Kinglet, Regulus Satrapa. 

Ruby crowned Wren or Eanglet, ^ Calendula. 

Common Bluo Bird, Sialia Wilsoni. 

X. THRUSHES. (7 Species,) ' 
Mocking Bird, Orpheus Polyglottus. 
Cat Bird, F^ivox.f 
Brown Thrush or Thrasher, Rufus.f 
Robin, Migratorius.f 
Wood Thrush, Mustelinus.f 
Fawney Thrush, Wilsoni.t 
Hermit Thrush, Solitarius.f 

XL WAGTAILS. (3 Species,) 

New York Wagtail, Seiurus Noreboracensis.f 

Golden crowned Wagtail, Aurocapillus.f 

Brown Titlash, Anthus Ludovicianas. 

XIL LARK. (1 Kind.) 
Shore Lark or Horned Lark, Alauda Alpestris. 

XIII. FINCHES. (32 Species,) 

Lapland Louspur, {rare) Plectrophanes Lapponica. 

Emberiza Americana.f 
Niphea Hyemalis. 
Spiza Cyanea. 
Ammadramus Maritimus.t 

Linaria Minor. 
Carduelis T^istis.t 
Fringilla Iliaca. 

Brown Snow Bird, 

Black throated Bunting, 

Grass Finch, 

Savanna Bunting, 

Yellow .winged Sparrow, 

Field Sparrow, 

Henslow^s Bunting, 

Chipping Bird, Chip Sparrow, 

Tree Sparrow, 

Common Snow Bird, 

Indigo Bird, 

Sea side Finch, 

Sharp tailed Finch, 

Marsh Finch ^ 

Little Red Poll {rare) 

Pine Finch, 

Yellow Bird, 

Fox colored Finch, 

Song Sparrow, 

White-throated Sparrow, 



White-crowned Sparrow, 
Purple Linnet, 
Pine Grosbeak, 
Common Cross Bill, 
White-winged Cross Bill, 
Chewink — Ground Robin, 
Red Bird, 

Blue Grosbeak, (rare,) ^ 
Rose-breasted Grosbeak, 
Summer Red Bird, 
Black-winged scarlet Bird, 

Fringilla Leucophrys. 

Corythus Enucleator. 
Loxia Curvirostra. 
Fringilla Erythropthalma.f 
Pitylus Cardinalis.f 
Coccoborus Coeruleus. 

Pyranga Aestiva. 
Rubra, t 

XIV. BLACK ORIOLES. (7. fi^epcw.) 

Bob Olink, Dolichonyx Oryzivora-f 

Cow Black Bird, Molothrus Pecoris.f 

Red-winged Black Bird, Agelaius Ph(enicett8.t 

Fire Hang Bird, Icterus Baltimore.! 
Orchard Hang Bird, Spurius.f 

Crow Black Bird, Quiscalus Versicolor.! 
Rusty Crow Black Bird, Ferrugineus. 

Meadow Lark, 

Common Crow, 
Fish Crow, 
Blue Jay, 

Butcher Bird, 

XV. STARLINGS. (1. Kind.) 

Sturnella Ludoriciana.f 

XVL CROWS. (3 Species.) 

Coitus Americanus.f 

Garrulus Cristatis.f 

XVir. SHRIKES. (1 Kind.) 

Lanius Borealis.f 

XVin. GREENLETS. (6 Species.) 

White-eyed Greenlet, Vireo Noveboracensis. 
Red-eyed Greenlet, Olivaceus.f 

Yellow-throat Greenlet, Flaviferns.f 

Bartram^s Greenlet, (rare,) Bartrami. 

Solitary Greenlet, Solitarius.f 

Warbling Greenlet, Gilous.f 

XIX. CHATS. (1 Kind.) 
YcUow-breasted Chat, Icteria Viridii.t 


XX. CHATTERERS.— (2 Species,) 

Black throated Waxwiog, Bombycilla Garnila. 

Cedar Bird, Carolinen8is.t 

XXI. NUTHATCHES.— (2 Species.) 

" White breasted Nuthatch, Sitta Carol inen8i8.t 

Red bellied Nuthatch, Canacftensie. 

Raby necked Humming Bird, Trochilus CoIubri8.t 

Belted Kingfisher, * Alcedo Alcyon.t 

XXIV. WOODPECKERS. (8 Species.) 

Red headed Woodpecker, Picus Erythocephalus.t 

Pileated Woodpecker, Pileatus.t 

Hairy Woodpecker, Villosus.t 

Downy Woodpecker, Pube8ccns«t 

Red cockade Woodpecker (rare,) Querulus. 

Yellow bellied Woodpecker, Varius. 

Red bellied Woodpecker, Carolinus. 

Clape, High-hole, Auratus.t 

XXV. CUCKOOS. (2 Species.) 

Wild Pigeon, Ectopistes Migratoria. 

Turtle Dove, Carolinensis.t 

XXVI. PARTRIDGES, (a Species.) 

Common Quail, Ortyx Virginiana.t 

Common Partridge, Testrao Umbellus.t 

Grouse, Heath Hen (nearly extirpated,) Cupido.t 

n. WATER BIRDS. (133 Species.) 

XXVII. RAILS. (6 Species.) 

Common Galinule (rare,) Gallinula Chloropus. 

American Coot, Fulica Americana.t 

Soree Rail, Water Hen, Ortygometra Carolina. 

Little Yellow breasted Rail (rare,) Rallus NoYeboracensis. 



Clapper Rai], Meadow Hen, 
Little Clapper Rail, Mud Hen, 

Rallas Crepitans.t 

XXVni. CRANES. (1 Kind,) 
Big White Crane, Grue Americana. 

XXIX. PLOVERS. (8 Species.) 

Black bellied Plorer, Charadrias HeWeticas.f 
Green back, Frost Bird, Marrooratas, Pluvialis. 

Killdeer, Vociferus.t 

Wilson's Plover, Peep, Wilsonias.t 

Ring Neck, Semipalmatas. 

Beach Flea, Piping Plover, Melodus.f 

Brant Bird, Heart Bird, Turnstone, Strepsilas Interpres. 

Scissor Bird, Oyster Catcher, Haematophus Palliatus.f 

Robin Snipe, 

Plain Plover, 

Pectoral Sandpiper, 

Purple Sandpiper, 

Buff breasted Sandpiper, 

Red backed Sandpiper, 

Curley Snipe, {rarey) 

Long legged Sandpiper, (rare,) 

Schintz*8 Sandpiper, 

Web- footed Sandpiper, 

Little Sandpiper, 

Ruddy Sandpiper, 

Flat billed Phalarope, 

Northern Lobefoot, 

Gcay Lobefoot, 

Teeter, Teetup, 

Jack Snipe, 

Yellow Leg, 

Big Yellow Leg, Tell Tale, 



Goose Bird, (rare^) 

English Snipe, Blind Snipe, 



TurnbiU, Bend Bill, 

Lawyer, Long Leg, 

Vol. XL 

XXX. SNIPES. (30 Species.) 

Tringo Islandica. 
Pectoral is. 

Phalaropas Fulicarius. 
Lobipes Hyperboreus. 

Tetanus Macular ins. f 
Limosa Fedoa, 

Scolopax Wilsoni. t 

Microplera minor. t 
Recurvirostra Americana* 
Himantopus Nigricollia.t 




Big Curlew, 
Jack Curlew, 
Esquimaux Curlew, 

Numenius Longirostris. 

XXXI. IBISES. (2 Species.) 

Glossy Ibis, (rare^) Ibis Falcinellus. 

Big White Curlew, Alba. 

XXXII. HERONS, POKES, Ac. (10 Species,) 


White crowned Heron, {rare,) 

Schyte Pok«, 
Little Schyte Poke, 
Stake Driver, 
Great Blue Heron, 
Great White Heron, 
Blue Crane, 

Louisiana Heron, (rare,) 
Snowy Heron, . 


Common Wild Goose, 

Little Wild Goose, {rare,) 


White Footed Goose, 

Snow Goose, {rare,) 


Duskey Duck, 

Grey Duck, Gadwall, 


Pint/8 ii Duck, 

Wood Duck, Summer Duck, 

Green Winged Teal, 

Blue Winged Teal, 


Canvass back, {rare,) 

Red head. 

Broad bill. 

Red neck, 

Ruddy Duck, 

Skunk head. Pied Duck, 

Coot, Velvet Duck, 

Common Coot, Surf Duck, 

Broad billed Coot, 

Ardea Nycticorax.t 








GEESE.— (29 species.) 


Anser Canadensis. 
Anas Hyperboreus. 
Fuligula Valisneria. 



Greyheaded Coot, King Duck, (rare,) 
Eider Duck, Black and Wiiite Coot, 

Shoal Duck, (rare,) 
Great head, Golden eye, 
Little Dipper, Butter bill, 
Harlequin Duck, 
Old wife, Long tailed Duck, 

Fuligula Spectabilis. 






XXXIV. GOOSANDERS.— (3 species,) 

Common Goosander, Mergus Merganser. 

Saw bill. Whistler, Serrator. 

Wooded Goosander, Whistler, Cucullatus. 

XXXV. PELICANS. (5 Species.) 

Great Cormorant, {rare,) Phalacracorax Carbo. 
Double crested Cormorant, (rare,) Dilophua. 

Brown Pelican, (rare,) Pelicanus Fuscus. 
White Pelican, (rare,) Americanus. 

Gannet, (rare,) Sula Bassana. 

XXXVI. GULLS, TERNS, Ac. (21 Species.) 

Flood Gull. Shearwater, 

Big bellied Sea Swallow, (rare,) 

Marsh Tern, 

Sandwich Tern, 

Roseate Tern, (rare,) 

Little Tern, 

Common Tern or Sea Swallow, 

Arctic Tern, 

Black Sea swallow, 

Little Sea swallow, 

Common black headed Gull, 

Forktail Gull, (rare,) 

Big black head laughing Gull, 

Kiltiwake Gull, (rare,) 

Winter Gull, 

White winged Winter Gull, 

Herring or Silver Gull, 

Big black backed Gull, 

Long tailed Hawk Gull, 

Black Hawk Gull, (rare,) 

Richardson^s Hawk Gull, (rare,) 

Rhynchops Nigra. 
Sterna Cayana. 








Larus Bonapartii. 







Lestris Parasiticus. 


XXXVn. PETRELS. (6 Species,) 

Mother Carey's Chicken, (rare,) Thalassidroma Pelagica. 
Wilson's Petrel, (rare,) WiisoDi. 
Fork tailed Petrel, (rare,) Leachi. 
Common Fulmar, Procellaria Glacialis. 
Wandering Puffier or Shear- 
water, (rare,) Puffinus Cinereus. 
Dusky Puffier, (rare,) Obscorus. 


Common Razor Bill, (rare,) Marmon Arcticus. 

Big Razor Bill, (rare,) Alca Torda. 

Little Auk, (rare,) Mergulus Alle. 

Foolish Guillemot, (rare,) Uria Troile. 
Black Guillemot, Grylle. 

XXXIX. LOONS. (7 Species.) 

Big Loon, Colymbus Glacialis. 
Black throat Loon, (rare,) Arcticus. 

Red throat Loon, Septentrionalis. 

Crested Grebe, Podiceps Cristatus. 
Red necked Grebe, Rubricollis. 

Horned Grebe, Cornutus. 

Water Witch. Well Direr, Sylbeocyclus Carolinensis. 

1836 AND ♦37. 

The awful catastrophe of these ill-fated vessels, and the con- 
sequent loss of life, are among the most melancholy events in the 
annals of Long Island. Since the wreck of the British sloop of 
war Sylph, off Southampton, in the winter of 1815, no similar 
accident had occurred upon our shores, involving the sacrifice of 
human life, to any very considerable extent 

The Bristol was an American ship, nearly new, this being her 
second voyage, and commanded by Capt. McKown, a gentleman 


long and favorably known as an able, prudent and experienced 
ship master. The cargo consisted of crockery, rail road iron and 
coal, besides an assortment of dry goods. She had on board a 
crew of 16, including officers, and about 100 passengers, chiefly 
emigrants from Ireland. 

The voyage was commenced at Liverpool, Oct. 16, 1836, and 
after a pleasant passage across the Atlantic, made the highlands of 
New Jersey on the night of Nov. 20th, and exhibited the usual 
signals for a pilot, but without success. At one o'clock, on the 
morning of the 21st, it began to blow severely, and the captain 
endeavored to stand out to sea, but the violence of the gale forced 
the ship more toward the shore, and about four o'clock she ground- 
ed upon Far Rockaway shoals, a few miles westward of the 
Marine Pavilion, it being on Sunday, «A«k 21. The following 
night was extremely dark, and the sea rose so high, as to make a 
clear breach over the ship. The greatest danger was now appar* 
ent, and the passengers were advised to go below, as the place of 
greater safety. The tempest increasing, a tremendous wave 
struck the vessel about midships, carrying away her bulwarks, 
boats and every thing movable upon the deck. , 

The hatches were forced open by the concussion, and the hold 
was, of course, instantly filled with water, drowning most of the 
passengers below decks. 

From the dying, however, not a sound was heard, so instanta* 
neous and complete was the work of death. Parents and chil- 
dren, husbands and wives, relatives and friends, met, in the same 
moment, a common fate ; thus perished, in an instant of time, be<* 
tween 60 and 70 souls, of different ages, almost within sight oif 
the port of their destination. 

Although the vessel lay within half a mile of the land, yet' 
owing to the heav^ sea, no relief could be afibrded by the people, 
now assembled on the beach. At daylight, on the 22d, the scene 
^hich presented itself may be more easily imagined, than de- 
scribed. The wretched and sufiering passengers and crew tliat 
yet survived, were clinging to the shrouds, and to every other part 
of the ship, which promised the least hope of safety. In this 
dreadful state of almost hopeless despair, they remained through 
tlie succeeding day, although the shore was thronged with anxious 


spectators, ready to afford any possible assistance to the edianst- 
ed and perishing sufferers. But the gale continuing with una- 
bated fury, no aid CQuld be given ; the surf ran mountains high, 
so as sometimes to exclude the hull of the vessel from the view 
of those on the land. 

In the mean, time, the ship struck against the hard beach with 
such terrible force, as to break her in two, when the foremast, 
which had not been cut away, went by the board. The misenble 
passengers continued thus a part of the following night, exposed 
to the spray of the sea, to the most intense cold, and the absolute 
cfertainty of perishing by starvation also. 

About midnight, the wind somewhat abated, and by almost 
super-human efforts, and at the imminent risk of life, a boat 
manned by resolute and experienced seamen from the shore, 
reached the vessel twice, landing the surviving females, and a por- 
tion of the crew, safely on the beach. The captain resolutely re- 
fused to go on shore, until the survivors were safe, and was the 
last person who left the wreck. The ship went to pieces aW 
after, her stem post being the only part of her, visible the next 

About half the bodies of those drowned, were driven upon the 
shore, and were decently interred by the public authorities. 

Mrs. Hogan, her daughters. Miss Hogan and Mrs. Donelly^ 
her two children and nurse, and a few other women and chikireii, 
were among those saved, but Mr. Arthur Donelly, the huabaody 
was lost. He had twice yielded his place to others, saying he 
would not leave the wreck, while a female or child remained on 
board. In a third attempt made to reach the vessel, the boatwaa 
swamped, which deterred the hands from any further trial. Mr. 
Donelly, with the two Messrs. Carletons, the remainder of the pas- 
sengers and the crew, sought safety in tlie riggifig of the foremast. 
This soon failed them and out of 20 persons upon it, Mr. Briscoe 
only was saved, having accidentally caught hold of the rigging of 
the bow-sprit, and thus' drifted ashore. 

Scarcely had the public mind recovered from the painful excite- 
ment, occasioned by the preceeding event, when another ditastioui 


shipwreck occurred, attended with still more awful and aggravated 

The American barque Mexico, of 300 tons, was also from the 
port of Liverpool, commanded by Capt. Charles Winslow, her 
cargo consisting of crockery, rail-road iron, and coals, which had 
been taken in alongside the Bristol. She sailed, however, seven 
days later, leaving Liverpool, Oct. 23, 1836, with a crew of 12 
men, including the captain, and 112 steerage passengers, the 
greater portion of whom were Irish emigrants. After a most dis- 
agreeable and boisterous passage of 69 days, at the most inclement 
season of the year, the vessel arrived oflf Sandy Hook, on Satur- 
day night, Dec. 31, about 11 o'clock, and lay to, on discovering 
the light upon the Highlands of New Jersey. On the morning of 
the following day, she bore up for the Hook, making the usual 
signals of distress, and also for a pilot. None, however, made 
their appearance, and the captain being apprehensive of rough 
weather, stood out to sea, under the most discouraging and dis- 
tressing circumstances. The voyage had thus far been unusually 
long and tedious ; the passengers had generally exhausted their 
stores of provisions, and had for some time been allowed, one bis- 
cuit a day each, from the ship, a quantity barely sufficient to sus- 
tain life. To which were added all the direful apprehensions of 
still more protracted suffering, from the want of a pilot, and the 
danger of attempting at that season of the year, to enter the harbor 
without one. 

The weather was cold in the extreme, attended by a violent 
tempest of snow. On Monday, the captain again approached the 
Hook, and also signalized for a pilot, in which he was equally 
unsuccessful. With an anxiety not to be described, he was com- 
pelled, amid the intense severity of the weather, and the almost 
unspeakable suffering of his crew, to keep away from the land 
during the remainder of the day and ensuing night. On Tuesday 
morning, 5 o'clock, after the most terrible buffeting with the waves, 
the crew and passengers being nearly perished with the cold, the 
vessel having drifted toward shore, struck the beach at Hempstead 
south, within about ten miles of the wreck of the Bristol. 
. The thermometer was now below zero, and there was a high 
suif breaking on the shore. The main and mizen masts were 


immediately cut away ; the rudder was torn off, by collision 
the bottom ; the water was rising in the hold, and the spray, which 
dashed incessantly over the ressel, was instantly converted into 
ice. The wretched and despairing passengers, driven from beloiw 
by the accumulation of water, and without any means whateyer 
of shelter or protection from the cold, crowded together upon the 
forward deck, exposed every moment either to be washed oyer* 
* board or frozen to death, as every thing around them was encrusU 
ed in ice. 

Some secured their money and other valuables about their bo* 
dies, and each clung with death-like tenacity to those they held 
most dear. In this extremity of despair, when scarce a ray of 
hope remained, men, women and children, from the sire to the 
lisping infant, embraced each other, and with what feeble power 
remained, tried in vain to encourage and support each other. 

In this horrible condition they remained, till secured by death 
from further agony ; and husbands, wives and children were after- 
wards found, congealed together in one frozen mass. It was, in 
all respects, a scene of terror which language is incapable of de 
picting, and which the most fertile imagination only can conceiye. 

On the morning of the third of January, Raynor R. Smith and 
a few others, crossing the south bay upon the ice, dragging their 
boat with them, arrived at the beach, a distance of several miles, 
determined if possible to afford some sort of relief to the suffer- 
ing victims, but they soon found that any attempt to reach the yes- 
sel in the [then] state of the surf, would only be to sacrifice their 
own lives, to no valuable purpose. 

The miserable strangers, yet clinging to the mass of ice which 
the vessel presented, poured forth their supplications and cries for 
assistance, in a manner which could hardly fail to melt the stouts 
est heart. The heroic Smith and his valiant crew were wrought 
up to the highest pitch, and finally resolved that a trial at least 
should be made. The boat was accordingly launched firom the 
shoFe, and in the utmost peril of being filled or upset, was able 
to reach the bowsprit of the vessel, when the captain, four pas* 
sengers and three of the crew, who were lipon the bowsprit, 
dropped into the boat, and were conveyed with great difficulty to 
the beach. But the danger which had been incurred — the state 


of the tide — ^ihc extreme cold, and the approach of night, deter- 
red the crew from attempting again to reach the vessel. Turning 
their backs upon the horrible scene, they made the best of their 
way home across the bay, aiding and supporting, as best they 
could, those they had rescued. But what must have been the 
feelings of persons on board, when they saw those, from whom alone 
any relief was to be expected, departing from their sight, can only 
be conceived ; their agonizing breasts must have been filled with 
tenfold horror. Thus, on that fated night, perished, in the most 
awful manner, 116 human beings, 3000 miles from their homes, 
and wiihin a few miles of the port, for which they set out. 

Death, in its most appalling form, came to their relief, and their 
cries of anguish and despair were soon hushed in eternal silence. 

Seventy days had elapsed since leaving their r\ative country, 
and on the shores which they sought with so much Anxiety, found 
a watery grave. 

" Thus perished, one by one, that pilgrim crowd, 
The silver-haired, the beautiful, the young ; 
Some were found wrapped, as in a chrystal shroud 
Of waves congeaPd, that toml/d them where they clung. 
Some on the sand the sounding breakers fling, 
LinkM in aflfection^s agonized embrace ; 
And to the gazer's eye the warm tears spring, 

As he beheld two babe»-^a group of ^race, 

LockM in each other's arms, and pillow'd face to face." 


A majority of the passengers were children and youth of both 
sexes, as appeared from a list made by the collector at Liverpool 
— the oldest passenger on board being fifty-two, and the youngest 
less tlian two years old. About sixty bodies were finally recover^ 
ed from the waves, and interred, with very appropriate solemnities, 
in a common grave, amid an immense concourse of citizens of 
Queens county, at Near-Rockaway, on the 11th day of January, 
1837, and a suitable discourse delivered by the Rev. William M. 
Carmichael, D. D. of Hempstead. The bodies of those previously 
saved from the Bristol, were also deposited at the same place, 
Tvhere a handsome marble monument was erected Oct. 26, 1840. 

" They rest in earth, the sea's recovered prey, 
No tempest now their dreamless sleep assail , 
Vol. II. * 35 


Bat when to friends and kindred, far away. 

Some quivering lip shall tell the dismal tale, 

From many a home will burst the voice of wail ; 

But when it ceases and the tear-drop laves 

No more, shall gratitude prevail ; 

Yearnings of love towards those beyond the waves, 

Who bore, with solenui rites, the exiles to their graves.** 

Several dlizens of New York, duly sensible of llie highly mer- 
itorious services of Raynor R, Smith, on the above occasion, 
caused a silver cup, with a suitable devise, and inscription, to be 
presented him ; the ceremony of which was performed by the late 
William P. Hawes, Esq., March 25, 1837. 


" Presented to Raynor R, Smith, of Hempstead South, L. /., by 
a number of his fellow citizens, of the fifth ward, of the city of 
New York, as a taken of regard for his noble daring, performed 
at the peril of his life,in saving eight persons j from the wreck of 
the fated Mexico, on the 2d of January, 1837." 


The steamboat Lexington, Capt. George Child, left New York 
for Stonington, Conn., late in the afternoon of Jan. 13, 1840, witb 
a great number of passengers, and a large quantity of cotton in 
bales, with other merchandize on deck. 

At seven o'clock in the evening, when about opposite Eaton's 
Neck, L. I., and nearly in the middle of the Sound, going at the 
rate of twelve miles an hour, the cotton near tlie smoke pipe was 
discovered to be on fire, and the wind blowing fresh, all endeavors 
to extinguish the flames were found ineffectual, and the boat was 
headed for Long Island. But the tiller ropes were soon burnt ofi^ 
which rendered the vessel unmanageable. 

The alarm and consternation were now so great, and the con- 
sequent confusion so universal, that the boats, three in number, 
besides the life boat, were no sooner lifted out, and let down into 


Ae water, than they were swamped, by the crowd and the rapid 
motion of the vessel. 

The engine also gave way, and the boat which had now be- 
come unmanageable, was drifted about at the mercy of wind 
and tide, while the fire was sweeping over her, in the most terrific 
manner imaginable. 

The fire being amid-ships, cut off necessarily, all communica- 
tion fAm stem to stem, where the passengers were collected, be- 
wailing their awful condition, not knowing the fate of their friends, 
and fully aware that to remain longer on board, was certain de- 
struction, the flames spreading with terrible rapidity, and involving 
tlie whole vessel in one sheet of fire. 

The lurid light of the blazing wreck, shone far over the cold 
and heavy waste of waters, showing with fearful distinctness, the 
dreadful scene. The greater number, therefore, threw themselves 
into the sea, laying hold of any floating body within their reach, 
while others, not so fortunate, were instantly drowned. Some 
who hesitated to precipitate themselves into the water, clung to 
some portion of the burning wreck, in the hope of prolonging for 
a few moments, their miserable existence. 

The night was cold in the extreme, and the surrounding dark- 
ness was rendered more terrific, by the glare of the burning mass. 
The cries ©f distress, mingled with the deepest supplications for 
relief, were such as cannot be described — the anguish of hopeless 
despair. The captain, it is believed, was suflbcated in the wheel 
house, at an early stage of the fire, and out of the whole number 
on board, four only were saved, while one hundred and twenty 
men, women and children were lost. The following is the report 
of Capt. Comstock, of the steamer Statesman, who was dispatched 
on the occasion, from New York. 

Steamer Statesman, Friday night, Jan. 17, 1840. 

We are now returning to New York, having searched the shore of Long 
Island from Huntington to Fresh Pond landing, a distance, taking into consi- 
deration the depths of the bays and inlets, of nearly ninety miles, every rod of 
which I think has been thoroughly examined by those on board the boat with 
me, and others on shore who came down by land. We have been enabled to 
regain, however, only five bodies. 

One is identified as being that of Mr. Stephen Waterbury, of the firm of 
Mead and Waterbury, of New York. Oo another was found a memoraadum 


book, with the name of Philo Upson, of South Egremoot, Mass. ; one a lit^ 
boy, probably three or fuur years old. 

From the appearance of others, they are probably deck hands of the boat. 

We have thirty packages of baggage, and the life boat of the Leiington. 
These, with the bodies, we are now conveying to New York. From Crane 
Neck to Old Man's landing, twelve or fifteen miles east, including the deep 
bays adjacent, is covered with pieces of the wreck, among which I noti- 
ced her name upon the siding, nearly in full length, large pieces of her guarda, 
and portions of almost every part of the boat, all of which is mostly lArned to 
a coal. We found one of her quarter boats, from which three of the bodiea 
now in our possession, were taken ; she is very slightly damaged. 

" The boat is at a place called Miller's Landing, and here we learned that a 
man had come ashore on a bale of cotton, alive, fifteen miles to the eastward 
of this place, to which I immediately repaired. Here I could eflfect no land- 
ing, owing tu the large quantities of ice drifted in by the stormy northerly wind. 
We, however, crowded the steamboat in near enough to the shore to cim verse 
with persons drawn to the beach by our signals, and from them learned the 
fact that Mr. David Crowley, second mate of the Lexington, had drifted 
ashore upon a bale of cotton oa Wednesday night at 9 o'clock, after bein^ 
forty-eight hours exposed to the severity of the weather — after which, he 
made his way through large quantities of ice, ani swam before gaining the 
beach, and then walked three-quarters of a mile to a house — his hands are 
little frozen — his feet and legs considerably so — he is not able, however, to be 
moved for the present ; this I have been told by a person who saw him this 
day ; it appears next to an inipossibility, considering the severity of the wea- 
ther, but it is undoubtedly true. Since leaving New York, we have had severe 
cold weather, and the ice completely blocked up the shores. The northerly 
winds kept driving the ice to leeward, and every thing floating very light would 
naturally be buried beneath this constant accumulation of ice. In conseqaenee 
of this, I think we have been prevented from procuring many bodies that, in 
very moderate weather, could have been seen. 

I left New York in the steamer Statesman, on Wednesday, A. M., since 
which time, up to the moment of our leaving the scene of sorrow — which the 
shores that we have visited presented — no time has been lost in doing all that 
lay in our power to search the greatest possible track of beach, vainly hoping 
to save alivu some one clinging to any thing within their power; and also to 
regain all the bodies possible, for the purpose of rendering to surviving rela- 
tions the only consolation left them in this painful separation from their depart- 
ed friends. I feel myself obligated to Capt. Feck for his unceasing efforts to 
enter with his boat every bay or creek where the least hope was entertained 
of accomplishing the object of our undertaking. To Mr. Christopher Town • 
send, and Mr. Dexter Bingham, jr., I feel particularly indebted for their valu- 
able services in assisting me in my difficult, and many instances, dangerous 
undertaking in efifecting a landing. Messrs. Henry Ide, James McKenna, W. 


Bercher, T. Donelly, and C. Homan joined the boat at Bridgrport on Wed- 
nesday night, and have been essentially useful to-day, in collecting the baggage 
and things together for embarkation, while I was otherwise engaged, for which 
I feel greatly indebtedr-also to Mr. Samuel Yeaton, who joined us at Long 

** I saw Capt. Manchester at Southport on Wednesday night, who perfectly 
eorroborates Capt. Hilliard^s statements, which shows how collected each 
must have been in their perilous situation. 

" W# left Crane Neck, for New York, at half past 6 P. M. Arrived at New 
York at 9 A. M., after a passage of fifteen and a half hours— came fifly miles 
through the ice. Respectfully yours, 

Joseph J. Comstock." 

After the return of the Statesman, an inquest was convened, to 
investigate the matter of the burning of the Lexington, and to de- 
cide upon the cause of the death of those brought in the States- 
man. The bodies mentioned above, were identified, and given 
over to their friends ; two bodies, supposed to be deck hands, 
were recognized as Benjamin Ladeu, 27 or 28 years lold, without 
family, and Silas Thornburn, aged about 20, belonging to Provi- 
dence. The bodies of both were much burned in their faces and 
necks ; as was also the child, mentioned above. They were frozen 
perfectly stiff, and covered with ice. 

On board of the steamer, in charge of young Hamden, a man 
of much promise, who attended the Express Car, were $18,000 
in specie ; and from one to three thousand dollars in Eastern 
funds, which had been purchased by brokers, for remittance to 

Mr. Hamden's agent, who prosecuted a search in the Sound, 
wrote to Mr. Hamden, mentioned the discovery of the body of Mr. 
Osgood, and says — 

'* Much baggage continues to drift ashore. It is painful to state, that not 
even the terrible circumstances under which it was throw^ adrift, can guard it 
from plunder. Mounted men have been placed upon duty, who ride constantly 
up and down the beach. The Transportation Company, to whom the boat 
belonged, has addressed a letter to Mr. Wilsie, the Wreck Master, at Old 
Field Point, authorizing him to employ a sufficient number of hands to search 
the shore for property and bodies, the living and the dead, and to act himself, 
in conjunction with Mr. John G. Morse and William Kennedy, who went from 
this city to assist. He is requested also to send to the office, 22 Broadway, 
an accurate description of the bodies and baggage. 


Mr. Samoel Hutchinson says, in a letter dated Riverhead, Jan. 16 :«— 
** I first learned that a boat had been seen on fire in the Sound, at Smith- 
town on last Monday evening, and when I arrived at Setauket, I learned that 
the lifeboat had come on shore there, without any body in or attached to her. 
She had a coat in her, by which it appeared from letters in the pockety that the 
owner was a Mr. or Captain Manchester. After I had been home two or three 
hours, about 7^ o^cIock, a young man came to my father's in a very exhaust- 
ed condition, having just floated ashore opposite the house, on a bale of cotton, 
on which he had been for two days and nights. His fingers and both feet 
were frozen as stiff as marble, and he was without coat or hat. His name 
is David Crowley, and he lives at Providence, and was second mate of the 

** We have taken the best care we could of him, by immersing his feet and 
hands in cool and luke-warm water. We had to cut off his boots. I have 
sent the doctor to him this morning. We succeeded in softening all the frost- 
ed parts, but his feet are very much swollen this morning, and what the result 
will be, is somewhat doubtful." 

Mr. John Wilsie, wreck master at Setauket, and George K: 
Hubbs, Esq. of Smilhtown, with great promptness and zeal, sta- 
tioned a line of guards for fifteen miles, along the north shore of 
Long Island, for the purpose of taking charge of such bodies and 
properly, as might drift on shore. About thirty trunks and chests 
were found in the vicinity of Old Field Point, but nothing was 
heard of Harnden's express car, which, as it contained an iron 
chest, sunk to the bottom. 

In this chest were $10,000 in gold and $20,000 in bank notes. 
The bodies of H. C. Craig and Charles Bracket of New York, 
William A. Green of Providence, and D. Green of Philadelphia, 
went on shore near Stoncy Brook, L. I. Fifteen thousand dollars, 
in bank notes, were found on the body of Wm. A. Green. 

The following is as full a list of the oflficers, passengers and 
crew of the Lexington, as could be obtained : 

Passengers.— Capl. Chester Hillard of Norwich, the only pas- 
senger saved ; Isaac Davis of Boston ; John Corey of Roxboro*, 
Mass. ; Charles W Woolscy, John Brown and Abraham Howard, 
firm of Howard Sc Merry, Boston ; J. Porter Felt, jr. of Salem ; 
H. C. Craig, firm of Mailland, Kennedy <fc Co. N. Y. (body found) ; 
Alphonso Mason of Gloucester, Mass., surveyor of the port; 
Charles Bracket, clerk to N. Bracket, N. Y. (body found) ; Robt. 
Blake of Wrentham, Mass., President of Wrentham Bank ; Mr. 


Fowler of New York ; Wm. A. Green, firm of Allen <fc Green, 
Providence, (body found) ; Samuel Henry, firm of A. &; S. Henry, 
Manchester, England ; R. W. Dow, firm of Dow <fc Co., N. Y. ; 
Charles H. Phelps of Stonington ; the widow of Henry A. Wins- 
low, firm of Winslow &; Co. New York ; John Winslow of Provi- 
dence ; Wm. Winslow, ditto, father of the above. The three 
last mentioned persons were returning to Providence, with the 
corpse of H. A. Winslow, who died in New York, a few days pre- 

Rev. Charles Follen, D. D. of Boston, late Professor of German 
Literature of Harvard University ; Adolphus Harnden, superinten- 
dant of Harnden's Express. He had in charge $20,000 in specie 
for the Merchant's Bank, Boston ; and from forty to fifty thousand 
dollars in bank notes ; Thomas White of Boston, firm of Sands & 
White ; Capt. J. D. Carver of Plymouth, Mass , of the barque 
Brontes ; Mr. Pierce of Portland, mate of the Brontes ; Miss So- 
phia T. Wheeler, daughter of Robt. Wheeler, Stonington, Conn. ; 
Capt. E. J. Kimball ; Capt. B. T. Foster, late of the John Gilpin. 
These captains had recently returned after several years absence, 
and were on their way to visit their families at the east. 

Mr. Everett of Boston, returning from the burial of a brother, who 
died in N. Y. the previous week ; Royal T. Church of Baltimore ; 
Richard Picket of Newbury port ; Mr. Ballard of New York ; Capt. 
Theophilus Smith, Dartmouth, Mass ; Charles S. Noycs, clerk to 
C. B. Babcock, and Albert E. Harding, firm of Harding & Co. N. Y.; 
Henry J. Finn, comedian, he was a native of Virginia, his family re- 
sided at Newport, R. I. ; Charles L. Eberie, of the theatre ; Mrs. 
Rusell Janus of New York, and her two children, one about 12 
and the other about 8 years of age, Mrs. Jarvis was a daughter 
of Thomas Cordis of Boston ; Capt. John G. Low, agent for the 
Boston underwriters, husband of the niece of Mr. Cordis ; John 
Lemist, treasurer of the Boston India Rubber Co. Roxbury, un- 
cle to Mrs. Jarvis, John W. Kerle, and Mr. Weston, firm of Wes- 
ton & Pendexter, of Baltimore ; John G. Brown, firm of Shall & 
Brown, N. Orleans ; Stephen Waterbury, firm of Mead & Water- 
bury, N. Y. (body found), and E. B. Patten, of New York ; J. A. 
Leach, Nathaniel Hobart, and Mr. Stuyvesant of Boston ; N. F. 
Dyer of Pittsburg, formerly of Braintree ; John Brown, a colored 


man ; H. C. Bradford, from Kingstx)n, Jam. ; Chas. Lee of Barre ; 
Jonathan Linfield, Stoughton, Me. ; Philo Upson, Egremont, Mass. 
(body found) ; Mr. Van Colt, Stonington, Conn. ; Capt. Mattison ; 
Robert Williams, or Wilson, of Cold Spring, N. Y. ; David Mi- 
Farlane, mate of the brig Clarion ; James Walker and John Gor- 
den, seamen, of Cambridgeport, from brig Raymond ; Wni. H, 
Wilson, grocer, of Williamsburg, L. I. late of Worcester, Mass. ; 
Patrick McKenna, No. 7 Monroe st, N. Y. clerk with Donnelly 
& Hyatt ; George Benson Smith, recently of Brooklyn ; Elias 
Brown, jr. of Stonington, nephew of Silas E. Burrows, Esq. ; Mr. 
Lawrence, firm of Kelly Sc Lawrence, New York ; Charles Bos- 
worth, schoolmaster of Royalton, Vt. from 37 Franklin st. ; David 
Green of Philadelphia, agent of the Minot, (Me.) Shoe Manufac- 
turing Company, (body found) ; William Nichols, colored, steward 
of steamboat Massachusetts ; Dr. Joshua Johnson of Philadelphia ; 
Thomas James, tailor, of New York, formerly of Boston ; James 
Ray, 2d mate of barque Bohemia, Kennebunk ; Mary Russell of 
Stonington, Ct. ; Jonathan G. Davenport, Middletown, N. J. ; Mrs. 
Lydia Bates, wife of James Bates of Abington, Mass. and their 
two children, Lydia C. Bates and Jacob C. Bates, (body of the 
boy found). The body of Mrs. Bates was found Sept. 13, 1840, 
on the shore at Smithtown, L. I, 

John Walker, whose parents reside at Cambridgeport ; George 
W. Walker ; John Martin, and his son Gilbert Martin, recently 

from England ; William , an English boy ; William Cowen, 

aged 21, New York city ; Benjamin D. Holmes, copper-smith, and 
WiUiam Dexter of Boston ; George 0. Swan, son of Judge Swan 
of Columbus, Ohio. He was on his way to join the law school at 
Cambridge, Mass. ; John Ricker, Monroe, Me. 

Boat's Company. — Capt. Geo. Childs, commander ; Jesse Com- 
stock, clerk ; H. P. Newman, steward ; E. Thurbur, first mate ; 
David Crowley, second mate, saved, after being 48 hours on a 
bale of cotten ; Stephen Manchester, pilot, (saved) ; John Hoyt, 
baggage master ; Mr. Walker, barkeeper ; Cortland Hemsted, cliief 
engineer, (body found); Wm. Quniiby, 2d do ; Martin Jolinson, 
wheelman ; R. B. Schultz, Geo. Baum, Benj. Cox, and Chas. B. 
Smith, (saved) firemen ; Chas. Williams, Ben. Laddie, C. Hum- 
ber, Joel Lawrence, three others, and a boy, deck hands ; Job 


Sands, (body found), Dan'I Aldridge, Mr. Gilbert, Oliver Howell, 
King Cade, Jos. Rostin, John H. Tab, E. Parkson, John Masson, 
Solomon Askons, Isaac Putnam, colored waiters ; Susan C. Hul- 
cumb, chambermaid, colored ; Joseph Robinson, cook, do ; Oliver 
Howell, second do., do. ; Robert Peters, do. ; Henry Reed and 
another, coal heavers. . 

Number of passengers ascertained, - - 91 

do officers and crew, - - - - 39 

Total, 130 


For the good part of a century after the first settlements in this 
country by Europeans, the people were dependent upon foreign 
countries for every thing in the shape of metallic money, and with 
the exception of the sewant of the Indians, called also wampum, 
"Which was pretty extensively used as the medium of domestic ex- 
change, the inhabitants were, in cases of emergency, driven to the 
issuing what were generally denominated biUs of credit, large 
sums in which, were provided for by the local governments, as the 
J)ublic necessities required. 

A full and correct account of the descriptions and amount of 

Xhis species of circulating medium, would, if well executed, prove 

liighly interesting and curious ; suffice it to say, that paper mo- 

:«iey, of some kind or other, has constituted the greatest portion of 

the currency in this country, from the latter part of the eighteenth 

century, to the present time. While connected with the parent 

country, money, to a large amount, was issued from time to time 

in the shape of bills of credit, for the final redemption of which, 

the faith of the colony was pledged. 

These bills, says Mr. Pitkin, were called in by taxes, payable 
at different times, and were not only made receivable in the pay- 
ment of those taxes, and of all duties payable to government, but 
were even a tender in payment of private demands^ until prohibit* 
Vol. II. 36 


ed by act of parliament. Many have heard their fathers and 
grandfathers speak of old tenor and of continental money ^ which 
may be thus explained. The first issue of paper money in Amer- 
icia was made by the' provincial government of Massachusetts in 
1690, under the denomination of hills of credit y and for the pur- 
pose of defraying Uie expenses of an expedition to Canada. 

As specie could not be had for the purpose, new bills were 
issued from time to time, for the redemption of the former, and 
various means resorted to, to sustain their credit, butyVithout an 
adequate specie basis, legislative enactments could not avail, the 
bills being of unequal values in different states. They were even, 
when first issued, of less worth than specie ; in New England they 
were valued at six shillings for a silver dollar, in New York at 
eight shillings, and in Pennsylvania at seven shillings and six- 
pence ; hence arose the different currencies in those pro- 
vinces, which exist even to the present day. It depreciated 
very rapidly, till forty-five shillings came to be of the value of one 
dollar, at which it stood many years, and was denominated old 
tenor (old tender.) In this, accounts were kept and contracts made. 
The standard value, therefore, came to be called lawful money y by 
way of distinction to bills of credit, which were constantly fluctu- 

The mode of liquidating the public demands, and satisfying the 
claims of private creditors, was imitated in many instances by the 
other provinces, and, among the rest, New York. In 1745, Mas- 
sachusetts alone issued bills to the amount of between two and 
three millions of pounds, lawful money ; and in three years after, 
by depreciation, dCl 100 of these bills was only worth, or equal to, 
£100 steriing. Great Britain paid to that colony £180,000 ster- 
ling, for expenses incurred by her in the expedition against Louis- 
burgh, in the last mentioned year ; with which she redeemed her 
bills, at the rale of fifty shillings per ounce of silver. 

When the troubles of the Revolution commenced, congress hav- 
ing no other resources for revenue, had recourse to the system of 
paper money, and the provinces did the same to a large amount. In 
1T75, congress issued bills of credit to the amount of $3,000,000 ; 
and, to force their circulation and prevent their return for redemp- 
tion, it made them, by resolution, a lawful tender, and declared a 

^Thirty Spanith 
milled Dollars, 

t S'iaJ.tfta: l^inialhy HUl and Sitters. 


ifusal to receive them, an extinguishment of the debt for iTvhich 
ley were offered in payment. 

This was a sort of forced loan, and congress declared, Jan 1 1, 

776, that " whoever should refuse to receive in payment conti- 

sntal bills, should be declared and treated as enemies to their 

ountry, and be precluded from intercourse with its inhabitants." 

" Till the amount," says Mr. Jefferson, " exceeded $9,000,000, 

X-Tie bills passed at their nominal value, after which the deprecia- 

X. ion was great." This continental money, formed almost the en- 

'Xire circulating medium of the country during the revolution, and 

siccounls were kept in it, but the specie value was also, generally 

entered as follows : — " 1779, June 5 — to cash paid Reuben Dean, 

:f or a screw for a state seal — cont. £9, law. £0 16s. 4d. ;" which 

:i.s as eleven to one. 

Aug. 30, 1775, the provincial congress of New York ordered 
^n emission of bills to the amount of JC45,000, in sums from ten 
"i:o half a doHar ; and March 5, 1776, they ordered $137,000 more, 
^ug. 13, 1776, they again resolved to issue bills of credit, for 
9500,000, in sums from one shilling to ten dollars. In the same 
c:ongress, May 28, 1776, it was resolved that Thomas Harriot, 
lad violated the resolutions of congress, in refusing to receive 
continental bills in payment, and that he be held up to the public 
9S an enemy to his country. It seems he vvas afterwards impri- 
soned for the like offence. 

Jan. 14, 1777, the continental congress declared, that bills of 
credit, issued by their authority, ought to pass current in all pay- 
ments, &c. and they recommended the state legislatures to make 
them a lawful tender ; that a refusal to receive them should work 
a forfeiture of the debt, and that persons so conducting, ought to 
be declared enemies to the liberties of the United States. 

The Hon. John Sloss Hobart reported to the provincial con- 
gress of New York, that the bills issued by them, then circulat- 
ing, and not on interest, amounted, Aug. 2, 1777, to £1,060,110, 
or $2,650,275. 

In 1780 they were worth only one half, and continued to fall, 
till $500 and even more of these bills were required to buy 
a pound of lea, and $1000 to pay for a pair of boots. The next 


year they entirely stopped, except at one hundred for one, under 
the funding system established by the national government. 

The consequence of the constant fluctuation and depreciation of 
these bills, a greater part of those outstanding, was absorbed by spe- 
culators, who vainly expected they would eventually be redeemed 
at par. During the war, every device was resorted to by the en- 
emy to destroy their credit, and counterfeiting was carried on to 
a wonderful extent. 

Out of several hundred millions, issued by the continental and 
the different prbvincial congresses, probably more than one hun- 
dred millions are still held by public bodies and by individuals, 
which are entirely worthless, except as matters of curiosity. This 
is the more to be regretted, inasmuch as losses often fell upon the 
honest patriot and worn out soldier. But, with all its faults, the 
system was not only indispensable, but unavoidable, and answered 
the purpose of carr}'ing the country triumphantly through the 
long and bloody conflict, to the establishment of its independence. 
Yet it is now evident, that it might and ought to have been re- 
deemed, at the value given for it by the holder, and paid either in 
money or in public lands, which the creditors would gladly 
have received. 

Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury, on the 9th of 
Jan. 1790, made a long and able report to congress on the subject 
of preserving the public credit, in which he advocated the redemp- 
tion of these continental bills, and affirmed that the public 
credit was a matter of the highest importance to the honor and 
prosperity of the United States, which could only be supported by 
good faith and a punctual performance of contracts. 

" The debt of the United States," says he, " was the price of li- 
berty ; the faith of America has been repeatedly pledged for it, and 
with solemnities that give peculiar force to the obligation. To 
justify and preserve public confidence ; to promote the increasing 
respectability of the American name ; to answer the calls of jus- 
tice ; to sustain landed property to its true value ; to furnish new 
resources both to agriculture and commerce; to cement more 
closely the union of the states ; to add to their security against 
foreign attack ; to establish public order on the basis of an upright 
and liberal policy, are the great and valuable ends to be secured 


T>y a proper and adequate provision for the support of public ere- 
^it. The nature of the contract, upon the face of the bills, is, that 
the public will pay to the holder the sum therein expressed, and 
it was from this circumstance, that the bills were ever received, 
or circulated as money." 

For the special gratification of the reader, and to preserve a 

knowledge of the subject of continental and provincial money, 
ive have caused fac similes of both to be engraved, and are here- 
'wilh presented, as a link in the chain of historical events, which 
characterized the perilous and eventful period of the American 



Whether the persecutions, with which the Quakers were for- 
merly treated in this province, shojld be ascribed to the temper 
and prejudices of the age in which they took place, or to the bigo- 
try of particular sects or of individuals, it is not necessary to dis- 
cuss ; yet some account of the many unjustifiable outrages, upon 
the rights of conscience and the liberty of speech, is a necessary 
duty of the historian. 

The expectation of enjoying in this country greater freedom 
of opinion and speech, than they could enjoy in their native land, 
induced many worthy persons with their families, to risk the dan- 
gers of a voyage over the Atlantic, and the privations incident to a 
settlement in a new and distant country. Little could they have 
anticipated so soon being made objects of abuse and intolerance, 
by those who had transported themselves here for the same pur- 
pose, the enjoyment of religious freedom. 

That many of the disciples of Fox were imprudent and fanati- 
cal, is undoubted ; but tlie treatment they received from the puri- 
tans of New England, particularly corporeal punishment, could not 
be justified upon any principle of propriety, law or justice. 

•* It has often been remarked," says the Rev. Mr. Upham, in 
^is history of Sir Henry Vane, "that our fathers were guilty of 


great inconsistency in persecuting the followers of Mrs. Hutchin* 
son, the Quakers and others, inasmuch as they settled the country 
in order to screen themselves from persecution. They are often 
reproached, as having contended manfully for the rights of con- 
science, when they were themselves sufferers, and, as then turning 
against others, and violating their rights of conscience, as soon as 
they had the power and the opportunity to do it. 

** But the remark and the reproach is founded in error. It was 
for religious liberty, in a peculiar sense, that our fathers contend- 
ed, and they were faithful to the cause as they understood it. The 
true principles of religious liberty, in its wide and full compre- 
hension, had never dawned upon their minds, and was never main- 
tained by them." 

In 1640, the court at Plymouth ordered, that, if any should 
bring into that jurisdiction a Quaker, rantor, or other notorious he- 
retic, he should, upon the order of a magistrate, return such per- 
son to the place from whence he came, upon the penalty of 25 
shillings for every week such person should remain there after 

In 1652, it was enacted, that no Quaker should be entertained 
within that government, under the penalty of £5 for every default, 
or whipping. In 1657, the court of Massachusetts imposed a fine 
of £100 on any bringing a Quaker into that jurisdiction ; and a 
Quaker returning, after being sent away, to have one of his ears 
cut off ; for a second offence, to lose the other ear. Every Qua- 
ker woman so returning, to be severely whipped, and for a third 
offence, to have her tongue bored through with a hot iron, 

Tlicsc harsh measures served in some instances to provoke even 
the Quaker, to acts approaching insanity. Humphrey Norton, 
of whom it is hard to say whether he was most fool or knave, ad- 
dressed an insulting epistle to the governor, filled with the most 
-virulent terms of reproach of which language is capable ; and an- 
other to John Alden, a magistrate, equally abusive, both of which 
bear date at Rhode Island, April 16, 1658, and are curiosities in 
their way. 

But the laws already made, proving ineffectual, it was resolved 
♦o substitute, in some cases, even the punishment of death. 

Oct. 19, 1659, William Robinson, Marmaduke Stevenson aodJi 


Mary Dyer, who had returned from banishment, were tried and - 


committed. The two former were executed Oct. 27, 1659; the 
last was reprieved, but returning again the next year, was hanged 
June 1, 1660. 

William Lcddra, who had been whipped and banished, was 
again offered his liberty, upon condition of not returning, which 
he declined, and was executed March 14, 1660. 

In the colonics of Connecticut and New Haven, the enactments 
were less severe, and no one suffered death there for heresy. Hoi- 
den, Copeland and Rouse, had their ears cut off at Boston, Sept. 
6, 1658. Witches, quakcrs and baptists, seem to have been al- 
most equally obnoxious to punishment in the eastern provinces. 

The Rev. George Burroughs was executed for witchcraft in 
Aug. 1692, and about twenty others suffered on the like charge. 

In this province, the quakers were treated with great severity. 
On the 8th of Jan., 1658, a written answer was received by the 
governor and council, from John Tilton, late clerk of Gravesend, 
to the complaint of the sheriff there, that he gave lodgings to a 
quaker woman. 

In council, Jan. 10, 1658 — Present, the director general, Pe- 
trus Stuyvesant, and the Hon. Nicasius de Sille, and Pieter Ton- 

The conclusion of the Attorney General versus John Tilton, for 
lodging a banished quaker woman, being read, with the written 
answer of John Tilton, which, being examined, the following sen- 
tence was pronounced : — 

Whereas John Tilton, residing at S. Gravesend, now under arrest, has dared 
to provide a Quaker woman with lodging, who was banished out of the New 
Netherlands ; so, too, some other persons of her adherents, belonging to the 
ibominable sect of the Quakers, which is directly contrary to the orders and 
placards of the Director-General and Council of New Netherlands, and there- 
fore, as an example for others, ought to be severely punished : however, hav- 
ing taken in consideration the supplication of the arrested Tilton, in which he 
declares that the aforesaid Quaker woman came to his house with other neigh- 
bors during his absence, and further reflected on his former conduct, so it is, 
that the Director- General in New Nether'ands, doing justice in the name of the 
^igh and mighty Jjords the States General of the United Netherlands, and the 
<^oble Directors of the privileged West Indian Company, condemn the afore- 
id John Tilton in an amende of Xl2 Flanders, with the costs and mises of 


justice, to be applied, one third in behalf of the Attorney- General, one-third 
in behalf of the Sheriff of Gravesend, and the remaining third part as it ought 
to be. 

From the first appearance of the quakcrs in the jurisdiction, it 
seems to have been the determination of Governor Slu)nresant to 
prevent, by every possible means, the dissemination of opinions, 
which he was pleased to denominate " seditious, heretical and 
abominable ;" and the whole sect was always spoken of with the 
utmost contempt and with the most opprobious epithets. Among 
the first that fell under his displeasure, was Hodgson (or Hadson.) 
He came over in June, 1657, on bozird the vessel called the Wood- 
house, Capt. Robert Fowler. He was charged with holding con- 
venticles, and proceeding toward Hempstead, he was seized by or- 
der of Richard Gildersleeve, a magistrate there, and committed to 
prison. Information being sent to the city, a guard was ordered 
to bring him before the governor and council. Two women, who 
had entertained him, were also taken ; one of whom had a young 
child. These were put into a cart ; and Hodgson being fastened 
behind it, was dragged through woods by night to the city, and 
thrust into the dungeon of Fort Amsterdam. On being brought 
out next day, he was examined, condemned, and sentenced to two 
year's hard labor at a wheel barrow, with a negro, or pay a fine 
of 600 guilders. With the latter alternative he was either unable 
or unwilling to comply, and was again- confined, without per- 
mission to see or converse with any one. Being afterwards 
chained to a wheel barrow, and commanded to work, he refused 
to do so, and was, by order of the court, beaten by a negro with a 
tarred rope til he fainted : the punishment was continued, at inter- 
vals, to one hundred lashes, with the same result. After having 
been for some months confined, and frequently scourged as before, 
he was liberated, at the solicitations of the governor's sister, and 
banished from the province. Upon the Dutch records, the case of 
Henry Townsend is alluded to, who, on the 1 5th of September, 
1657, was condemned in an amende of £8 Flanders, or else to 
depart the province within six weeks, upon the penalty of corporeal 
punishment, for having called together conventicles. Being a per- 
son of great worth and consideration with the people of Flushing, 
where he had previously resided, they assembled, and addressed 


a remonstrance to the governor, dated December 27, 1657, of 
which the following is a copy : — 

** Right Honorable : 

" You have been pleased to send up unto us a certain prohibi- 
tion or command that wee should not relieve or enterteine any of those people 
called Quakers, because they are supposed to bee by some, seducers of the peo^ 
pie. For our parte we cannot condem them in this case, neither can wee 
stretch out our handes against them, to puni:»h, bannish or persecute them, /or 
cut of Christ, God is consuming fire, and it is a fearfull thing to full into the 
hands of the living God. Wee desire therefore in this ca^-e not to judge, least 
we be judged, neither to condem least wee bee condemd, but rather let every 
man stand or fall to his own maister. Wee are rommande by the law to doe 
good unto all men, especially to tho^e of the household of faith. And though 
for the present, wee seeme to be insensible of the law and the lawj^iver, yet 
when death and the law assault us, if wahave an advocate to seeke who shall 
pleade for us in this case of conscience betwixt God and our own solIcs, the 
powers of this woild can neither assist us, neither excuse us, for if Giid jus- 
tifye, who can condem, and if God condem, there is none can justifye. And 
for those jealousies and suspicions which some have of them, that they are 
destructive unto magistracy and ministerye (this) cannot bee for the magistrate 
hath the sword in his hand and the minister hath the sword in his hand, as wit- 
nesse those tew great examples which all magistrates and ministers are to fol- 
low (Moses) and Christ whom God raised up maineiained and defended against 
all the enemies both of flesh and spirit; and therefore that which is of God 
will stand, and that which is of man will come to nocthing. And as the Lorde 
htth taught Moses or the civil power to give an outward liberty in the state 
by the law written in his heart, for the good of all, and can truely judge who 
is good, who is evil, who is true and who is false, and can pass definitive sen- 
tence of life or death against that man which rises up against the fundamentall 
law of the States General. Soe he hath made his ministers a saver of life 
onto life, and a saver of death unto death. The law of love, peace and liberty 
in the state extendin;; to Jewes, Turkes, and Egyptians, as they are considered 
the sonnes of Adam, which is the glory of the outward State of Holland, soe 
lofe, peace and liberty, extending to all in Christ Jesus, condems hatred, warre 
and bondage. And because our Saviour saith it is impossible but that offences 
will come, but woe be unto him by whom they cometh ; our desire is not to of- 
fend one of his little ones, in whatever forme or name or title he appeares in, 
whether preshyterian, independent, baptist, or quaker, but shall be glad to see 
any thing of God in any of them, desiring to doe unto all, as wee desire that 
all men should do unto us, which is the true law both of church and state. For 
our Saviour saith, this is the law and the prophets. Therefore, if any of these 
•aid persons come in love unto us, we cannot in conscience lay violent hands 
Dpon them, but give them free egresse and regresse unto our towne and 
houses, as God shall persuade our consciences. And in this we are true sub- 

VoL. II. 37 


jects both of church and stale ^ for wee are boande by the law of God and man 
to do good unto all men, and evil to noe man. And this is according to the 
Patient and charter of our towne, given unto us in the name of the States 
General!, which wee are not willing to infringe and violate, but shall boulde 
our patient, and shall remaine your humble subjects the Inhabitants of Ylis- 
•ingh. Written this 27th of Dec. 1657, by me," 

" Edward Hart, Clerk:^ 


To this dignified and spirited document are subscribed the 
names of thirty of the principal inhabitants of the town, including 
Henry and John Townsend of Jamaica, (or Rusdorp.) It was 
presented next day in person by Tobias Feake, sheriff, one of the 
signers. The governor was highly incensed, and ordered his at- 
torney-general, Nicasius De Silje, immediately to arrest him. Far- 
rington and Noble, two of the magistrates, signers also, were taken 
and imprisoned. Hart admitted writing the paper, saying he was 
requested to do so, as containing the sentiments of the village 
meeting, at the house of Michael Milnor. He was, therefore, im- 
prisoned. On the 29th of December, 1657, the magistrates of 
Rusdorp informed the governor that the quakers and their ad- 
herents were lodged, and entertained, and unrelentingly corres^ 
ponded in said village, at the house of Henry Townsend ; who, 
they say, formerly convocated a conventicle of the quakers, and 
assisted in it, for which he had been condemned on the 15th of 
September, 1657, in an amende of JC8 Flanders, that had not asyet 
been paid. He was thereupon cited to appear, Jan. 8, 165B. 
John Townsend, who had also been summoned Jan. 10, on being 
asked if he had gone with Hart to pursuade Farrington to sign the 
remonstrance, answered that he had been at Flushing, and visited 
Farrington as an old acquaintance ; and that he had also been at 
Gravesend, but not in company with the banished female quaker. 
The court having suspicions of his favoring the quakers, he was 
ordered to find bail for £ 1 2. to appear when summoned. 

On the same day, Noble and Farrington were brought up, and 
made a verbal confession of being seduced and inveigled by Feake, 
and promising to conduct with more prudence in future, were dis- 
charged on paying costs. The trials which followed, may well be 
considered as a perfect mockery of judicial proceedings, and a bur- 
lesque on the administration of justice — inflated language, mixed 


with barbarous latin, unmeaning technicalities and affected cere- 
mony, are manifest at every step, and can produce in the mind of 
the reader, only disgust. This feeling is increased by the fact 
that the accused were denied the privilege of counsel, or even of 
defending themselves. 

On the 15th of Jan. 1658, Henry Townscnd was again brought 
before the council, and the farce ended by the attorney general, 
declaring, that as the prisoner had before and now again, trespassed 
and treated with contempt the placards of the director general and 
council in New Netherlands, in lodging quakers, which he un- 
conditionally confessed, he should, therefore, be condemned in an 
amende of £100 Flanders, as an example for other transgressors 
and contumelious offenders, of the good order and placards of the 
director general and council in New Netherlands, and so to remain 
arrested till the said amende be paid, besides the costs and mises 
of justice." On the 28th, sheriff Feakc was brought from prison, 
and "though (says the record) he confessed that he had received 
an order of the director general not to admit in the aforesaid vil- 
lage, any of that heretical and abominable sect, called quakers, or 
procure them lodgings, yet did so in the face of the placards ; and, 
what was worse, was a leader in composing a seditious and detesta- 
ble chartabel, delivered by him and signed by himself and his accom- 
plices, wherein they justify the abominable sect of the quakers, who 
treat with contempt all political and ecclesiastical authority, and un- 
dermine tlie foundations of all government and religion, maintaining 
and absolutely concluding that all sects, and principally the aforesaid 
heretical and abominable sect of quakers, shall or ought to be tol- 
erated, which is directly contrary to the aforesaid orders and pla- 
cards of the director general and council ; whereas he ought to 
have maintained and observed the execution of the aforesaid orders 
and placards in conformity to his oath, as he was in duty bound, 
as a subaltern officer of the director general and as sheriff of the 
aforesaid village of Flissingen." He was, therefore, degraded 
from his office, and sentenced to be banished or pay an amende 
of 200 guilders. On the 26th March, 1658, the governor in order 
to prevent as much as possible the consequences of quaker influ- 
ence among the people, resolved to change the municipal govern- 
ment of tiie town of Flushing ; and therefore, after formally par- 


doning the town for its mutinous orders and resolutions, says, " in 
future I shall appoint a sheriff, acquainted not only with the Eng- 
lish and Dutch language, but with Dutch practical law^ ; and that 
in future there shall be chosen seven of the most reasonable and 
respectable of the inhabitants, to be called tribunes and towns- 
men ; and whom the shcrijff and magistrates shall consult in all 
cases ; and that a tax of twelve stivers per-morgen is laid on the 
inhabitants for the support of an orthodox minister ; and such as 
do not sign a written submission to the same in six weeks, may 
dispose of their property at their pleasure, and leave the soil of 
this government." 

On the council records of January 8, 1661, it is stated that the 
governor addressed the people of Jamaica, informing them that he 
had received their petition for a minister to baptize some of their 
children ; and their information that quakers and other sects held 
private conventicles. He tells them that he had dispatched bis 
deputy sheriff, Resolve VValdron, and one of his clerks, Nicholas 
Bayard, to take notice thereof, and requiring the inhabitants to 
give exact information where and in what house such unlawful 
conventicles were kept ; what persons had exercised ihevein ; what 
men or women had been present ; who called the meeting, and 
of all the circumstances appertaining thereunto. In consequence 
of this inquisitorial espionage of tlie governor's deputy, and the 
fact that Everit and Denton, two of the magistrates of Jamaica^ 
had furnished the names of twelve persons, including Henry and 
John Townsend, and their wives, who had countenanced the 
quakers, Henry Townsend was a third time dragged to the city, 
and again incarcerated in the dungeons of Fort Amsterdam. On 
the day following, he and Samuel Spicer, who had also given en- 
tertainment to a quaker at his mother's house in Gravesend, were 
brought from their loathsome prison. It was proved by witnesses 
procured for the occasion, tliat Townsend had given lodging to a 
quaker, and besides notifying his neighbors, had even allowed them 
to preach at his house and in his presence ; also, that Spicer was 
present, both at the meeting at Jamaica and Gravesend, and pro- 
cured lodging for the quaker at his mother's house. They were 
accordingly condemned in an amende of 600 guilders each, in con- 
formity to the placard respecting conventicles, and to be imj^ison- 


ed until the said amende be paid ; and further, that the said 
Henry 'i'ownscnd be banished out of the province, far an example 
to others. The widow Spicer, mother of Samuel, was also arrest- 
ed, accused, and condemned in an amende of £15 Flanders. 'J'he 
said Henry Townsend having ingenuously acknowledged that he 
lodged in his house some other friends who are called quakers, 
and had a meeting of friends at his house, at which one of them 
spoke, concluding by saying that they might squander and devour 
his estate and manacle his person, but that his soul was his God's, 
and his opinions his own ; whereupon he was again condemned, 
and sentenced with much formality. These acts of violence were 
more particularly frequent from 1647 to 1664, during the admin- 
istration of Sluyvesant, who was a zealous and intolerant member 
of the Dutch Calvinislic Church, and disposed to execute 
the instructions accompanying his commission, with tlie most 
extraordinary rigor. His official oath required " the maintenance 
of the Reformed Religion in conformity to the word and the de- 
crees of the synod of Dordrecht^ and not to tolerate in public any 
other sect.^'* By an ordinance made in 1656, any one preaching 
doctrines other than those authorized by the synod, was fineable 
one hundred, and every one attending thereon, twenty-five guilders. 
In the spirit of this provision, the governor, in 1656, imprisoned 
some Lutherans, and in 1658 banished a clergyman of that 
church. He was reproved for the former by the Dutch West In- 
dia Company, who directed him to permit the free exercise of their 
religion to all persons within their own houses ; and though com- 
mended for the latter, was instructed to use moderate measures in 
future. Against the quakers, who had, by their peaceful and pru- 
dent conduct, made many converts in some of the western towns 
of the island, particularly at .Jamaica and Flushing, the temper of 
the governor was violent and revengeful. Orders in writing, or 
placards, were issued to the town authorities forbidding them to 
entertain members of this odious sect ; and the ordinance of 1 662 
provided, that besides the reformed religion, no conventicles 
should be holden in houses, barns, ships, woods, or fields, under 
the penalty of fifty guilders for each person, man, woman, or 
child, attending for the first offence ; double for the second ; quad- 
ruple for tlic third; and arbitrary correction for every other. 


The importation of seditious and seducing books, and the lodging 
of persons arriving in the province without reporting themselves 
and taking the oath of allegiance, subjected the offenders to severe 
penalties. These, with some other causes of discontent, rendered 
the government very unpopular ; and it is probable, that, had not 
the province been conquered in 1664 by a foreign power, a revo- 
lution would have, in a very short time, been effected by the in- 
habitants themselves, either with or with oat the aid of the other 

Materials upon the subject of the quaker persecutions are both 
abundant and authentic ; yet want of space will necessarily re- 
strict our inquiries within narrow limits, and confine us to a few 
cases of more than ordinary severity. The most prominent indi- 
viduals against whom these atrocities were committed were — 
Robert Hodgson, Edward Farrington, William Bowne, WiUiam 
Noble, Edward Feake, Henry Townsend, John Townsend, Ed- 
ward Hart, John Bownc, Saniuel Spicer, and John Tilton. Of 
Hodgson little more is known than that he was a worthy man, and 
highly esteemed by the Friends for his intelligence and zeal in de- 
fence of civil and religious liberty. The cruel treatment he re- 
ceived from the government drove him from the province, after the 
termination of his sufferings and imprisonment. Spicer and Til- 
ton, and probably Farrington, came with Baxter and Hubbard to 
Gravcsend in 1643, accompanied by the Lady Moody, from Mas- 
sachusetts. William Bowne came about the same time to Graves- 
end, and was a magistrate there in 1 657. He afterwards remov- 
ed with his family, and a few other quakcrs, to New Jersey, 
where they made a purchase, embracing the present county of 
Middlesex and part of Monmouth. John and Henry Townsend, 
with their brother Richard, emigrated, it is believed, from Lynn 
Regis, in Norfolkshire, England, to Saugus, (now Lynn,) Mas- 
sachusetts, a little previous to 1 640, and soon after arrived in llie 
New Netherlands. John Bowne, and his father Thomas Bowne, 
were among the earliest and most venerable inhabitants of Flush- 
ing. They embraced, with zeal, the opinions and principles of 
George Fox, and were, on this account, marked out by the minions 
of arbitrary power, as fit subjects of unceasing persecution. It 
has been mentioned in a former part of this work, that John 


Bowne was, in 1663, transported to Holland for his supposed he- 
retical opinions, and for which act the governor was severely re- 
primanded by the West India Company, whose servant he was. 

On the 5th of October, 1662, John Tilton and Mary his wife, 
having been accused and committed before the governor and 
council of New Amsterdam, of having entertained quakers and 
frequented their conventicles, were condemned, and ordered to 
depart from the province before the 20lh November following, 
upon pain of corporeal punishment. It is presumed that through 
the influence of Lady Moody, the last sentence was either revers- 
ed or commuted for the payment of a fine, as ihey continued to 
reside at Gravcsend for the remainder of their lives. 

It appears from the trial, that Goody TiUon, (as she is called,) 
was not so much condemned for assisting at conventicles, as 
" for having, like a sorceress, gone from door to door, to lure and 
seduce the people, yea, even young girls, to join the quakers." 
Her husband had been fined the 19th of Sept. preceding, for 
^''permitting quakers to quake at his house in Gravesend" (He 
died in 1688, and his wife ia 1683.) On Henry Townsend's last 
imprisonment for the non-payment of his fine, he was daily sup- 
plied with food, through the gratings of the jail, by his daughter 
Rose, then only nine years old, she being able to excite the com- 
passion of the keeper so far, as to permit the performance of this 
pious duty. 

May 17, 1663, the governor put forth a still more severe edict, 
denouncing vengeance and heavy penalties upon skippers and 
barques, that should smuggle in any of those " abominable impos- 
ters, runaways, and strolling people, called quakers. 

Many more instances, with almost equally aggravated circum- 
stances, might be mentioned, showing that the severe reprimand 
which the governor received from the authorities of Holland was 
well merited, and ought to have been followed by his expulsion 
from an oflfice he so unworthily filled. But his power was soon 
after terminated by the conquest of New York ; yet his excellen- 
cy, though deprived of the government, was nevertheless permit- 
ted to retain his large possessions upon Manhattan Island, a good 
portion of which is still enjoyed by his descendants. 

Before closing this interesting article, wc will cite an example 


of Quaker persecution, which took place during the administra- 
tion of Lord Cornbury, a man of most detestable cliaracter, and 
fully equal to the Dutch Governor for religious intolerance. He 
in his turn persecuted other sects as well as Quakers, instances 
of which are adverted to in other parts of this work. The case 
we now allude to is that of Samuel Bownas, a Quaker preacher, 
who came to America at the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
The facts are stated in the journal of* his travels, afterwards pub- 
lished. He left England on the 24ih of March, 1702, and landed 
in Maryland, where he received a challenge from George Keith, 
an episcopal missionary, who had once been a Quaker. He was 
followed by Keith through Pennsylvania and New Jersey to Long 
Island, and a meeting being appointed at Hempstead, he preached 
Nov. 21, 1702, at the house of one Thomas Pearsall. As Keith 
could not, by other means, silence his adversary, he procured 
Richard Smith and William Bradford of Hempstead, to make an 
affidavit, charging him with heresy, and for which a warrant was 
issued by Joseph Smith and Edward Burroughs, justices, for his 
apprehension. On the 29lh, while attending a meeting of Frieiids 
at Flushing, Cardell, the high sheriff, with a posse armed vrith 
guns, pitchforks, swords and clubs, entered the house and took 
him prisoner. He appeared before the court at Jamaica, consist- 
ing of four justices, Joseph Smith, Edward Burroughs, Jolin 
Smith and Jonathan Whitehead, the last of whom, says the pri- 
soner, was a very moderate man, and did much to set him at liber- 
ty ; but they had a priest with them, who put the worst construc- 
tion upon every thing he said, and had also a man secreted in a 
closet to note down what he should say ; but the man was so 
drunk, that in going home he lost his papers, for which great in- 
quiry was made. The justices ordered the prisoner to give bail 
in £2000, with sureties to appear and answer an indictment, 
which the prisoner said he would not give, " were it only three 
half-^enceP Justice W^hitehcad offered himself as bail, and took 
the prisoner home till next day, when he was committed to jail in 
Jamaica for the term of three months. At the end of which, a 
special commission of oyer and terminer was granted to Chief 
Justice Bridges, and Robert Miller, Thomas Willet, John Jack- 
son and Edward Burroughs, associates, who met at the county 


hall in Jamaica. The names of the grand jury were, Richard 
Cornell, Ephraim Goulding, John Clayer, Isaac Hicks, Robert 
Hubbs, Richabel Mott, Theodore Vanderwick, Samuel Denton, 
Joseph Mott, Richard Valentine, Nathaniel Coles, Joseph Dick- 
erson, Isaac Doughty, Samuel Emery, John Smith, John Soring, 
John Qakley, Samuel Hallet, Richard Alsop, John Hunt, James 
Clement and William Bloodgood. The jury presented the bill to 
the court, endorsed ^^ Ignoramus ;'^ upon which the judge was 
very angry, and told the jury that surely they had forgot their 
oathsj and for so doing he could give them some hard namesy but 
for the present should forbear. " Is this your verdict (said the 
judge) touching the quaker ?" " It is," said the foreman ; at which 
tlie judge raged, and threatened to " laij tliejury hy the heels, and 
to impose a fine upon them ;" to which one of them replied, if he 
did, " the matter should soon be exposed in Westminster Hall." 
The judge now ordered the prisoner to be kept more close than 
before, and threatened to send him to London, chained to the deck 
of a man-of-war, then ready to sail for England. " Thomas Hicks, 
an honest old man, who had been a justice of the province, and 
was well versed in the law, came to visit me, (says he,) and con- 
soled me with many kind words, saying that they dare not send 
me out of the country." His old enemy, Keith, published a pam- 
phlet against him, which rather increased the number of his friends. 
During his imprisonment he learned to make shoes, by which he 
earned fifteen shillings a week, refusing, at the same time, all pe- 
cuniary aid from his friends. While here, he was visited, he says, 
by an Indian sachem, who asked him if he was a Christian ; and 
being told yea, " and are they not Christians who keep you 
heref Being told they called themselves so, he expressed 
much surprise, and said, " the Mang Manetou, (meaning God,) 
looked at the heart." Then the Indian took a piece of coal, and 
drawing a circle, said, " they believed the Great Spirit to be all 
eye, that he saw every thing ; all ear, that he heard every thing ; 
and all mind, that he knew every thingP At the silting of the 
court in.October, 1703, the bill was again returned, ^^ Ignoramus, ^^ 
and be was discharged. He visited America again in 1727, and 
died in England on the 2d of April, 1753. 
Vol. II. 38 



- The late learned and venerable Dr. Dwight, who traversed Long 
Island some forty years since, makes the following observations 
in relation to this portion of the United States. 

" The insular situation of these counties, has a very perceptible 
influence upon the inhabitants as a body. Their own internal 
concerns must always exist upon a small scale. Their views, 
aflfections and pursuits, must of course be always limited. Few 
objects can be presented to them, and few events can occur of 
sufficient magnitude to expand thought, or of sufficient import- 
ance to awaken energy. Almost all their concerns are absolutely 
confined to the house or to the neighborhood ; and the neighbor- 
hood rarely extends beyond the confines of a small hamlet. 

" Habitually bounded by these, the mind is neither very much 
inclined, nor very able to look beyond them. Its views, in most 
cases will, after a little time, be of choice occupied with these 
small circles, its aflfections will all centre here ; and its pursuits 
will break through, only to reach the market. The tenor of life 
will therefore be uniform, undisturbed on the one hand and tame 
on the other. What the mind may have been cannot be known, 
because it has never been stimulated to any attempt for the expan- 
sion of its views, or the exertion of its powers ; what it is, may 
from one instance, be readily conjectured in a thousand." 

" The inhabitants of this island, (continues the doctor,) are des- 
titute of other advantages, which contribute not a little, to difiuse 
information and awaken energy. There is very little travelling 
here, besides their own. The attention excited, the curiosity 
awakened, and the animation produced by the frequent arrival of 
strangers, are here in great measure unknown. At the same time, 
comparatively few persons of talents and information reside here. 
There is nothing sufliciently inviting in the circumstances of the 
island itself, to allure persons of this, character from the continent, 
and the allurements of the continent are such, as commonly to 
entice men of this description, who are natives of the island, to 
remove from it for the sake of obtaining them. 


*' A considerable number of such men, born here, are found in 
New York and elsewhere. The advantages derived from the con- 
versation and examples of persons distinguished for superiority, 
are therefore enjoyed in a very imperfect degree ; and that lumin- 
ous spirit, and those improvements in the state of society, which 
they every where shed upon the circle around them, are very im- 
perfectly realized. Such, it would seem, must, through an inde- 
finite period, be the situation of Long Island." 

Notwithstanding the acuteness of observation and felicity of 
expression, as well as aptness of description, for which the learned 
president was so distinguished, a very slight acquaintance with 
the people of Long Island,. only, is required to perceive that many 
of his conclusions, were rather the result of previously formed 
opinions, than of any thorough examination of facts as they really 
existed. But, at the period mentioned, the spirit for agricultural 
and other domestic improvements had made but small advances, 
nor had even a foot of turnpike road been then constructed upon 
Long Island. The facilities for travelling were of course limited, 
and this part of the country was less known than any other district 
within one hundred miles of New York. And even the inhabit- 
ants of different parts of the island, knew little of each other, and 
took little pains to cultivate a further acquaintance. At that 
time too, a majority of the people of Kings county, knew scarcely 
any thing of the neighboring county of Queens, and neither of 
these, had any accurate knowledge of the people, or the localities 
of Suffolk county. 

'There are but few persons in the western parts of the island, 
who even at this day, have visited the eastern part of it, or 
have seen the flourishing village of Sag Harbor, whose in- 
habitants have invested, in the business of whaling alone, more 
than a million of dollars, and employ more than one thousand 
men. So much can hardly be said of the now rich, beautiful and 
populous city of Brooklyn. < 

It may be true, as sometimes remarked, that islanders possess 
stronger local attachments, than others, but they often exhibit 
also, more activity and perseverance, than some who possess 
vastly superior advantages, as witness the inhabitants of Nan- 
tucket and those of many other islands. Long Island presents 


many attractions for those in pursuit of either pleasure, health or 

The almost perfect level of its southern border and the undula- 
ting surface of the northern ; its extensive midland prairies and 
forests, abounding in game, the numerous streams, ponds and bays, 
filled with fish of various kinds ; its fine air, and an illimitable wa- 
ter prospect, all hold out irresistable inducements, to the intelli- 
gent traveller. Since the introduction of turnpike roads in some 
parts of the island and the improvement of common roads in others, 
the agriculture has equally advanced, and now presents a perfec- 
tion, which surprises and delights the stranger. The eastern towns 
equally with others, which formerly scarcely raised a sufficiency 
of grain for their own consumption, now produce a surplus of 
many thousand bushels of wheat, rye, com, oats, and other articles 
for market. 

In short the entire face of things has undergone a revolution, 
and Long Island has become much better known and appreci- 
ated. Gentlemen of wealth and taste are establishing country 
residences in different places, and by their intelligence and refine-- 
ment give a lone and respectabiUty to society. We have more- 
over some of the plcasantest villages in the state, and the inexhaus- 
tible treasures of the great south bay insures employment 

competency to many thousands of the inhabitants. The shores oi 
the Sound, of the bays and ocean, afford sites for building of sur— • 
passing beauty, and an atmosphere of unparalleled salubrity. Irm. 3n 
short the political, commercial and business relations of the 
pie, are almost identical with the cities of New York and Brook* 
lyn, and the prosperity of the one, must necessarily advance thi 
interests of the other. 

Long Island contained in 1840, more than one hundred and tei 
thousand inhabitants, of whom about one-third, live in the city o* 
Brooklyn, which may properly be considered the commercial anc 
businci<s capital of Long Island. The excess of the populatio: 
over Rhode Island, i^one thousand, five hundred and seventy-six,- 
over Delaware, thirty-two thousand, three hundred and twent] 
one, — over Arkansas, twelve thousand, eight hundred and thirt] 
two, and over Wiskonsin, scvcnly-nine thousand, four hundn 
and sixty-one. Long Island, therefore, from her position, popuL 


tion and her growing importance, has every right to become a 
separate state, as Vermont had to be separated from New York, 
or Maine from Massachusetts. 

Tiiat one or more divisions, will, at a future period, take place 
in the immense territory of the empire state, is very probable, and 
the insular condition of Long Island, points to the propriety of her 
separate political existence, with the proud and aspiring city of 
Brooklyn as her head, and as the seat of her future legislature. 

Many causes which have assisted to advance the interests of 
other parts of the state, have thus far, retarded our own ; among 
these not the least important, is the emigration of so large portion 
of her ambitious and enterprizing citizens to the city of New York 
and other places. Scarcely a settlement exists in the northern 
and western portions of the state, in which Long Island people may 
not be found, amongst the most prosperous of their inhabitants. 
This is the case also in the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania 
Illinois, Michigan and several others. Long Island has, therefore, 
been constantly drained of a part of her population, who had they 
remained, might have done much for her advancement in every 
respect, provided they had exerted the same powers of mind and 
body, in promoting the welfare of their native island. 

In addition to, many improvements made in agriculture, hor- 
ticulture also, has attracted the attention of those, whose local posi- 
tion gives them the opportunity of engaging in it. To the facilities 
afforded by steam ferries at Brooklyn, and of steam communica- 
tion between New York city, and more distant parts of the Island, 
^he is indebted for no small share of the advancement, which we 
Viave experienced within a few years. 

In addition to Brooklyn with nearly forty thousand inhabitants, we 
perceive Williamsburgh rapidly advancing, while the villages of 
latbush, Astoria, Jamaica, Flushing, Glen Cove, Herppstead, 
abylon, Huntington, Patchogue, Riverhead and Sag Harbor, are 
dlowing on with a commendable zeal, and nothing now known, 
impede their future and successful progress. 
The completion of the Long Island Rail Road is destined to 
greater benefits to Long Island, than have ever been dreamed 
', by its most sanguine projectors. About forty-six miles of this 
are completed, and the travelling upon it is already very great, 


cheapness being combined with expedition. The distance from 
Brooklyn to Greenport is ninety-five miles, and a good part of the 
remainder of the road is partially completed. 

When the whole is finished and connected with the eastern 
lines of rail road by steamboats, we may presume that a yery 
considerable portion of the travel between New York and Boston, 
will be through Long Island. 

Other beneficial changes will also result, from this great pro- 
ject of internal improvement, among which, we may anticipate 
still greater advances in agriculture — the thousands of acres of 
unimproved land in Suffolk and Queens counties, be brought 
into profitable cultivation, and the great Hempstead Plains, now 
a standing reproach to the town, be converted into fertile iBelds, 
yielding a rich reward to industry and enterprize. 

Before closing this interesting subject, we cannot help express- 
ing our sincere regret, at the disposition so prevalent in the 
present day, for changing the names of places ; many of those 
adopted being remarkable for little else, than their singularity 
and inappropriatencss. In a historical and economical view, this 
passion for change is much to be lamented, as leading in the end 
to confusion and uncertainty. 

Old names, like old friends, should not be changed for light 
and transient causes, much less from mere whim and caprice, 
the consequences of which will, at a future period, be attended 
with more serious evils than are now contemplated, by those con- 
cerned in this useless innovation. 

It is also equally to be regretted, that the original Indian 
and Dutch names, had not been more religiously preserved, as 
they were very generally distinguished for their propriety and fit- 
ness, when fully understood. 

Thus HalletCs CovCy named in honor of the first proprietor, 
has given place to the unmeaning designation of Astoria ; Cow 
Neck, celebrated for its fine pasture lands, has become, by 
some strange metamorphosis, Manhasset, the name of an Indian 
tribe, once inhabiting Shelter Island ; Success, which should 
have satisfied the most fastidious, has been changed to the more 
charming designation of Lakeville ; Musketo Cove, probably 
from some fancied irritation, has obtained the very romantic 


appellation of Glen Cove; Cow Harbor, conveying the humi- 
liating idea that the people fed mostly on milk, has become 
North Port; Drown Meadow, which had become a conside- 
rable place, notwithstanding its unpleasant name, has acquired 
the more patriotic cognomen of Port Jefferson ; Old Man^s has 
gone to the Holy Land, for the name of Mount Sinai, and the 
snug little village of Oyster Ponds, is now more classically de- 
nominated, Orient. 


Act of Approbation of an Agreement, {or Treaty,) made and 
concluded at Hartford, relative to the line of partition he* 
tween New Netherland and New England, and other matters. 

The States General of the United Netherlands, To all those who tball 
see, or bear these presents, send Gbektino, and make knowne. That there 
hath been delivered unto us, by order of the Directors of the In-Chartered 
West India Company, at the chamber of Amsterdam, the Extract out of the 
Articles of Agreement beerafler mentioned, made and concluded at Hartford» 
in Connecticut, the 19th of Sep., 1650, relating as well to the line of Division 
between New Netherland and New England, as to other matters, in the words 
following, that is to say, Extract of the Articles of Agreement, made and con- 
cluded at Hartford, situate in Connecticut, the 19th Sep., 1650, between the 
Deputies of the Honorable Commissioners of the United English Colonies, 
and Peter Stuyvesant, Governor of New Netherland. 

Conseming the bounds and limitts, betwixt the English United CoUomet 
and the Duch provence of New Neatherland, We agree and determine asfol' 
laweth : 

1. That vpon Long Island, a line Run from the westermost parte of Oyster 
Bay, and sne in a straite and direct line to the sea, shall bee the bounds be- 
twixt the English and Duch there, the Easterly parte to belonge to the £n« 
glish, and the westerly parte to the Duch. 

2. The bounds vpon the Maine, to begine att the west side of Greenwidge 
Bay, being about four miles from Stanford, and soe to Run a Northerly line 
twenty-four miles vp into the countrey, and aAer, as it shal bee agreed by the 
two goverments of the Duch and New Haven ; provided this said line come 
not within ten miles of Hudson^s River ; and it is agreed, that the Duch shall 
not, att any time heeraf^er, build any house or habitation within six miles of the 
said line. The Inhabitants of Greenwidge to Remaine, tell further considera- 
tion thereof bee had vnder the goverment of the Duch. 

Vol. IJ. 39 


3. That the Duch shall hold and enjoy, all the lands at Hartford, that they 
are actually possessed of, known or sett out by certain marks and boands, and 
all the Remainder of the said lands on both sides Conecticott River, to beeaod 
Remaine to the English there. And it is agreed, that the aforesaid bouods 
and limitts, both vpon the Island and Mayne, shall bee observed and kept to- 
yiolable, both by the English, the Vnited Collonies and all the Dach Nation, 
without itey encroachment or molestation, vntill a full and finall Determination 
bee Jjjjteed vpon in Europe, by mutuall consent of the two states of Enolahd 
and-fioLLAin). In Testimonf of our joynt consent to the severall foregoing 
conclusions, We have heerunto sett our hands, the 19th Day of Sept., Anno 
Dom. 1650. 

Simon Bradstreet, Thomas Willett, 
Thomas Prence, George Baxter. 

Which articles in the aforesaid Extract, having been maturely considered, 
were approved of, and ratifyed by vs, and wee doe hereby approve of and rat- 
ify the same : And therefore desire and order, that the Meaning and Contents 
thereof may take effect, and bee strictly obserued and complied with, by all 
and euery person and persons whomsoeuer, under our sovereignty, without 
doing, or suffering any thing to be done, contrary thereto, on pain of incarring 
our highest displeasure, inasmuch as wee have deemed the same to be bene- 
ficial for that country. 

Thus done and given at the Hague, under our Seal, and the Mark and 
Signature of our Secretary, on the 22d of Febvary, 1656. 

(Signed) H. Faoil. 

Remonstrance of the several towns in the Dutch territory ^ to the 
governor and council, in 165S, apart of which is quoted at 
page 111, vol, L ; the remainder is as follows: 

" Wherefore, although with all humility, we will declare freely our anxioos 
fears by which we some time since have been alarmed and discouraged in our 
labors and callings, so that it is not in our power to act with that rigor and af- 
fection in promoting the welfare of our country as well as before, although in 
a wilderness, for the following reasons : 

1. Our apprehension to see an arbitrary government established among osy 
which is contrary to the first intention and genuine principles of every weD 
regulated government, to wit : that one or more should arrogate the exclusive 
power to dispose arbitrarily of the life and property of any individual, and 
this in virtue or under pretext of a law or order which he might fabricate, vnth- 
out the consent, knowledge, or approbation of the whole body, their agents or 

• -f 


Thas new laws relative to the lives and property of the inhabitants, contrary 
to the privileges of the Netherlands, and odious to every free born man, and 
principally so to those whom God had placed under a free government on new 
settled lands, who are entitled to claim laws which are as near resembling 
those of Netherland as possible. 

It is our humble opinion that it is one of our privileges, that in making new 
laws, our explicit consent, or that of our representatives, is unavoidaUj re- 
quired for their adoption. 

3. Casually we are every year full of apprehension that the natives of the ^ ' . . "* ^ 
land may commence a new war against us, by the murders they commit under - '' '' /-^ 
the pretext that they have not been paid for their land, which creates many ca- 
lamities and discourages settlers, and even contributes to lessening the ntmi- 
ber and industry of the remainder. 

It has, thus far, not been in our power to discover the truth hereof, or ascer- 
tain to what tribe these murderers belong. It is too often disregarded as 
committed by savages who reside at a considerable distance. But, be that as 
it may, it fills us with daily anxiety, so that we are compellec^ to look out for 
our own defence, as we cannot discover in what manner o%ltMA^ property 
shall be protected, except by our own means. ^^S!^^^^ f^* 

3. That officers and magistrates, although personally, from their qualifica- * t 
tions, deserving similar offices, are appointed contrary to the laws of the Neth- 
erlands, to many offices, without consent or nomination of the people, which 
nevertheless are the most concerned in the choice. 

4. That many orders and proclamations made before, without approbation 
of the country in the days of yore, by the authority of the Director-General 
and couDcil, either of former days or actually ruling, which remain obligatory, 
although we are ignorant of their force, and become transgressors from ignor- 
ance without knowing it, by which we are exposed to many dangers and trou- 
bles, and may occasion our own ruin without knowing it. 

^ On the promises of grants and general letters of privileges and exemp- 
tions, various plantations have been made at a great expense of the inhabitants 
in building their houses, making fences, &c., the cultivation of the land, and 
principally so by those of Middleburgh, and Middlewout, with their neighbor- 
hoods and other places. 

Many single farms were taken up by persons who solicited a deed of such a 
grant, but were always delayed and disappointed, to their great loss, which 
creates a suspicion that some innovations are in contemplation, or that there 
is a lurking intention to alter former stipulations. 

6. That to some individuals, large quantities of land are granted for their 
private profit, on which a large village of 20 or 30 families might have been 
established, which, in the end, must effect an immense loss to the Patroons, 
with regard to their revenues, as well now as in future, and which must weak- 
en the strength of the Province, and disable that part of the country to provide 


in or oontribate to its defence, and that of its inhabitants, except W6 or our 
commonalty are enabled to effect it. 

7. As we exert ourselves to reduce all our ^efs within six points, which 
we confidentially explained, as we renew our aUegiance, in the hope that thess 
will soon be redressed, agreeably to the privileges of our country, when sll 
discontents shall cease, a mutual harmony be restored , and our anxiety relieved. 

We apply therefore to your wisdom to heal our sicknesses and pains. We 
shall remind thankful, and consider any further application needless, as we 
otherwise should be compelled to do. 

Upon which, humbly soliciting your honors' answer on every point or arti- 
cle ia such a manner that we may remain satisfied, or proceed further, &c.,ti 
God shall direct our steps. 

Your Honors* suppliant Serrants." 

Done December 11, 1653. 

Charter from King Charles 11. to his Brother James^ Duke of 

York, March \2th, 1664. 

Charlss thc Skcond, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, 
ffrance and Ireland, Defender of the fiaith, &c. To all to whom these Presents 
shall come greeting : know yee. That wee for divers good causes and consid- 
erations Us Thereunto moving. Have of our speci^ll grace, certaine knowledge 
and meer motion. Given, and graunted ; And by these prespnts for Us, Our 
heires and Successors, Do give and graunt unto Deerest Brother, James Duke 
of Yorke, his heires and Assignes, All that part of the Maine Land of New 
England, beginning att a certaine place called or knowne by the name of St. 
Croix, next adjoining to New Scotland in America, and from thence extending 
along the Sea Coast unto a certaine place called Petuaquino, or Penaqoid, and 
so up the River thereof to y® ffurthest head of the same, as it tendeth north- 
ward, and extending from thence to the River of Kenebeque, and so upward by 
the shortest course to y^ River Canada northward ; And also all that Island or 
Islands, commonly called by the severall name or names of Matawacks or Long 
Island, Scituate, lying and being towards the west of Cape Codd, and the Nar- 
row Heghgansetts ; Abutting upon the maine Land betwecne the two Rivers 
there called or knoune by the severall names of Conecticott and Hudson*a 
River, Together also wtb ye said River called Hudsons, and all the Land from 
the west side of Connecticott, to the East side of Delaware Bay ; And also all 
those severall Islands, called or knowne by the name of Martins Vinyards and 
Nantukes, otherwise, Nantuekett, Together with all the Lands, Islands, Soyles, 
Rivers, Harbours, Mines, Mineralls, Quarryes, Woods, Marches, Waters, 
Lakes, ffishing. Hawking, Hunting, ffowling, and all other Royall Profitts, com-* 
modityes, and hereditaments to the severall Islands, Lands, and premises be* 


longingr and Appartaining, wtb thier and every of thier appnrtenances, And all 
our Estate, Right, Title, Interest, Benefitt, advantage, Claime and demand, of» 
ia or to the said Lands and premises, or any part or parcell thereof. And the 
Revercon and Revercons, Remainder and Remainders, Together with the 
yearly and other the Rents. Revenues, and other Proffitts of all and sinj^ular 
tlie said premises and every part and parcell thereof. To Have and to Hold, 
all and Singular the*said Lands, Islands, hereditam^*, and premisses, with thier 
and every of thier appurtenances, hereby given and graunted or herein before ' 
given mention^ to bee, and graunted, unto our Dearest Brother James, Dakeof 
Yorke, his heires and assignee for ever. To y« onely proper use and behoofe 
of said James Duke of Yorke his heirs, and assignee for ever. To be holden 
of Us our heires, and success^ as of our Manner of East-Greenwich in our 
county of Kent, in free and comon Soccage and not in Capite, nor by Knight 
Service, Yeilding and rendring. And the sd James Duke of Yorke, doth for 
himselfe his Heires and Assignee covenant and promise to yield and render 
unto Us our heires and successors, of and for the same, yearly and every year, 
fibrty Beaver Skinns, when they shall be demanded, or w^hin ninety days af\er, 
And wee doe further of our speciall grace, certaine knowledge, and meer mo- 
tion, for us, our heires and successors, give and graunt unto our said Dearest 
Brother, James Duke of Yorcke, his heires. Deputies, Agents, Commission'", 
and assigns, by these presents ffuli and absolute Power and authority to cor- 
rectf Punish, pardon, Governe and rule, all such y« subjects of us, our heirs and 
saecessors, as shall from time to time adventure themselfes into any of these 
parts or places aforesaid, or that shall or doe att any time hereafler Inhabitt 
within the same. According to such Lawcs, orders, ordinances, Directions, In- 
struments as byuurs^ Dearest Brother, or his assignees shall be Established, 
and in defect thereof, in cases of necessity according to y« good discretions of 
his Deputies, commissioners, officers, or assigns respectively, as well in all 
cases or matters capitall and criminall as civill, both marrine and others, so 
alwayes, as y« said Statutes, ordinances and proceedings bee not contrary to 
But as near as conveniently may bee agreeable to y« Lawes, Statutes and 
Governments of this our Realme of England ; And saveing and reserving to us 
our heires and successors y® receiving, hearing and determining of y^ Appeale 
and Appeales of all or any person or persons of, in or belonging to y^ Terri- 
toryes or Islands aforesaid, in or touching any Judgero' or sentence to bee 
there made or given ; And further that it shall and may be lawful to and for 
CNir said Dearest Brother his heirs and assignee by these Presents, from time 
to time, to make, nominate, constitute, ordaine and confirrae by such name or 
names, stile or stiles as to him or them shall seem good, And likewise to revoke 
discharge, change and alter, as well all and singular. Governors, officers and 
Ministers w^h hereafter shall bee by him or them thought fitt and needfull to 
be made and used w^ in y® afores^ parts and Islands, And also to make, ordaine 
and establish all manner of orders, Lawes, directions. Instructions, for the cere- 
xnooyes of Goverm' and Magistracy fitt and necessary for and concerning yc 


gOTerm* of y® Territories and Islands aforesaid, so always as ye same be not 
aonirary to y« Lawes and atatutes of this Realme of England, bat as neer as 
may be agreeably thei«jiiUo, And y« same att all times hereafter to put in Exe- 
cution or abrogate, revoke o|ichange, not only w(*>in y* precincts of y* said Ter- 
ritories or Islands 6ut also npon y« seas in goeing and comeing from the same, 
as hee or they in thier\food discretions shall thincke to be fittest for y* good of 
ye Adventurers and Inhabitants there; And wee doe further of our speciall 
grace, certaine knowledge and meer motion Graunt, ordaine and declare, That 
such Governors, officers, and ministers as from time to time shall bee antho- 
rized^and appointed in manner and forme aforesaid, shall and may have full 
Power and authority to use and Exercise marshall Law in cases of Rebellion, 
Insurrection and Mutiny, in as large and ample manner as our Lieutenant in 
our countyes within our Realme of England, have or ought to have by force of 
thier commission of Lieutenancy, or any law or statute of this our Realme. 
And wee doe farther by these presents for Us, our heires and successors 
graunt unto our said Dearest Brother James Duke of Yorke his heires and as- 
signee in his or thler discretion from time to time to admit such and so many 
Person or Persons to Trade and Trafficke unto and i^*>in y^ Territoryes and 
Islands aforesaid and into every or any part or Parcell thereof and to havepos- 
sesse and enjoy any Lands or hereditam^in y* parts and places aforesaid as 
they shall thincke fitt, according to y« Lawes, Orders, Constitutions and Ordi- 
nances, by our said Brother his Heires, Deputies, commissions and assigoes 
from time to time to be made, and establish by verdict, and according to y« true 
intent and meaning of These presents, and under such condittions, reservations 
and agreem^ as our said Brother his heires or assigns shall see fitt to ordaine, 
order, direct and appoint, and not otherwise, as afuresaid — and wee do further 
of our speniall grace, certaine knowledge and meer motion for Us our heires 
and successors give and graunt unto our said Dear Brother his heires and 
assignes by these presents, that it shall and may be lawfull to and for him y">, 
or any of them, att all and att every time and times hereafter out of any oar 
realmes or Dominions whatsoever to take, loade, carry and transport in and 
into thiere voyages for and towards y^ plantations of said Territoryes and Is- 
lands all such and so ipany of our Lovcing subjects, or any other strangers, be- 
ing not prohibited or under restraint yt will become our lovcing subjects, and 
live under our allegiance, as shall willingly join in these voyages, together w^ 
such cloathing, implem^, ffurniture and other things useally transported and 
not prohibited, as shall be necessary for y^ Inhabitants of y« said Islands and 
Territoryes, and for thier use and defence thereof: and managing and carrying 
on y« trade w^** y^ people there, and in passing and returning to and fro, yield- 
ing and paying to Us our heires and successors y« customs, and dutyes therefore 
due and payable according to y^ lawes and customes of this our Realme ; And 
wee doe also for Us, our heires and successors graunt to our said dearest 
Brother James Duke of Yorke, his heires and assigns, and to all and every 
such, Govenor and govenors, or any other officers or ministers as by oor said 


Brother his heires and assigns shall be appoint <* to havtp&i^{ij|li|(pd1Cnllokity of 
govenmS and comand, moreover the Inhabitants of ye said Tcrritoryes or Is- 
lands, that they and every of ym shall and lawfully may from time to time, and 
att all times hereafter forever, for thier severall defence and safety, encounter, 
expnlse, and arrest by force of armes, as well by sea as by land, and all ways 
and means whatsoever, as such Person and Persons as w^^^out y^ licence of our 
said Sparest Brother his heires and assigns shall attempt to inhabitt w^^in y® 
severall precincts and limitts of our s^ Territorys and Islands, and also all and 
every such Person and Persons whatsoever as shall interprize or attempt, att 
any time hereafter y^ destruction, invasion, detrim^ or annoyance, to y^ parts, 
places or Islands afores^ or any part thereof — And lastly our will and pleasure 
is, and wee doe hereby declare and graunt, that there our Letters pattents or 
7« Inrollm^ thereof shall be good and effective in y® law to all intent and pur- 
poses whatsoever, Notw^standing y® not reciting or mentioning of ye premisses 
or any part thereof, or the meets and bounds thereof, or of any former or other 
Letters Pattents, or graunts heretofore made or graunted of y^ premises or of 
any part thereof by Us, or of any of our Progenitors, unto any other person or 
persons whatsoever, Bodys Politique or corporate, or any Act, Law or other 
restraint, incertainly or imperfection whatsoever, to the contrary in any wise 
notwithstanding, although expresse mentioned of the true yearly value, or cer- 
tainty ofj^ premises or of any of yi° or of any other Gifls or graunts, by us or 
any of our progenitors or predecessors, heretofore made to y^ said James Duke 
of Torke, in these presents, is not made, or any statute, acts, ordinance, pro- 
Tision, proclamation or restriction heretofore had, made, enacted ordained or 
provided, or any other matter, cause or thing whatsoever to y^ contrary hereof 
in any wise notw^standing. 

In wittnesse whereof, wee have causal these Letters to be made Pattents ; 
^wittnesse ourselfe att Westminster, the 12^^ day of March, in the 16^*^ yeare of 
our Raigne, 1664. 

By the King, 


Copy of the Mortgage for Long Island, executed hy James Far ret, 
Agent and Deputy of the Earl of Stirling, to George Fenwick 
and others, recorded in the Records of the Colony of Connec- 

^ This indenture made the nine and twentieth day of July, 1641, 20^ year 
of the reign of our Sovereign Lord Charles, by the grace of God, of Great 
Britain, Sic, between James Farret, gent., on the one part, and George Fen- 
iHrick, of Seabrook Fort, Esquire, John Haynes, Samuel Wyllys, Edward 
Hopkins, of Hartford, Theophilus Eaton, Stephen Goodyeare, and Thomas 


GregBOD, of New Haven, in America, on the other part : Witnesseth — dnt 
whereas the said James Farret, is authorized by a certain writing under the 
hand and seal of the right hon. the Earl of Stirling, Viscount Canada, Ae. • 
In his name and for his use, to take possession of Long Island, in Amerieaf 
and the same to dispose and order to his Lordship^s behoof and benefit, hf 
taking in plantations, or any wise iroprofing the same : And whereas the aaid 
James Farrett in attending his Lordship^s said service three years and np- 
wards, without having received in that whole time any support or maintenance 
from his Lordship, or by any order, means or procurement of his Lordship, 
hath been forced to use his own credit, to take up divers moneys and com- 
modities in the country to the value of £l 10, of current English money, for re- 
lief of his necessities, which jCllO he hath procured and received of the above 
named George Fen wick and others, at and before the ensealing of these preaenta, 
the receipt whereof the said James Farret doth hereby acknowledge, and 
thereof and every part thereof, doth by these presents acquit and discharge 
the said George Fenwick and others, their and every of their executors and 
administrators forever. Now this deed witnesseth, that the same James Far- 
rett, for and in consideration of the said sum of JETIIO, so received as above, 
and to provide, as may be, for that part of Long Island not possessed, nor, as 
he conceiveth, claimed by the Dutch, before his departure for England, (in- 
tending with the first conveniency to take passage thither,) hath given up aueh 
title and possession, as was free from the Dutch claim ; and by these presents 
doth give up all right, title and possession of, in and to the same, to the afore- 
said George Fenwick and others above mentioned, their heirs and assigns for- 
ever : To have and to hold, possess and enjoy, the said Island, with all rights, 
members, profits, advantages, and appurtenances whatsoever, in any wise 
thereto belonging or appertaining, to the said George Fenwick and others 
aforesaid, their heirs and assigns forever, without rendering or giving any 
account, reckoning, or allowance for any profits or advantages which they or 
any of them, or any from or under them, may in any wise make or receive 
thereby. Provided, notwithstanding, and it is hereby fully agreed, eovenanted 
and concluded by and betwixt the said parties, that if the right hon. the Earl 
of Stirling, or his assigns, shall within the time aad space of three whole years, 
to be reckoned and accompted from the date of these presents, send over an 
attorney or commissioner fully authorized, and bringing back with him one 
part of these indentures, to require and receive back the possession aforesaid, 
and shall withal, at the same time, well and truly pay, or cause to be paid, the 
full sum of JETIIO, of current English money, unto the above named George 
Fenwick and others, their executors, administrators and assigns, together 
with such other charges or improvements, as shall be expended or made for or 
upon the said Island, afler the date of these presents, in any part of the afore- 
said three years, which charges and improvements, if any difference shall hap- 
pen about the rating or valuing of them, shall be estimated, adjudged and 
settled by John Winthrop, Esquire, of Boston, upon whom the right hon. the 


Earl of Stirling deceased, did make repose for his occasions in these part^-- 
upon the payment of the aforesaid money and improvements, these indentures, 
with all articles, covenants and agreements therein contained, shall from 
thenceforward be void and of no force, to all intents and purposes whatsoever. 
In witness whereof, the parties to these presents have interchangeably pat 
their hands and seals, the day and year above written. 

" James Farret.** [ l. s. ] 
Sealed and delivered in the presence of 
William Andrews, &c. 

" Recorded May 5, 1664." 

Hartford, Records of Assembly of Oct, 8, 1668 : "Voted— This court or- 
ders the secretary to deliver unto Mr. Wyllys and Mr. Jones, the mortgage of 
Long Island, for the use of those concerned." 

Governor Stuyvesanfs answer to the letter of the English com" 
missionerSf demanding possession of New Netherlands. Re- 
f erred to at page 123, vol, L 

" My Lords : — Your first letter, unsigned,^f the 20-3 1st of August, toge- 
ther with that of this day, signed according to form, being the first of Septem- 
ber, have been safely delivered into our hands by your deputies, unto which 
we shall say, that the rights of his majestic of England, unto any part of Ame- 
rica here about, amongst the rest, unto the colonies of Virginia, Maryland, or 
others in New England, whether disputable or not, is that which, for the pre- 
sent, we have no design to debate upon. But that his majestic hath an indis- 
putafaje right to all the lands in the north parts of America, is that which the 
Icings of France and Spain will disallow, as we absolutely do, by virtue of a 
commission given to me, by my lords, the high and mighty States General, to 
be governour-general over New Holland, the isles of Curacoa, Bonaire,'Aruba, 
with their appurtenances and dependencies, bearing date the 26ih of July, 
1646. As also by virtue of a grant and commission, given by my said lords, 
the high and mighty States General, to the West India Company, in the year 
1621, with as much power, and as authentick, as his said majestic of England 
hath given, or can give, to any colony in America, as more fully appears by the 
patent and commission of the said lords, the States General, by them signed, 
registered, and sealed with their great seal, which were showed to your depu- 
ties, Colonel George Carteret, Captain Robert Needham, Captain Edward 
Groves, and Mr. Thomas Delavall ; by which commission and patent together, 
(to deal frankly with you,) and by divers letters, signed and sealed by our said 
lords, the States General, directed to several persons, both English and Dutch, 

Vol. II. ' 40 


inhabiting the towns and villages on Long Island, (which, wuhont doabt, have 
been produced before you, by those inhabitants,) by whiclrthey arc declared 
and acknowledged to be their subjects, with express command, that they con-* 
tinue faithful unto them, under penalty of incurring their utmost displeasure, 
which makes it appear more clear than the sun at noon-day, that your first 
foundation, (viz. that the right and title of his majestic of Great Britain, to 
these parts of America is unquestionable,) is absolutely to be denied. More- 
over, it is without dispute, and acknowledged by the world, that our predeces- 
sors, by virtue of the commission and patent of the said lords, the States Gen- 
eral, have without control, and peaceably (the contrary never coming to our 
knowledge,), enjoyed Fort Orange about forty-eight or fifty years, the Man- 
hattans about forty-one or forty-two years, the South River forty years, and 
the Fresh Water River about thirty-six years. 

" Touching the second subject of your letter, (viz. his majestic hath com- 
manded me, in his name, to require a surrender of all such forts, towns, or 
places of strength, which now are possessed by the Dutch under your com- 
mand.) We shall answer, that we are so confident of the discretion and equity 
of his majestic of Great Britain, that in case his majestie were informed of 
the truth, which is, that the Dutch came not into these provinces by any vio- 
lence, but by virtue of commissions from my lords, the States General, first 
of all in the years 1614, 1615, and 1616, up the North River, near Fort Orange, 
where, to binder the invasions and massacres, commonly committed by the 
savages, they built a little fort ; ^nd after, in the year 1622, and even to this 
present time, by virtue of commission and grant, to the governours of the 
West India Company ; and moreover, in the year 1656, a grant to the honour- 
able, the burgomasters of Amsterdam, of the South River ; insomuch, that by 
virtue of the above said commissions from the high and mighty States General, 
given to the persons interested as aforesaid, and others, these provinces have 
been governed, and consequently enjoyed, as also in regard of their first dis- 
covery, uninterrupted possessions, and purchase of the lands of the princes, 
natives of the country, and other private persons, (though Gentiles,) we make 
no doubt that if his said majestie of Great Britain were well informed of these 
passages, he would be too judicious to grant such an order, principally in a 
time when there is so straight a friendship and confederacy, between our said 
lords and supcriours, to trouble us in the demanding and summons of the places 
and fortresses, which were put into our hands, with orders to maintain them, 
in the name of the said lords, the States General, as was made appear to your 
deputies, under the names and seal of the said high and mighty States General, 
dated July 28, 1646. Besides what had been mentioned, there is little proba- 
bility that his said majestie of England (in regard the articles of peace are 
printed, and were recommended to us to observe seriously and exactly, by a 
letter written to us by our said lords, the States General, and to cause them to 
be observed religiously in this country,) would give order touching so danger- 
ous a design, being also apparent, that none other than my said lords, the States 


Genera], have air right to these provinces, and consequently, ought to com- 
mand and maintain their subjects ; and in their absence, we, the governoor* 
general, are obliged to maintain their rights, and to repel and take revenge of 
kll threatenings, unjust attempts, or any force whatsoever, that shall be com- 
mitted against their faithful subjects and inhabitants, it being a very conside- 
rable thing to affront so mighty a state, although it were not against an ally 
and confederate. Consequently, if his said majestic (as it is fit) were well in- 
formed, of all that could be spoken upon this subject, he would not approve of 
what expressions were mentioned in your letter ; which are, that you are com- 
manded by his majestic, to demand in his name, such places and fortresses as 
are in the possession of the Dutch, under my government ; which, as it ap- 
pears by my commission, before mentioned, was given me by my lords, the 
high and mighty States General. And there is less ground in the express 
demand of my government, since all the world knows, that about three years 
ago, some English frigates being on the coast of Africa, upon a pretended 
commission, they did demand certain places under the government of our said 
lords, the States General, as Cape Vert, River of Gambo, and all other places 
in Gnyny, to them belonging. Upon which, our said lords, the States Gen- 
eral, by virtue of the articles of peace, having made appear the said attempt 
to his majestic of England, they received a favourable answer, his said ma- 
jesty disallowing all such acts of hostility, as might have been done, and be- 
sides, gave order, that restitution should be made to the East India company, 
of whatsoever had been pillaged, in the said river of Gambo : and likewise 
restored them to their trade, which makes us think it necessary, that a more 
express order should appear unto us, as a sufficient warrant for us, towards 
my lords, the high and mighty States General, since by virtue of our said 
commission, we do in these provinces, represent them, as belonging to them, 
and not to the king of Great Britain, except his said majestie, upon better 
grounds, makes it appear to our said lords, the States General, against which 
they may defend themselves, as they shall think fit. To conclude : We can- 
not bat declare unto *you, though the governours and commissioners of his 
majestie have divers times quarrelled with us, about the bounds of the juris- 
diction of the high and mighty, the States General, in these parts, yet they 
never questioned their jurisdiction itself; on the contrary, in the year 1650, at 
Hartford, and the last year at Boston, they treated with us upon this subject, 
which is a sufficient proof, that his majestie hath never been well informed of 
the equity of our cause, insomuch as we cannot imagine, in regard of the arti- 
cles of peace, between the crown of England and the States General, (under 
whom therd are so many subjects in America, as well as Europe,) that his 
said majestie of Great Britain would ^ve a commission, to molest and endam- 
age the subjects of my said lords, the States General, especially such, as ever 
since fifty, forty, and the latest thirty-six years, have quietly enjoyed their 
lauds, countries, forts and inheritances ; and less, that his subjects would at- 
tempt any acts of hostility, or violence against them : and in case that yott 


will act by force of arms, we protest and declare, in the name of our said 
lords, the States General, before GOD and men, that you will act an unjust 
violence, and a breach of the articles of peace, so solemnly sworn, agreed 
upon, and ratified by bis majestic of England, and my lords, the States Gen- 
eral, and the rather, for that to prevent the shedding of blood, in the month of 
February last, we treated with Captain John Scott, (who reported he had a 
commission from his said majestic,) touching the hmits of Long Island, and 
concluded for the space of a year ; that in the mean time, the business might 
be treated on between the king of Great Britain and my lords, the high and 
mighty States General : and again, at present, for the hindrance and preven- 
tion of all differences, and the spilling of innocent blood, not only in these 
parts, but also in Europe, we offer unto you, a treaty by our deputies, Mr. 
Cornelius Van Ruyven, secretary and receiver of New Holland, Cornelius 
Steinwick, burgomaster, Mr. Samuel Megapolensis, doctor of physick, and 
Mr. James Cuusseau, heretofore sheriff*. As touching the threats in your 
conclusion, we have nothing to answer, only that we fear nothing but what 
God (who is as just as merciful,) shall lay upon us ; all things being in his 
gracious disposal, and we may as well be preserved by him with small forces 
as by a great army, which makes us to wish you all happiness and prosperity, 
and recommend you to his protection. My lords, your thrice humble and af- 
fectionate servant and friend, 

P. Stutyesakt. 
At the Fort Amsterdam, September 2, New Style, 1664. 

Capitulation by the Dutch to the English. 

" These Articles following were consented to by the persons here under 
subscribed, at the Governour's Bowery, August the 27ih, Old Style, 1664. 

I. We consent That the Stales-General, or the West India Company, shall 
freely enjoy all Farms and Houses, (except such as are in the Forts,) and 
that within six months they shall have free Liberty to transport all such Arms 
and Ammunition as now does belong to them, or else they shall be paid for 

II. All Publique Houses shall continue for the Uses which they are for. 

III. All people shall continue free Denizens, and shall injoy their Lands, 
Houses, Goods, wheresoever they are within this Country, and dispose of them 
as ihey please. 

IV. If any Inhabitant have a Mind to remove himself, he shall have a year 
and six weeks from this day, to remote himself. Wife, Children, Servants, 
Goods, and to dispose of his lands here. 

V. If any Officer of State, or Publique Minister of State, have a Mind to 
go for England, they shall be transported Fraught free, in his Majesty*s Fri- 
gotts, when these Frigotls shall return thither. 


VI. It is consented to, that any People may freely come from the Nether- 
lands, and plant in this Colony ; and that Dutch Vessels may freely come hi- 
ther, and any of the Dutch may freely return home, or send any Sort of Mer- 
chandize home in Vessels of their own Country. 

VII. All Ships from the Netherlands, or any other Place, and Goods there- 
in, shall be received here, and sent hence, after the manner which formerly 
they were, before our coming hither, for six Months next ensuing. 

VIII. The Dutch here shall injoy the Liberty of their Consciences in divine 
Worship and Church Discipline. 

IX. No Dutchman here, or Dutch Ship here, shall upon any occasion be 
pressed to serve in War against any Nation whatsoever. 

X. That the Townsmen of the Manhattans shall not have any Soldiers 
quartered upon them, without being satisfied and paid for them by the Offi- 
cers ; and that at this present, if the Fort be not capable of lodging all the 
Soldiers, then the Burgomasters, by his officers, shall appoint some Houses 
capable to receive them. 

XI. The Dutch here shall injoy their own Customs concerning their Inhe- 

XII. AH Publique Writings and Records, which concern the Inheritances 
of any People, or the Reglement of the Church or Poor, or Orphans, shall be 
carefully kept by those in whose Hands now they are, and such Writings as 
particularly concern the Slates-General, may at any time be sent to them. 

Xni. No Judgment that has passed any Judicature here, shall be called in 
Question ; but if any conceive that he hath not had Justice done him, if he 
apply himself to the States-General, the other Party shall be bound to answer 
for the supposed Injury. 

XIV. If any Dutch, living here, shall at any Time desire to travaile or traf- 
fique into England, or any Place, or Plantation, in obedience to his Majesty 
of England, or with the Indians, he shall have (upon his Request to the Go- 
Ternor,) a Certificate that be is a free Denizen of this Place, and Liberty to 
do 80. 

XV. If it do appeare that there is a publique Engagement of Debt by the 
Town of the Manhattoes, and a Way agreed on for the satisfying of that En- 
gagement, it is agreed that the same Way proposed shall go on, and that the 
Engagement shall l>e satisfied. 

XVI. All inferior Civil Officers and Magistrates shall continue as now they 
are, (if they please,) till the customary Time of new Elections, and then new 
ones to be chosen by themselves ; provided that such new chosen Magistrates 
shall uke the Oath of Allegiance to his Majesty of England before they enter 
upon their Office. 

XVII. All differences of Contracts and Bargains made before this Day, 
by any in this Country, shall be determined according to the Manner of the 

XVIII. If it do appeare that the West India Company of Amsterdam do 


really owe any Sums of Money to any Person here, it is agreed that Recog- 
nition and other Duties payable by Ships going for the Netherlands, be conti- 
nued for 6 Months longer. 

XIX. The Oflicers, Military, ^nd Soldiers, shall march out with their Arms, 
Drums beating, and Colors flying, and lighted Matches ; and if any of them 
will plant, they shall.have fifty Acres of Land set out fur them ; if any of them 
will serve as Servants, they shall continue with all Safety, and become free 
Denizens afterwards. 

XX. If at any Time hereafter the King of Great Britain, and the States 
of the Netherlands, do agree that this Place and Country be re-delivered into 
the Hands of the said Stales, whensoever his Majestic will send his Commands 
to re -deliver it, it shall immediately be done. 

XXI. That the Town of Manhattans shall choose Deputyes, and those 
Deputyes shall have free Yoyces in all publique Affairs, as much as any other 

XXII. Those who have any Property in any Houses in the Fort of Aura- 
nia, shall (if they please) slight the Fortifications there, and then enjoy all 
their Houses, as all People do where there is no Fort. 

XXIII. If there be any Soldiers that will go into Holland, and if the Com- 
pany of West India in Amsterdam, or any private Persons here, will trans- 
port them into Holland, then they shall have a safe Passport from Colonel 
Richard Nicoll, Deputy -Governor under his Royal Highness, and the other 
Commissioners, to defend the Ships that shall transport such Soldiers, and all 
the Goods in them, from any Surprizal or Acts of Hostility, to be done by any 
of his Majestie*s Ships or Subjects. That the Copies of the King's Grant 
to his Royal Highness, and the Copy of his Royal Highnesses Commission to 
Colonel Richard Nicoll, testified by two Commissioners more, and Mr. Win- 
throp, to be true Copies, shall be delivered to the Hon. Mr. Stuyvesant, the 
present Governor, on Monday next by Eight of the Clock in the Morning, at 
the Old Miln ; and these Articles consented to, and signed by Colonel Richard 
Nicoll, Deputy-Governor to his Royal Highness ; and that within two Hours 
after the Fort and Town called New Amsterdam, upon the Isle of Manhat- 
toes, shall be delivered into the Hands of the said Colonel Richard Nicoll, by 
the Service of such as shall be by him thereunto deputed, by his Hand aod 

John De Decker, Robert Carr, 

Nich. Verleet, Geo. Cartwright, 

Sam. Megapolensis, John Winthrop, 

Cornelius Sleenwick, Sam. Willys, 

Oloffe Stevens Van Kortlant, Thomas Clarke, 
James Cousseau, John Pinchon. 

I do consent to these articles, 

Richard Nicoll.'* 


An Act to divide this Province and Dependences into Shires and 


Having taken into consideracon the necessity of dividing the proving into 
respective countys for the better governing and settling courts in the sanae ; 
Bee it enacted by the Govemour, Councellj and Representatives , and by the au- 
thority of the samef That the said Province be divided into twelve countys, as 
followeth : 

Thecitty and county of New-Yorke, to containe all the island, commonly 
called Manhaten^s Island, Manning^s Island, and the two barne islands, the citty 
to bee called as itt is New-York, and the islands above specified, the county 

The county of Westchester to conteyn West and Eastchcster, Broweke's 
land, Fordham, Annehooke^s Neck, Richbills, Minford^s Islands, and all the 
land on the (laine to the eastward of Manhatan^s island, as farre as the gov- 
ernment extends, and the Younkers^ land, and northward along Hudson^s River 
as farr as the H^igh Land. 

The county of Ulster to cnnteyne the towns of Kingston, Hurly, and Mar- 
bletowne, Ffoxhall, and the new Paltz, and all the villages, neighborhoods, 
ftnd Christian habitacons on the west side of Hudson^s River, from the Mur- 
derer^s Creeke, neare the Highlands, to the Sawyers Creeke. 

The county of Albany to conteyne the town of Albany, the colony of Rens- 
laerswyck, Schonechteda, and all the villages, neighbourhoods, and Christian 
I^antacons on the east side of Hudson's River, from Roelef Jansen's Creeke, 
ftnl on the west side from Sawyer's Creeke to the Saraaghtoga. 

The Dutchesses county to bee from the bounds of the county of Westchester 
on the south side of the Highlands, along the east side of Hudson's River, as 
farre as Roelef Jansen's Creeke, and eastward into the woods twenty miles. 

The county of Orange to beginne from the limmitts or bounds of East and 
West Jerseyi on the west side of Hudson's River, along the said river to the 
Murderer's Creeke, or bounds of the county of Ulster, and westward into the 
woods as farr as Delaware river. 

The county of Richmond to conteyne all Staten Island, Shutter's Island, 
and the islands of Meadow on the west side thereof. 

Kings county to conteyne the severall towns of Boshwyck, Bedford, Bruck- 
lyn, Fflatbush, Fflatlands, New Utrecht, and Gravesend, with the severall 
Settlements and plantacons adjacent. 

Queens county to 9onteyne the severall towns of Newtowne, Jamaica, 
Flushing, Hempstead, and Oysterbay, with the severall outfarms, settlements 
and plantacons adjacent. 

The county of Suffolk to conteyne the severall towns of Huntington, Smith- 
field, Brookhaven, Southampton, Southold, Easthampron, to Montauk Point, 
Shelter Island, the Isle of Wight, Fisher's Island and Plumb Island, with the 
several outfarms, settlements and plantacons adjacent. 



Dukes county to conteyne the islands of Nantuckett, Martin's Vineyardy 
Elizabeth Island, and No Mans Land. 

The county of Cornwall to conteyne Penaquid, and all his Royal! High- 
nesse^territoryes in those parts, with the islands adjacent. 

AncTforasmuch as there is a necessity of a High Sheriff in eTcry coanty 
in this province. 

Bee it therefore enacted by the Governour, Councelly and Representatives in 
General Assembly mett, and by the authority of the same, Tliat there shall be 
yearly and every yeare, an High Sheriff constituted and commissionated for 
each county, and thalt each Sheriff may have his Under-sheriff, Deputy or 

NeW'Yorkey Nov, 1, 1683. 

Narrative of facts and proceedings in relation to Captain John 
Scott, for some time a resident of Long Island, 

The subject of this article figures largely upon the state records 
of Connecticut, and those of the court of assize in the colony of 
New York. Between the years 1660 and '65, he was the unhappy 
occasion of embarrassment and difficulty to many individuals upon 
Long Island, which made it necessary for the general court at 
Hartford to interfere. He was a man of shrewdness, but basa 
and unprincipled, as is evident from the whole tenor of his deal- 
ings. Professing to be the rightful owner of numerous tracts of 
land in various parts of the island, ijnder purchases from the In- 
dian tribes, and in various other ways he found persons sufficient- 
ly credulous to become purchasers, of what he styled perpetuities^ 
or leases for very long periods, which involved the grantees in 
controversy with other claimants, and called for investigation by 
the public authorities. In 1660, we find him a resident of South- 
ampton, and on the 2d of May of that year, he conveyed to 
Thomas Hutchinson, (late of Lynn,) for the sum of £40, land, 
described as *' lying from Southampton westward 30 miles, at a 
Wading River, called by the Indians Quaconsuck, and so six 
miles westward, in breadth the same southward, till it cometh 
within two miles of the bay, on the south of which is reserved 
for the Indians, together with all the privileges conferred on said 
Scott by Wyandanch and Weacham his son." Soon after the 


date of this instrument, Scott is found at Setauket, with the ap- 
pointment of magistrate, conferred upon him by Connecticut, the 
influence of which served still further to enhance his power of 
doing mischief; for so far had he imposed upon the people there, 
that on the 5th of Dec, 1663, an agreement was entered into, 
between said Scott and the inhabitants of Ashford, (or Setauket,) 
to become co-partners in a tract of land purchased by him, or 
pretended to be so, of Mahmasutee and others, bounded easterly 
with Nanemoset Brook, westerly with Nessaquague east line, and 
running south to the middle of the island, even to the said Indian*s 
utmost bounds, and north to the Sound, as sold and delivered to 
said Scott by 'turf and twig' Nov. 23, 1663." The said Scott, 
Richard Woodhull, Daniel Lane, Thomas Mapes and George 
Wood, to have double shares for their trouble, in all future divi- 
sions, (except Little Neck, to which they lay no claim.) Dec. 16, 
1663, Scott sells his lands ** about Ashamomuck Neck and else- 
where in Southold, (except Hog Island,) to Thomas Corteous and 
wife, in trust for the children of one William Salmon." 

These frequent conveyances, which were suspected to be frau- 
dulent, and other acts of Scott, produced much discontent, and on 
complaint to the general assembly of Connecticut, an order was 
made March 10, 1664, that the particulars should be drawn up in 
form, and sent to the magistrates of New Haven, Milford and other 
towns, for the purpose of his arrest and punishment. 

A proclamation was also issued as follows : — 

" To all his ma**** subjects within these parts of o' Royall Souv- 
reigne Charles King of England, ffrance and Ireland, his Domin- 
ions in New England, and especially those plantations scituate 
w***in the Limitts of the corporation of Connecticutt : These pre- 
sents do declare and proclaim ; that forasmuch as John Scott in- 
habitant wi'**in the Libertyes of Ashford, alias Sewtawkitt, on 
Long Island, stands charged in the court of Connecticutt for sun- 
dry Hainous crimes and practises seditious, to the great distur- 
bance of the peace of his ma**^ subjects on the island aforesaid, 
particularly as followeth — 1. Speaking words tending to the deffa- 
mation of the King's majesty ; 2. Seditious practises and tumul- 
tuous carriages ; 3. Abetting and encourageing the natives in 
hostile parties, one against another; 4. Usurping the authority 

Vol. 11. 41 


of the King, pretending to pardon treason ; 6. Threatening his 
ma'*®' subjects with hanging and banishment ; 6. Gross and no- 
torious profanation of God's holy word ; 7. Forgery and violation 
of his solemn oath ; 8. Acting treacherously to the colony of Con- 
necticutt ; 9. Usurping authority upon pretence of a commission ; 
10. Calumniating a commissioned officer in this corporation with 
the charge of villaiious and felonious practices. Therefore they 
do in his ma'*®" name, desire and expect all and every civill officer, 
who are conservatives of the peace of his ma**"" subjects, within 
the plantations of New Haven, Milford, Branford, ffiiiriSeld and 
upon Long Island, wheresoever the s** Scott is resident, forthwith 
upon receipt and knowledge of the contents of these premises, to 
apprehend the body of s** Scott, and deliver him to the marshall, 
Jonathan Gilbert, that he may be tried according to law. God 
save the King." 

The marshall found the accused at Setauket, and on attempting 
to take him, Scott drew his sword, commanding those around, with 
the air of authority, to resist the officer, using, at the same time, 
very indecent and opprobrious epithets toward the court and gov- 
ernment of Connecticut. Being secured, and conveyed to Hart- 
ford, he was there imprisoned, but effecting his escape without 
even satisfying the keeper of the prison for his board, the court 
decreed him JCIO out of Scott's estate, upon which the court, on the 
12th of May, 1664, ordered a sequestration, and the conomission- 
ers, in the several towns appointed for the purpose, were com- 
manded to take an account of all said Scott's property and effects, 
in their respective towns, and preserve it from embezzlement, 
until the pleasure of the court should be known. On the 16th of 
May, 1665, Captain John Youngs of Southold was authorized by 
the court, to sell the lands of John Scott, upon Long Island. He 
had the boldness, afterwards, to dispose of lands upon the western 
part of the island ; and being brought before the court of assize 
at New York, by order of Governor NicoU, all his agreements with 
individuals, were declared to be void. What became of Scott, 
is not known ; but it appears that he, with John Winthrop and 
others, was, by Charles II., recommended to the protection of the 
the commissioners of the United Colonies, they being molested 
in their possessions in the Narragansett, by the people of Provi- 


dence plantation. He continued to be a source of trouble to the 
New England colonies, for some years after he had been driven 
from Long Island. 

Narrative and remonstrance of the Deputies assembled at Hemp- 
stead, in March 1 665, relative to apprehensions entertained of 
some matters then and there transacted. 

" His Majesty having employed his ships of war, and sent a 
considerable number of soldiers to reduce these parts of America 
to his obedience, the present government was readily received, 
and peaceably settled on Long Island, by virtue of his Majesty's 
letters patent, made and granted by his Royal Highness James, 
Duke of York and Albany, bearing date the twelfth day of March, 
in the sixteenth of the reign of our sovereign Lord King Charles 
the II, published at Gravesend, on Long Island, aforesaid, about 
the middle of August following, in the audience of a great num- 
ber of the inhabitants thereof, by the Right Honorable Col. Rich- 
ard Nicolls, deputy governor under his royal highness. At which 
time and place Governor Winthrop, being then present, openly 
declared that their colonies claimed no jurisdiction de jure over 
Long Island ; but what they had done was for the welfare, peace, 
and quiet settlement of his Majesty's subjects, as they were the 
nearest court of record to them under his Majesty ; but now his 
Majesty's pleasure was fully signified by his letters patent, as 
above said, their jurisdiction over them ceased and became null ; 
whereupon our honorable Governor then replied also, that he 
would not put out any of the officers which Connecticut had set 
up in the civil state, but confirm them under his power to act in 
every town, until a convenient season served to convene deputies 
from all the towns on the island, when and where laws were to be 
enacted and civil officers established. 

Shortly after, at another meeting of our honorable governor and 
Connecticut commissioners, several persons were there confirmed 
by him in civil authority, by his writing under his hand, which 


they published in several towns where they were to collect rates 
and former dues for Connecticut, unto which power these eastern 
towns readily and willingly obeyed and submitted for the space of 
six months at least. 

In March following, we were convened, being deputies chosen 
by the several towns in a general assembly held at Hempstead, 
where his Majesty's aforesaid patent was first read, and a com- 
mission from his royal highness the Duke of York, empowering 
and investing the aforesaid Col. Richard Nicolls, with authority 
to put the contents of the said patent into practice and execution, 
who declared unto us that our first business should be to decide 
some, and to compose other difierences which were on float before 
he came to the government, according to the manner and form in 
practice since our late acknowledgment of the Connecticut autho- 
rity ; but that he had prepared a body of general laws hereafter 
to be observed ; the which were delivered to us, and upon perusal 
we found them to be a collection of the laws now in practice in 
his Majesty's other colonies in New England, with abatement of 
the severity against such as differ in matters of conscience and 

We proceeded to object against some and propose other clauses 
in the laws ; whereupon several amendments were made with fur- 
ther assurance from the governor, that when any reasonable alter- 
ation should be offered from any town to the sessions, the justices 
should tender the same at the assizes, and receive satisfaction 
therein, the truth and effects whereof we have since found. 

The Governor further declared that for his own part he expect- 
ed no benefit for his labors out of the purses of the inhabitants, 
not so much as to defray his charge and expenses at the courts ; 
but that it was absolutely necessary for him to establish a form* 
and rule of county rates, to support the public charge ; where- 
upon we pitched upon the form and rule at this day observed in 
Connecticut, which was known to some of those present. 

In the next place we conceived that two hundred pounds yearly 
might defray the public charge ; to which the Governor replied 
that he would touch none of the public money, but that the high 
sheriff from year to year should cause the same to be collect^. 


and give, at the expiration of his office, in open court at the gene- 
ral assizes, an account of his receipts and disbursements. 

If it should happen the rate was more than the charge of his 
year, the overplus should remain to the use of the country the 
next year ; if the charge was greater than the rate, the country 
was obliged to bear it with an additional rate ; in all which trans- 
actions we acted with sincerity of heart, according to the best of 
our understanding, and in obedience to his Majesty's authority es- 
tablished by his letters patent over us. 

Moreover we appointed a committee to attend the governor for 
his resolution, whether we might not, according to the custom of 
the other colonies, choose our magistrates. We received answer 
by our deputies, that they had seen the instruction of his Royal 
Highness, wherein the choice of all the offices of Justice was 
solely to be made by the Governor, and some of us do know that 
a parUament of England can neither make a judge nor justice of 
the peace. 

In conclusion the Governor told us that we had seen and read 
his Majesty's letters patent, the commission and instructions from 
his Royal Highness the Duke of York, and if we would have a 
greater share in the government than he could allow, we must go 
to the king for it. > 

Nevertheless some malicious men h#e aspersed us as betray- 
ers of their liberties and privileges, in subscribing to an address 
to his Royal Highness, full of duty and gratitude, whereby his 
Royal Highness may be encouraged the more to take us and the 
welfare of our posterity into his most princely care and conside- 

Neither can any clause in that address bear any other natural 
sense and construction than our obedience and submission to his 
Majesty's letters patent, according to our duty and allegiance. 

However, that our neighbors and fellow-subjects may be unde- 
ceived of the false aspersions thrown upon us, and the impostures 
of men disaffected to government manifested, lest they should 
further prevail upon the weakness of others ; we, the then depu- 
ties and subscribers of the said address, conceive ourselves ob- 
liged to publish this narrative and remonstrance of the several 
passages and steps conducting to the present government under 


which we now live, and we desire that a record hereof may be 
kept in each town, that future ages may not be seasoned with the 
sour malice of such unreasonable and groundless aspersions.'' 

Signed by the Deputies. 
" Dated the 21st day of June, 1666." 

Remonstrance of Southampton against the order requiring them 
to take out a new patent, as mentioned in Vol, /, page 334. 

Southampton, Febraary 15, 1670. 
To the Governor : 

Honorable Sir. — We, the inhabitants of this town, do hereby present unto 
you our humble service, &c. to show our respect to your honoris pleasnre, and 
our obedience to the order of the honorable court of assize — we are bold to 
manifest herein unto you some reasons why we are unwilling to receive any 
further patent for our lands, as followeth : 

Ist, Because, as we have honestly purchased them of the natives, (the pro- 
per and natural owners of them,) so also we have already the patent right, law- 
fully obtained and derived from the honorable Earl of Stirling, we being to pay 
one fif^h part of gold and silver ore, and foar bushels of Indian corn yearly. 

2dly, Because the injunction laid on persons and plantations by the laws ia 
1666, to take forth patents for their lands from our then governor, we ground- 
edly conceive intended not tl# plantations on this east end of the island, hot 
only those at the west end who were reduced from a foreign government, even 
as heretofore. Those English, that came to dwell within the precincts which 
the Dutch claimed, took out land briefs from the Dutch governor. 

3dly, Because those of us, who were first beginners of this plantation, put 
none but ourselves to the vast charge in our transport hither, we greatly hazard- 
ed our lives (as some lost theirs) here amongst and by the then numerous and 
barbarously cruel natives ; yet through divine Providence we have possessed 
these our lands above thirty years without interruption or molestation by any 
claiming them from us, and therefore we cannot see why we should lose any of 
our rightful privileges, so dearly and honestly purchased, or how our lands can 
be better assured to us by taking out another patent from any one. 

4thly, And materially because by our said patent we had licence (we being 
but few) to put ourselves under any of his Majesty^s colonies for government, 
whereupon accordingly, by willing consent on all sides, we adjoined oorselvea 
to Hartford jurisdiction, and divers of us became members of the king^s court 
there, and when the worthy Mr. Winthrop obtained a patent from his Majesty 
our present lord. King Charles II.; for the said colony Hartford, our town is 
included, and some of the then chief members of our town expressly nominated 



in the patent ; so that this place became undeniably an absolute limb or part of 
the said colony ; and moreover, since that and after his Majesty^s commis- 
sioners came into these parts, his Majesty of f^race and free motion was pleased 
so far to encourage his people of the said colony, as by his letter to assure them 
that their ecclesiastical and civil privileges which he had granted them, should 
not be infringed or diminished by his said commissioners, or any others what- 

5ly, It is not only in all our experience beyond all parallel that each town 
should be constrained to take forth a patent, but also the patents here imposed 
and those given forth, which yet we have seen, seem to bind persons and towns 
in matter of payment to the will and mercy of their lord and his successors, or 
lieutenants ; and who can tell but in time to come those may succeed who, 
through an avaricious distemper, may come upon us with such heavy taxes and 
intolerable burdens, as may make us, or our poor posterity, to groan like Israel 
in Egypt. 

61y, Because people are enjoined to acknowledge in the said patent (if we 
mistake not greatly) that his royal highness the Duke of York is sole proprietor 
of the whole island ; which we cannot consent unto, because we know ourselves 
to be the true proprietors of the land we here possess, with the appurtenances 
thereunto belonging, and also because men are enjoined by the said patent to 
pay not only all just dues, but also all demands that may be made by his royal 
highness or his authorised agent. 

7ly, Because we are more than confident his Majesty will desire no more of 
us than already we are, even his faithful liege people, who have many of us al- 
ready taken, and the rest of us are ready to take, the oath of allegiance unto 
him. Willing we are to pay our just dues in town and to the country, and ready 
to eerre his Majesty with our lives and fortunea; we are his subjects, and we 
know that he will not make us slaves to any. 

Sly, Because General Nichols gave it under bis hand that we at this end 
should have as great privileges as any colony in New-England, and yet we 
are denied our deputies at the courts ; we are forced to pay customs for goods 
imported, for which custom hath before been paid to his Majesty^s use in Eng- 

Oly, and lastly. — ^The king's commissioners, in the year 1664, by their pro- 
clamation, seemed to demand only the government, with exact and full promise 
that the people should enjoy whatsoever God^s blessing and their own industry 
had furnished them withal ; and wo see not what more a patent can assure us, 
especially considering that the patents here taken forth by places, or particu- 
lar persons, secure them not absolutely ; for it seems to us by the order of the 
coort of assizes, even from them who have received a patent, wood and timber 
may be taken away without leave and without pay ; in all which respects, and 
some other, we cannot be willing to take forth more patent than we have. And 
if wee do succeed otherwise than we expect, we hope we shall, like good chris- 


• > 

tians, patiently bear the pressure that may be permitted to fall apoo w,jf^ 
never fail to be fervent votaries for year honoris real happiness. 

[Signed by Thomas Halsey, jun. and 49 other inhabitants of the town.] 

Easthampton Address to His Excellency Thomas Dongariy Go- 
vernor of the Province of New Yorky September 10, 1683,05 
mentioned at page 315, Vol. I. 

" To the Honourable the Governour under his Royall Highnes the Duke of 
York, The humble Address of the Inhabitants of the Towne of East Htop* 
ton upon Long Island, sheweth : 

Whereas at the time the government of New Yorke was established nnder 
our Soveraigne Lord the King, by Collonell Richard Nicolls and Chose Gentle- 
men sent in commissi(m with him, Wee, the Inhabitants of this Towne, soe 
well as the rest of the Island, being required. Sent our Messengers to atteirf 
their Honours, and then, both by word and writing, wee were promised tild 
engaged the Enjoyments of all privileges and liberties which other of his Mt- 
jesties Subjects doe enjoy, which was much to our Content and Satisfactioo! 
Alsoe afterwards being required, by theise his Majesties Commissioners, to 
send upp our Deputies to meete at Hempsteade, and there the whole Islaod 
being Assembled in our Representatives, wee did then and there, appon the 
renewal of those former promises of our freedom and liberties, Grant and 
Compact with the said Collonell Nicolls, Governour under his Royall Highnei, 
That wee would allow so much out of our Estates yearly, as might defray the 
Charge of Publicke Justice amongst us, and for killing of wolves, &c.. But 
may it please your Honour to understand, that since that time we are deprived 
and prohibited of our Birthright Freedomes and Priviledges, to which both 
wee and our Ancestors were borne ; Although wee have neither forfeited them 
by any Misdemeanor of ours, nor have, at any time, beene forbidden the doe 
use and exercise of them by Command of our GraMous King, that we know 
of: And as yet neither wee, nor the rest of his Majesties Subjects appon this 
Island, have been at any time admitted since then to enjoy a generall and free 
Assembly of our Representatives, as others of his Majesties Subjects have had 
the privilege of : But Lawes and Orders have beene Imposed uppon us from 
time to time without our consent, (and therein we are totally deprived of a 
fundamentall Priviledge of our English Nation,) together with the obstmction 
of Trafiicke and Negotiation with others of his Majesties Subjects. So that 
we are become very unlike other of the Kings Subjects in all other Collooyes 
and Jurisdictions here in America, and cannot but much resent our grievances 
in this respect, and remaine discouraged with respect to the Settlement of oor 
selves and Posteritie after us. — Yet all this time, payments and perform&oce of 


^hat hath beene Imposed uppon us hith not beene omitted on our parts, al« 
though performance of our Premised Priviledges aforesaid have beene wholly 
vnperformed ; and what payments from yeare to yeare, this many yeares, hath 
beene made by us, Haih beene made use of to other purposes than at first they 
were granted for and intended by us : Sue that wee cannot but feare, if the 
Public Affairs of government shall continue in this manner as they have beene, 
but hope better, least our Freedomes should be turned into Bondage, and our 
Antiente Priviledges so infringed that they will never arrive to our Posteritie. 
And wee our Selves may be justlie and highly Culpable before his Majestie, for 
our Subjection to, and supporting of such a Government, Constituted soe Con- 
tra rie to the fundamental! Lawes of England ; it being a principal! part of his 
Majesties Antiente and Just Government to rule over a free people endowed 
with many priviledges above others, and not over Bondmen oppressed by Ar- 
bitrary Impositions and Exactions. — These things Considered, we cannot but 
humbly request your Honour, to weigh our Condiiitm in the Ballance of Equity 
with Seryousnes, before you proceede to any Action of your owne whereby 
to assert the proceedings of your Predecessors in Government, which wee 
DOW with all Christian moderation dos complaine of. And for the redresse here- 
of, an Addresse as we understand, hath beene made to his Royal! Higbnesse, 
by a late Court of Assize, in behalfe of us and our Neighbours in this Colloney : 
Soe that we are not without hope your Honour hath received Directions to 
ease us in these our grievances, by the Remedies humbly represented by us, 
and Petitioned for by the Inhabitants of this Island to the last Court of Assize 
that did sit at New Yorlce ; to which as yet no Satisfactorie Answer hath 
beene made. If, therefore, your Honour may bee an Instrument under God, 
and his Majesty our Soveraign Lord the King, to relieve us, and the rest of 
his Majesties good Subjects uppim this Island, in our grievances, and bee a 
meanes to heipe us to the free Enjoyment of our Birthright Priviledges, 
which the fundamental! Constitution of our English Nation Government doth 
invest us with, (which as wee doubt not will bee very pleasing to his M.ijestie, 
and a!! your Loyal! Superiours ;) Soe your Honour may bee assured it will 
firmly Engage and Oblige us, your humble Petitioners, and our Posteritie after 
OS, to have your Prudence and Justice in Honourable Remembrance, as the 
first Restorer of our freedome and priviledges, to our great Contentment. 
But, Sir, if it shall fall out otherwise, which God forbid, and wee are very un- 
willing to suppose ; and that your Honour should, by reason of Counsells and 
Suggestions, pursue a Contrary course to our humble Desires, soe as to con- 
tinue or augment our grievances ; then wee Request your Honours Pardon and 
Excuse, if in our Conscience to God, and in Honour and Submission to his 
Majestic, our most G rations Soveraigne, we prostrate our Selves and our State 
and Condition before the Throne of his unmatchabie Justice and Clemencie, 
where we doubt not to find Reliefe and Restauration, and can doe noe less in 
the mean time but Resent our folorne and bereaved Condition. Soe, Sir, as 
oar prayers are Continued for a happy and glorious Reigne to his Sacred Ma« 

Vol. II. 42 


jeBtie the King ; and alsoe our prayers for yonr Honoaf, that yoa may bee a 
blessed Instrument under God, in your Wisdome, Justice and Equity over os : 
And humbiiemake bold to subscribe ourselves, his Majesties poore, depressed, 
» though Loyall Subjects, and your most Humble Servants." 

Some account of the notorious sea-robber, Captain Kiddy and the 
treasures buried by him upon Gardiner'* s Island, which were after- 
wards recovered. 

William Kidd, thb famous freebooter and pirate, was an Eng- 
lishman by birth and had been commander of a merchant vessel 
that sailed between London and New York, and was celebrated 
for nautical skill and enterprize, on which account he was strongly 
recommended by Col. Richard Livingston of New York, then in 
London, as a proper person to take charge of a vessel which Lord 
Romney and others had purchased, and were then fitting out 
against the hordes of robbers which infested the India seas and 
preying upon the commerce of all nations. The expense of the 
expedition was £6000 sterhng, being a joint fund, to which the 
Xing, Lord Somers, Earl of Romney, Duke of Shrewsbury, Earl 
of Oxford, Lord Belomont and Col. Livingston, were contribu- 
tors. Kidd agreed to be concerned to the amount of the one- 
fifth of the whole, and Col. Livingston, became his surety for 
£600. Hume says, the King promised to contribute one-half 
of the expense, and reserved to himself one-tenth of the profits, 
but that he never advanced the money. For the purpose, how- 
ever, of giving character to the expedition, a commission was is- 
sued under the great seal of England, and signed by his Majesty, 
William III. directed " to the trusty and well beloved. Captain 
William Kidd, commander of the Ship Adventure Galley,^^ dated 
Kensington, Dec. 11th, 1695, and ** ordering and requiring all offi- 
cers, ministers and subjects, to be aiding and assisting in the pre- 
mises." He was, moreover, provided with a commission to act 
against the French, with whom England was then at war. He 
set sail from Plymouth in April, 1696, and arrived on the Ameri- 
can coast, where he continued for some time, occasionally enter- 
ing the harbor of New York, and visiting his fanrtily in the city. 
He was considered particularly useful in protecting our commerce. 


for which he received much applause ; and the assembly gave him 
a more substantial proof of their approbation, by voting him the 
sum of £250, as an acknowledgment of their estimation of his ser- 
vices to this colony. He procured at New York, an addition to 
his crew of 75, making in all 155 men, with whom he left the 
coast and steered for the East Indies, where he soon after turned 
pirate, and took among other prizes, a rich Moorish ship. Hav- 
ing divided the booty acquired, among his men, 90 of whom left 
him, in order to join other adventures, or perhaps to set up for 
thegnselves, he burnt his own vessel and sailed with his prize ship 
to the West Indies. There he procured a sloop in which he steered 
from thence, leaving part of his men in the captured vessel, to re- 
main in one of the Leeward Islands, till they should receive in- 
structions from him. The old East India Company had com- 
plained to the regency, of the havoc nuade by Kidd in the East 
Indies, apprehending, that as the vessel taken by him belonged to 
the Moors, they might be exposed to the resentments of the Mo- 
gul. A warm debate ensued in parliament, in which the most 
bitter charges were made against the Chancellor (Lord Somers) and 
the Duke of Shrewsbury, as co-partners in a piratical scheme, 
which charges, however, were not supported. In the meantime, 
Kidd established himself at Madagascar, where he lay hke a shark, 
darting out at pleasure and plundering with impunity the vessels 
of every country. He captured a still larger and better vessel 
than his own, of which he took command, ranging over the Indian 
seas, from the Red Sea to Malabar, and his depredations extend- 
ed from the Eastern ocean, back along the Atlantic coast of South 
America, through the Bahamas, the whole West Indies and the 
shores of Long Island. The last being selected as the fittest for 
depositing his ill-gotten treasures. He is supposed to have re- 
turned from the east with more valuable spoil, than ever fell to the 
lot of any other individual. During these lawless depredations 
upon the commerce of the world, in which his own, as well as 
other nations suffered, it became necessary, for the character of 
tlie government and the immunity of its merchants, to take effec- 
tual measures to suppress the wide extended evil and to punish 
the individual, who had so grossly violated his commission, his 
plighted faith, and the laws of the whole civilized world. An or- 


der was thereupon issued for his apprehension, by one of his Ma*: 
jesly's secretaries of state, as follows : 

"Whitehall, Nov, 23, 1698. 
"The Lords Justices being informed by several advices from 
the East Indies, of the notorious Piraces committed by Capt. 
Kidd. commander of the Adventure G alley ^ and of his having 
seized and plundered divers shipps in those seas. As their Ex- 
cellencies having given order to the commander of the squadron 
fitted out for the East Indies, that he use his utmost endeavours 
to pursue and seize the said Kidd, if he continue still in those 
parts, so likewise they have commanded me to signifie their direc- 
tions to the respective Govenors of the colonies under his Majes- 
ties obedience in America, that they give strict orders, and take 
particular care for apprehending the said Kidd and his accom- 
plices, whenever he or they shall arrive in any of the said planta- 
tions, as likewise that they secure his ship and all the effects 
therein, it being their Excellencies intention, that right be done to 
those, who have been injured and robbed by the said Kidd, and 
that he and his associates be prosecuted with the utmost rigor of 
the law. You are to be careful therefore, duly to observe the 
said directions, and if the said Kidd or any of his accomplices 
happen to be seized within the province under your government, 
you are forlhwith to transmitt an account thereof hither, and tate 
care that the said persons, shipp and effects be secured, till his 
Majesty's pleasure be known concerning them — I am gentlemen, 
your most failhfull Humble servant, " Ja. Vernon." 

The first piratical act of this bold marauder, was at Malabar, 
on the Red Sea, where he took a quantity of corn — after which, 
he continued his depredations, and a more bloody, daring and 
cruel pirate never infested the ocean. The ship Qucda, of 400 
tons, fell into his possession, richly laden ; a part of which he sold 
for S40,000. The king finally offered a reward for his apprehen- 
sion, and a free pardon, by proclamation, to every other pirate 
who should surrender himself before the 30th of April, 1699. 
On Kidd's homeward passage from the West Indies to Boston, he 
anchored in Gardiner's Bay, at the east end of Long Island, where 
he went on shore, and in the presence of Mr. John Gardiner, 
owner of the island, and, under the most solemn injunctions of se- 


:recy, buried a quantity of gold, silver and precious stones. 
From here he sailed to Boston, where, on the 3d of July, he was 
summoned before Lord Belomont, (a party to the original adven- 
:ure,) and required to give an account of his .proceedings, while in 
;he service of the company, which he obstinately refused to do. On 
the same day, the assembly of Massachusetts examined him, and 
3n tl^c 6th ordered his apprehension. His wife, Sarah, came from 
New York, and claiming some plate, which had been seized, as 
her property, it was restored to her. A letter from the king and 
council, of Feb. 10, 1^99, having required all pirates to be sent 
to England for trial, Kidd, with Joseph Bradish and several others, 
were transported thence. 

He was put on his trial for the murder of William Moore, gun- 
ner of the ship, whom he had killed by striking him on the head 
with a bucket, and being convicted, was hung in chains at " Exe- 
cution Docky'^ May 12, 1701. On his previous visit to Gardiner's 
Island, in the absence of Mr. Gardiner, he presented his wife two 
small blankets of gold cloth, rich and beautiful. In a letter from 
the present proprietor of the island, he says, " We have a small 
piece, a sample of Cloth of Gold, which my father received from 
Mrs. Wetmore, mother of the wife of Capt. Mather of New Lon- 
don. I send you an extract from her letter, giving an account of 
Capt Kidd's being on this island." 

** J remember (she says) when very young, hearing my mother 
say, that her grandmother was wife to Lord Gardiner, when the 
pirate Kidd came to Gardiner's Island. The Captaine wanted 
Mrs. Gardiner to roast him a pig : she being afraid to refuse him, 
cooked it very nice, and he was much pleased with it ; he then 
made her a present of this silk, which she gave to her two daugh- 
ters. Where the other went, or whether it is in being, I know 
not ; but this was handed down to me ; it has been kept very 
nice, and I believe is now as good, as when first given, which 
must be upwards of 100 years." 

It having been ascertained, in some way, that he had buried 
treasures upon this island, commissioners were dispatched from 
Boston, by Governor Belomont, to secure the same. Having 
taken possession of it, they gave to Mr. Gardiner a receipt there- 


for, the orig?hal of which is still preserved by the family, and is 
as follows : 

" A true account of all such gold, silver, jewels, and merchan- 
dize, late in the possession of Captain WiUiam Kidd, which have 
been seized and secured by us in pursuant to an order from his i 
Excellency, Richard, Earl of Bellomont, bearing date July 7, 
1699 :— 

Received, the 17th instant, of Mr. John Gardiner, viz. ouncei. 

No. 1. One bag of dust-gold, 63{ 

3. One bag of coined gold, . . * . . . .11 
and one in silver, 1S4 

3. One bag dust-gold, 24) 

4. One bag of silver rings, and sundry precious stones, . 4| 

5. One bag of unpolished stones, l^i 

6. One piece of crystal, cornelian rings, two agates, two amythists. 

7. One bag of silver buttons and lamps, .... 

8. One bag of broken silver, 173) 

9. One bag of gold bars, 353} 

10. One do. . • S38i 

11. One bag of dust-gold, M 

13. One bag silver bars 309 

Samuel Sewall. Nathaniel Ryfield, 
Jeremiah Dummer, Andrew Belcher, 


The inventory of the whole property obtained by the commis- 
sioners, shows a more considerable amount than is included in ibe 
above receipt. Some was found in the prisoner's chest, and more 
in the possession of Duncan Campbell of New York, which hai 
been landed from on board the sloop Antonio, the last vessel corti- 
manded by the pirate. The schedule in possession of Mr. Gardi* 
ner, exhibits the amount to be eleven hundred and eleven ounces ^^ 
gold, 2350 oz. of silver, 17 oz. of jewels and precious stones, &^ 
precious stones by tale, 57 bags of sugar, 41 bales of mcrchal^ 
dize, 17 pieces of canvas, one large loadstone, silver candlcslict^ 
and other articles of value. 


List of the framers of the Constitution of the United States at 

Philadelphia^ Sept. 17, 1787. 

George Washington, Pres. and Del. from Virginia, 

New Hampshire ; John Langdon and Nicholas Oilman. 

Massachusetts ; Nathaniel Gorham and Rufus King. 

Connecticut ; William Samuel Johnson and Roger Sherman. 

NetD York; Alexander Hamilton. 

New Jersey ; William Livingston. 

Delaware ; George Reed, Gunning Bedford, jun., John Dickerson, Richard 
Bassett and Jacob Broom. 

Maryland ; James McHenry, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, and Daniel 

Virginia ; John Blair, James Madison, jun., David Brearly, William Pat- 
terson and Jonathan Dayton. 

Pennsylvania ; Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George 
Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson and Gouverneur 

North Carolina ; William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight and Hugh Wil- 

South Carolina; John Rutledge, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler and 
Charles Coiesworth Pinckney. 

Geortria ; William Few and Abraham Baldwin. 

William Jackson, Secretary. 

Members of the New York Convention for deliberating on the 
adoption of the Constitution of the United States, assembled 
at Poughkeepsie, June 17, 1783. 

George Clinton, Del. from Ulster, President. 

From the City and County of New York. 
John Jay, Isaac Roosevelt, 

Richard Morris, James Duane, 

John Sloss Hobart, Richard Harrison, 

Alexander Hamilton, Nicholas Low, 

Robert R. Livingston. ^ 

From the City and County of Albany. 
Robert Yates, Israel Thompson, 

John Lansing, jun. Anthony Ten Eyck, 

Henry Oothoudt, Dirck Swart, 

Peter Vroman. 


From the County of Suffolk, 

Henry Scudder, Thomas Tredwell^ 

Jonathan N. Havens, David Hedges, 
John Smith. 

From the County of Ulster. 

George Clinton, Ebenezer Clark, 

John Cantine, James Clinton, 

Cor. C. Schoonmaker, Dirck Wynkoop. 

From the County of Queens. 
Samuel Jones, Nathaniel Lawrence, 

John Schenck, Stephen Carman. 

From the County of Kings, 
Peter Lefferts, Peter Vandervoort. 

From the County of Richmond. 
Abraham Bancker, Gozen Hyerss. 

From the County of Westchester. 
Lewis Morris, Philip Van Corilandt, 

Philip Livingston, Thaddeus Crane, 

Richard Hatfield, Lott W. SaiU-. 

From the County of Orange. 
John Haring, Henry Wisner, 

Jesse Woodhull, John Wood. 

From the County of Dutchess. 
Zephaniah Piatt, £^zra Thompson, 

Melancthon Smith, Gilbert Livingston, 

Jacobus Swartwout, John D'Wiit, 

Jonathan Akins. 

From the County of Montgomery. 
William Harper, John Winn, 

Christopher P. Yates, Volkert Veeder, 

John Frey, Henry Staring. 

From the County of Columbia. 
Peter Van Ness, Matthew Adgate, 

John Bay. 

From the Counties of Washington and Clinton. 
Ichabod Parker, Albert Baker, 

John Williams, David Hopkins. 


List of the members elected to the convention, met at Kingston^ 

Ulster county, April 20th, 1777, to frame the constitution of 
this state. 

County of New York, John Jay, James Duaoe, John Morrin Scott, James ' 
Beekman, Daniel Dunscomb, Robert Harper, Phillip Lifingston, Abraham P. 
Lott, Peter P. Van Zandt, Anthony Rutgers, E?ert Banker, Isaac Stouten- 
bergh, Isaac Roose?elt, John Van Courtland, William Denning. 

County of Albany, Abr. Ten Broeck, Robert Yates, Leonard Ganseyoort, 
Abr. Yates, jun'r., John Ten Broeck, John Tayler, Peter R. Livingston, Rob- 
ert Van Rensselaer, Mathew Adgate, John J. Bleecker, Jacob Cuyler. 

County of Dutchess, Robert R. Livingston, Zephaniah Piatt, John Schenck, 
Jonathan Langdon, Gilbert Livingston, James Livingston, Henry Schenck. 

County of Ulster, Christopher Tappen, Matthew Rea, Matthew Cantine, 
Charles De Witt, Arthur Parks. 

County of Westchester, Pierre Van Courtland t, Goveneur Morris, Gilbert 
Drake, Lewis Graham, Lockwood, Zebediah Mills, Jonathan Piatt, Jon- 
athan G. Tompkins. 

County of Orange, William Ellison, Henry Wisner, Jeremiah Clarke, 
Isaac Sherwood, Joshua H. Smith. 

County of Suffolk, William Smith, Thomas Tredwell, John Sloss Hobart, 
Matthias Burnett Miller, Ezra L'Hommedieu. 

County of Queens, Jonathan Lawrence. 

County of Tryon. William Harper, Isaac Paris, Mr. Veeder, John Moore, 
Benjamin Newkirk. 

County of Charlotte, John Williams, Alexander Webster, William Duer. 

County of Cumberland, Simeon Stephens.* 

The name of Tryon county is now Montgomery ; Charlotte is Washington. 
Camberland is within the limits of Vermont, as well as the county of Glou- 
cester ; and the ancient counties, Duke^s and Cornwall, now belong to Massa- 

* It does not appear that the members elected in Kings and Richmond, 
ever attended the provincial congress or the convention, after the 30th June, 
1770, and many members elected in Suffolk, Queens, and other counties, did 
not attend the convention at any time from the day the constitution was re- 
ported by the select committee, till its adoption, (from 0th March, to 20th 
April, 1777,) and are therefore not named in the preceding list. 

Vol. IT. 43 


List of Delegates composing the convention, which framed the 
present constitution of the state of New York, Nov. 10, 1821- 


Siijff'olk, Usher H. Moore, Ebenezer Sage, Joshua Smith. 

Queens, Rafus King, Nathaniel Seaman, Elbert H. Jones.* 

King>s, John Leflferts. 

Richmond, Daniel D. Tompkins. 

I\eu) York. Jacobus Dyckman, Ogden Edwards, James Fairlie, John L. 
Lawrence, William Paulding, jun'r., Jacob Radcliflf, Nathan Sanford, Peter 
Sharpe, Peter Stagg, P. H. Wendover, Henry Wheaton. 

Westchester, Peter A*. Jay,* Peter Jay Monro, Jonathan Ward. 

Putnam. Joel Frost. • 

Dutchess. Elisha Barlow, Isaac Hunting, Peter R. Liyingston, Abr. H. 
Schenck, James Tallmadge, junV. 

Rockland. Samuel G. Yerbryck. 

Orange. John Duer, John Hallock, jun^r. , Peter Milliken, Benjamin Wood- 

Ulster and Sullivan. Daniel Clark, Jonathan Dubois, James Hunter, Henry, 

Greene. Jehiel Tuttle, Alpheus Webster.* 

Columbia. Francis Sylvester,* William W. Van Ness,* Jacob R. Vio 
llensselaer,* Elisha Williams.* 

Albany. James Kent,* Ambrose Spencer,* Stephen Van Rensselaer,* 
Abr. Van Vecten.* 

Rensselaer. Jirah Baker, David Buel, jun'r., James L. Hogeboom, Jolm 
Reeve, John W. Woods. 

Schoharie. OIney Briggs, Asa Starkweather, Jacob Sutherland. 

Schenectady. John Sanders* Henry Yates, jun'r. 

Saratoga. Salmon Child, John Cramer, Jeremy Rockwell, Samuel Young. 

Montgomery. William I. Dodge, Howland Fish,* Jacob Hees,* Philip 
Rhinelander, jun.,* Alex'r Sheldon. 

Washington and Warren. Alex^r Livingston, Nathaniel Pitcher, John 
Richards, Wm. Towpsend, Melancthon Wheeler. 

Essex. Reuben Sanford. 

Clinton and Franklin. Nathan Carver. 

St. Lawrence. Jason Fenton. 

Herkimer. Sanders Lansing, Richard Van Home,* Sherman Wooster. 

Oneida. Ezekiel Bacon, Samuel S. Breese,* Henry Huntington, Jonas 
Piatt,* Nathan Williams. 

Madison. Barak Beckwith, John Knowles, Edward Rogers. 

Lewis. Ela Collins. 

Jefferson. Hiram Steele, Egbert Ten Eyck. 

Delaware. Robert Clarke,* Erastus Root. 


Otsego. Joseph Clyde, Ransom Hunt, William Park, David Tiipp, Martin 
Van Beuren. 

Chenango. Thomas Humphrey,* Jaryis K. Pike, Nathan Taylor, 

Broome. Charles Pumpelly. 

Cortland. Samuel Nelson. 

Tompkins. Richard Smith, Richard Townley. 

Tioga, Matthew Carpenter. 

Onondaga. Victory Birdseye, Ameri Case, Asa Eastwood, Parky E. 

Cayuga. David Brinkerhoff, Rowland Day,* Augustus F. Ferris. 

Seneca. Robert S. Rose, Jonas Seely. 

Ontario. Micah Brooks, John Price,* Philetus Swift, David Satherland,* 
Joshua Van Vleet. 

Steuben and Alleghany. Timothy Hurd, James McCall. 

Livingston. James Roseburgh. 

Monroe. John Bowman. 

Genesee. David Burroughs, John Z. Ross, Elizur Webster. 

Erie, Niagara, ^c. Augustus Porter, Samuel Russell. 

The counties of Chemung, Erie, Fulton, Hamilton, Orleans, Oswego^ 
Wayne, Wyoming and Yates, have been organized sinoe the constitotion was 
adopted, by which the state now consists of fifty-nine organized counties, sub- 
divided into eight hundred and twenty-eight towns, and nine cities, (comprise- 
ing sixty- two wards). 

* Mr. Jansen died during the sitting of the convention, and those marked 
with an asterisk, did not sign the constitution. 

List of Governors, Lieutenant-Governors, and Presidents of the 
Council, who have administered the Government of the Colony 
and State of New York, from its settlement to the present time^ 


Peter Minuet, Director-General 1625 to 1629 

Wauter Van Twiller, 1629 to 1638 

WiUiamKeift, 1638 to 1647 

Peter Stuyvesant, 1647 to 1664 

Anthony Culve, . from October 14, 1673, to February 9, 1674 

Richard Nicolls, . from September 7, 1664 to 1667 

Francis Lovelace, 1«67 to 1673 


Edmund Aodros, 1674 to 1661 

Anthony Brockholst, 1681 to 1683 

Thomas Dongan, 1683 to 1688 

Francis Nicholson, 1688 to 1689 

Jacob Liesler, (Lieutenant Goyernor,) . . . 1689 to 1691 
Henry Slaughter, a few months in . . . 1691 

Richard Ingolsby, (Lieutenant Governor,) . 1691 to 1699 

Benjamin Fletcher, 1692 to 1698 

Richard, Earl of Belomont 1698 to 1701 

John Nanfan, (Lieutenant Governor,) . . 1701 to 1703 

Edward Hyde, (Lord Cornbury,) .... 1703 to 1708 

Lprd Lovelace, (Baron of Hurley,) . 1708 to 1709 

Richard Ingolsby, (Lieut. Governor,) few months in 1709 

Gerardus Beekman, (President,) .... 1709 to 1710 

Robert Hunter, 1710 to 1718 

Peter Schuyler, (President,) 1718 to 1720 

WiUiam Burnet, 1720 to 1728 

John Montgomerie, 1728 to 1731 

Rip Van Dam, (President,) ' . . . . 1731 to 1739 

WiUiam Cosby, 1732 to 1736 

George Clarke, 1736 to 1743 

George Clinton, 1743 to 1753 

James De Lancey, (Lieutenant Governor,) in . 1753 

Danvers Osborne, a few days in ... . 1753 

James De Lancey, (Lieutenant Governor,) . . 1753 to 1755 

Charles Hardy, 1755 to 1757 

James De Lancey, (Lieutenant Governor,) . 1757 to 1760 

Calwallader Colden, (Lieutenant Governor,) . . 1760 to 1762 

Robert Mookton, 1762 to 1763 

Cadwalader Colden, (Lieutenant Governor,) . . 1763 to 1765 

Henry Moore, 1765 to 1769 

Cadwalader Colden, (Lieutenant Governor,) till . 1770 

John Murray, Earl of Dunmore, .... 1770 to 1771 

William Tryon, 1771 to 1775 

(The colonial government was suspended in May, 1775 ; from which time, 
till April, 1777, New York was governed by the provincial congress ; Natha- 
niel Woodhull, president of the congress in August, 1775. The state govern- 
ment went into operation after the adoption of the constitution, the 20th of 
April, 1777.) 

State Governors. 

George Clinton, from . . . . 1777 to 1795 

John Jay, 1795 to 1801 

George Clinton, 1801 to 1804 

Morgan Lewis, 1804 to 1807 


Daniel D. Tompkina, 1807 to 1817 

John Tayler, (Lieatenant Goyernor,) in . . . 1817 

Do Wiu Clinton, 1817 to 1823 

Joseph C. Yates, 1822 to 1824 

De Witt Clinton, . . . . . . 1824 to 1828 

Nathaniel Pitcher, (Lieutenant Goyernor,) . . 1828 to 1829 
Martin Van Buren, three months in . . . 1829 

Enos T. Throop, (Lieutenant Goyernor,) . . 1829 to 1830 

Elected Goyernor, . . 1830 to 1832 

William L. Marcy, 1832 to 1839 

William H. Seward 1839 to 1843 

William C. Bouck, 1843 to 184 

Lieutenant Governors of the State. 

Pierre Van Cortlandt, 1777 to 1795 

Stephen Van Rensselaer, 1795 to 1801 

Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, .... 1801 to 1804 

John Broome, 1804 to 1812 

De Witt Clinton, . . . i . . 1813 to 1814 

John Tayler, 1814 to 1822 

Erastus Root, 1822 to 1824 

James Tallmadge, 1824 to 1820 

Nathaniel Pitcher, ...... 1820 to 1828 

Enos T. Throop, 1828 to 1830 

Edward P. Liyingston, ..... 1830 to 1832 

John Tracy, 1832 to 1838 

Luther Bradish, 1838 to 1842 

Daniel S. Dickerson, 1842 to 184 

Statement of Votes at Elections for Governor of the State of New 
York^from 1789 to 1842, {omitting scattering votes ^) from the 
Official Returns. 

Whole No. 

Year. Candidates. Votes. Majority. of Votes. 

1789 George Clinton, . 6,391 429 

Robert Yates, 5,902 12 353 

1792 George Clinton, . 8,440 108 

John Jay, . 8,333 16,779 

1796 John Jay, . . 13,481 1,589 

Robert Yates, . . 11,882 25 373 

1798 John Jay, . . . 16,012 2,380 ' . 

Robert Livingston, . 13,633 29,644 









George Clinton. . 



of Vote*. 

Stephen Van Itenaselaer 




Murgan Lewis, . 



AcronBurr. . . 




Daniel D. Tompkius, ■ 



Morgan Lewu, 




Daniel D. Tompkins, . 



Jonas Plan, . 




Daniel D. Tompkins, . 



Sieplian Van Renaselaer 




Daniel D. Toapkioa, 



Rufua King, 




De Witt Clioton, . 



Peter B. Pbrter, 




De Wilt Clioton, . 



Daniel D. Tompkins, . 





Joaeph C. Yaiea, . 



t||»iomoii Southwick, . 
De Witt Clifllp, . 
Samuel YouH^ . 











Wiliam B. Hocheater, 


- 105,090 


MariinV^inBiiren, . 
Smith Thompson, . . 


Solomon Souihwick, . 




Eooa T. Throop, . . 
Ftancla Granger, 


Eieklel WillJama, . 




Willara L. Marcy, 



Francis Granger, . . 




William L. Marcy, . ' 



William H. Seward. . 




William L. Marcy, . 
Jeaae Buel, 



Isaac S. Smith, 




William H. Seward, . 



William L. Marcy. . 




William H. Seward, . 



William C. Bbuck, . 



Gerrit Smith, 



William C.Bonck, . 
Luther Bradiah, . 




Beaidea 7369 abolitira vOUm. 



Among the early English emigrants to Boston and its vicinity, 
were William, Thomas, John, Henry, Richard and Robert Town- 
send, supposed to be brother's, as John, Henry and Richard cer- 
tainly were ; — all persons of good character and highly intelli- 

WilHam was among those disarmed in 1637, in the high-handed 
proceedings of the court of Boston, for objecting to the persecu- 
tion of Mrs. Hutchinson, Wheelwright and others, on account of 
their religious sentiments. One of his sons, was Col. Penn Town- 
send, so favorably distinguished in the Massachusetts colony. He 
was colonel of the militia, speaker for some time of the house of 
representatives, a commissioner of the colony of Massachusetts 
in 1704 to treat with the five Indian nations west of Albany, and 
chief justice of the common pleas. 

Thomas Townsend settled at Lynn, and his posterity, as well as 
those of his brothers William and Robert, have become widely dif- 
fused over New England, and other parts of the Union. A town 
in Middlesex county, Massachusetts, was, early in the colonial 
times, named after some of this family. 

In our article, on the Quaker persecutions, the names of John, 
Henry and Richard Townsend, are necessarily mentioned in con- 
nection with the history of those disgraceful transactions, and from 
it will be seen, that they were among the first inhabitants of Flush- 
ing L. I. and owners of land there, as well as patentees of the 
T he intelligence and firmness which they uniformly exhibited, 
in whatever related to the interests of their fellow-citizens, justly 
endeared them to the people, and gave them a distinction and 
influence which alarmed the powers of New Amsterdam, who of 
course, did not view with indifference any thing like opposition to 
their measures. John and Henry were particularly distinguished 
for their love of religious liberty, and cherished with great venera- 
tion the principles of the Quakers. 

To these, it is well known, the Dutch government, equally with 
the Puritans of Boston and Plymouth, were opposed, and reso- 
lute to prevent the spread of such " damnable heresy ;" and to 



crush, in embryo, that ** abominable sect called Quakers/' the 
most despotic decrees were passed by the governor and coancil, 
making it not only unlawful to countenance the Quakers, but 
the offenders also liable to fine, scourging, and imprisonment, 
nay even ear-cropping, branding upon the forehead, and banish- 
ment to the West Indies as slaves. 

This odious system of church and state policy, few had the 
moral courage to resist, but these brothers Townsend, had suffi- 
cient resolution and firmness not only to disregard, but on many 
occasions, openly to denounce, as ihey deserved, the arbitraiy 
edicts of this colonial hierarchy, a fit representative of the star 

The position which they occupied among their friends and 
compeers, only served to enhance the malevolence of those in 
power, to make them objects of special persecution, and they 
were accordingly, not only threatened with the displeasure of 
the government, but subjected also to the most humiliating insult, 
fine and imprisonment. All which served but to prove the falsity 
of those principles in religion, that required to be maintained by 
force, and their inconsistency with that system, which breathes 
peace on earth and good will to man. 

The alternative of exile qr incarceration was alone presented, and 
duty to themselves and families, led them to elect the former. 
The three Townsends therefore sought and found a temporary asy- 
lum at Providence, where they shared the sympathy of those, who 
like themselves had been driven by persecution from Boston and 
Plymouth ; and here among savages experienced a kindness, which 
even their civilized and christian brethren of those colonies, denied 

The brothers it seems took up their residence at Warwick, where 
they were not only treated with much respect, but were honored 
with oflSccs of trust also, during their continuance in that planta- 
tion, Henry was in 1650 chosen assistant and afterwards town- 
council-man. In 1653 he was a representative to the assembly. 
Richard was sergeant in 1648, constable in 1652 and a represen- 
tative several years. John was constable in 1650 and a represen- 
tative for some years in succession. 

John married Elizabeth, and Henry, Anna, daughters of Robert 


Coles, who was of a respectable Irish family, and an associate of 
the younger Winthrop in the settlement of Ipswich ; his son Na- 
thaniel, shared in the persecutions of the Townsends upon Long 

Being largely interested in the purchase of Flushing and hoping 
that a different feeling now existed among those in authority, the 
three Townsends ventured to return with their families to Long 
Island in 1 656, and were included in the patent obtained that year 
for Jamaica, where they now took up their residence ; but in a 
short time began to experience a renewal of the same vindictive- 
ness on the part of government, and some of their English coun- 
trymen, their associates in the purchase, who instead of cherishing 
them for their virtues, meanly turned spies and informers, and 
finally drove them from that place. 

John and Henry removed to Oyster Bay, as being out of the 
Dutch jurisdiction, but Richard retired once more to Rhode Island, 
and established himself at Pautuxet in 165S, where he married 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Wickes, one of the original settlers 
of Warwick, who had suffered with Gorton and others, from the 
court of Massachusetts in 1643, on account of religion. Richard 
remained there till 1667, when with Christopher Hawxhurst and 
Joseph Carpenter (son of William of Providence) he joined his 
brothers John and Henry at Oyster Bay. The latter had become 
identified wiih the proprietors of that town in 1661, and in that 
year received a grant from the inhabitants and proprietors of the 
town, for land on the stream, called Mill River, on which he after- 
wards erected a mill, which with the valuable property attach- 
ed thereto, has remained in his descendants ever since. 

The three brothers became in the end, the owners of a large 
quantity of land in different parts of the town, and their progeny, 
by frequent intermarriages, became, and are so numerous, that 
any thing like a full account of them, would far exceed the limits 
of this undertaking. 

The issue of John, the eldest, who died about the year 1668, were 
John, Thomas, Elizabeth, James, Rose, Sarah, Anne, George and 
Daniel. Of these, Thomas removed temporarily to Rhode Island, 
but before leaving Oysler Bay, had issue John, Freelove, Sarah 

Vol. II. 44 


and Mary, on whose account probably he changed his residence 
that he might give them a better education than could, at that day, 
be obtained here. 

His eldest daughter married Thomas Jones, to whom her father 
gave an extensive domain on the south side of Long Island, which 
he had purchased from the natives, called Fort Neck, and still owned 
by the Jones family, and scarcely diminished in quantity, after the 
lapse of nearly one hundred and fifty years. 

Sarah married Abraham, the grandson of the famous Capt 
John Underbill, and Mary married William McCoun, great grand- 
father of the Hon. William T. McCoun, vice-chancellor of the 
first judicial district of this state. 

Thomas Townsend finally returned to Oyster Bay, and died in 
1712. His son John, married Kebckah Almy of Rhode Island, 
and secondly. Rose, grand-daughter of Henry Townsend, and wi- 
dow of Nathaniel Coles, jun. ; issue Thomas, John, Penn, Philena 
and Rose. His will is dated Aug. 23, 1709,^ and his death took 
place while a member of the provincial assembly in the February 
following. His son, Pcnn Townsend, was a highly respectable 
man, and for many years a judge of Queens county. 

Henry Townsend, eldest son and heir of the above named 
Henry, who died in 1695, married Deborah, daughter of the said 
John Underbill, by his second wife, Elizabeth, sister of Hannah, 
the wife of John Bowne, and daughter of Robert Field of Flush- 
ing. His issue were Henry, third, Robert, and several daughters. 
The first named married his first cousin, Eliphal, daughter of John 
Wright, (son of Nicholas,) and Mary, eldest daughter of Henry 
Townsend, first. His will bears date March 13, 1709, and his 
death occurred Sept. 4, of the same year. He left two orphan 
children, Henry, fourth, and Absalom. His widow, Eliphal, next 
married John Morris, Esq. of New Jersey, nephew of Col, Lewis 
Morris, governor of that province. 

James, eldest son of John, eldest son of the first John Town- 
send, married Audrey, daughter of Col. Job Almy, of Rhode Is- 
land, and settled at Lusum, now Jericho, L. I. He possessed a 
good education, was early made a magistrate, and afterwards de- 
puty surveyor-general of the province. His children, by Miss 
Almy, were Jacob, Mary, Deborah, and some otiiers. 


He first married. Phoebe, daughter of Benjamin Seaman, third 
son of Capt. John Seaman, of Jerusalem, L. I., and grand-daugh- 
ter, through her mother, Martha Titus, of William Washbourne. 
Their issue were Samuel, Jacob, Benjamin, James and Alray. 
Henry, the fourth eldest son of Henry, third, married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Peter Titus, son of Edmund, first settler of 
Westbury, L. I., and his wife, Martha, daughter of Col. Jno. 

Samuel Townsend, above named, fifth eldest son in a direct 
line from the first John Townsend, was born in 1717, and married 
Sarah, daughter of William and Mary Stoddard, of Rhode Island, 
and afterwards of Oyster Bay. He was a man of much intelligence, 
firmness and integrity ; was more than thirty years a magistrate, 
and a member of the provincial congress in 1774, 5, 6 & 7, which 
. framed the constitution of this stale, as was his brother. Dr. James 
Townsend, also. His children were Solomon, Samuel, Robert, 
Audrey, Phoebe (who married Dr Ebenezer Seely, and died with- 
out issue, Oct. 12, 1840,) and Sarah (who died unmarried, Dec. 
19, 1842.) 

In 1740, Samuel Townsend removed to the village of Oyster 
Bay, and purchased and improved the family mansion, which is 
now standing, and still owned by his descendants. His brother 
. Jacob married Mercy Butler, removed to New York, and they 
two, became partners in mercantile and. commercial business, 
conducted at both places. 

The depth of the water, and excellence of the harbor, were 
doubtless the principal inducements with the Sandwich adventur- 
ers to plant themselves on its border, and a ketch was built here 
as early as 1671. Several brigs and smaller vessels, built here 
by the said Samuel Townsend, were engaged in the European 
and West India trade, and the place soon rose into commercial 

The business was gradually extended and vigorously prosecuted 
till 1775, when the Revolutionary troubles caused its entire sus- 
pension, to the no small sacrifice of those engaged in it. 

With the exception of his son Solomon, then in Europe, and 
his sons Samuel and Robert, merchants of New York, all Mr. 
Townsend's children were in their minority, and he was only en- 


abled to continue his mercantile business at Oyster Bay to a liai- 
ited extent, from the avails of which he succeeded in maintainiiig 
his family. One of his vessels, built at Oyster Bay, a brig, and 
called the Audrey^ after his eldest daughter, v^as commanded by 
£j£ngham Lawrence, who became subsequently an eminent Lon- 
don merchant. 

The Sarah, another brig, was built for, and commanded by ins 
eldest son, Solomon. Joseph Lawrence, brother of said Effing- 
ham, and who married Phoebe, daughter of the fourth Henry 
Townsend, also commanded, at different times, several of Mr. 
Townsend's vessels. 

Mr. Townsend was a zealous patriot, and did not hesitate in 
the part he was to act in the great struggle, now commenced be- 
tween the mother country and his own. 

He had of course much to lose, and great would be the sacri- 
fice he must make ; but it was considered of little consequence, 
when weighed against the independence of his country. Being 
somewhat advanced in age, and unwilling to leave his family and 
property entirely to the tender mercies of the enemy, who now 
had possession of Long Island, he determined to remain at his 
own home, whatever insults and abuses might be heaped upon 
him by the common foe. 

A battalion, called " De Lancey's new raised corps," was post- 
ed in the village, and the best rooms in his house were taken pos- 
session of by the British officers, who thus preserved a strict sur- 
veillance over him and the members of his household. It was, of 
course, known to them, that he had been a delegate to the provin- 
cial congress in 1776, and that his being at that time within the 
British lines, only prevented his continued attendance in that body. 

The troops, on one occasion, opened a battery of cannon upon 
Fort Hill, in the immediate vicinity, and fired into his dwelling; 
but for the most part, he was enabled to maintain a tolerable good 
understanding with those quartered upon and around him. But 
with a certain Major Grant, it was otherwise, who, being a fellow 
of low birth, and vain of his authority, improved every opportunity 
of annoying the family, and would have been guilty of other out- 
rages, had it not been for the friendly interference of Thomas 
Buchanan, a royalist merchant of the city, then resident of Oys- 


ter Bay, ivho had married Almy, daughter of Jacob, a brother of 
ike said Samuel Townsend,* and was owner of the ship Glasgow, 
then in London, of which Solomon Townsend was the master. 
Grant afterwards lost his life in an engagement at the south. 

The injuries which Mr. Townsend received, in regard to his 
property, both real and personal, independent of the total prostra- 
tion of his commercial business, was not less than ten thousand 
dollars. New York being evacuated in 1783, Mr. Townsend 
again met the provincial congress, and from this period to his death 
in 1790, he was constantly employed in public business. 

He was state senator, and a member of the first council of ap- 
pointment, under the constitution in 1789. The unexceptionable 
purity of his life, his well known integrity, and his devotion to the 
interests of his country, endeared him to his fellow citizens, and 
caused his death to be greatly lamented. 

James Townsend, brother of Samuel, was placed, when a youth, 
with Dr. John Bard, of New York, and became a physician of 
eminence. He commenced practice at the Bay of Honduras, 
whither he was attracted by the commercial relations of his bro- 
ther, with that part of the Spanish territory, and where he ac- 
quired a knowledge of those remarkable forms of disease, preva- 
lent in tropical climates. Yet the charms of that perfumed region 
of perpetual verdure, could not expel the love of home. On his 
return, he married Mary, daughter of Samuel and Martha Hicks 
of Queens county, and settled in his native town, where he long 
maintained a high character, for his estimable qualities as a man^ 
and his skill as a physician. 

His daughters Phebe and Margaret married John and William, 
sons of James Townsend, a descendant in the fifth generation of 
Richard, and his daughter Martha married Edmund Willis. 

* Jacob Townseod, oldest son of James Townsend and Audrey Almy, died 
at Jericho, Queens county, Dec. 30, 1762, in the 50th year of his age. His 
wife died April 14, 1774, in the 78ih year of her age. Their son Jacob died 
Dec. 31, 1774, aged 53. The issue of his daughter Almy, wife of Thomas 
Buchanan, were daughters, two of whom married the brothers Peter P. and 
Robert G. Goelot of New Yurie ; Frances, another daughter, married Thomas 
Pearsall, Martha married Thomas, son of Whitehead Hicks, former mayor of 
New York. 


Dr. Townsend held several important public trusts, and among 
others, that of a member of the provincial congress in 1784, '5 
and 6 ; and after the adoption of the state constitution, he was a 
a member of the assembly. In 1789 he was elected a member of 
Congress, but was almost immediately cut oflf by death. 

His friend, the late Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill, paid a just tribute 
to his memory in an obituary notice, well worthy the subject of it, 
and the source from which it emanated. 

Robert Townsend, son of Samuel, and brother of the doctor, 
died unmarried, in the 85th of his age, March 14, 1837. 

Solomon Townsend, the eldest son of Samuel, was bom at 
Oyster Bay in 1746, and early engaged in navigation, for which, 
almost from infancy, he evinced a strong predilection, and in his 
twentieth year was put in trust of a brig belonging to his father. 
When the war of the revolution broke out, he was in command of 
the ship Glasgow, belonging to the said Thomas Buchanan ; but 
owing to the (then) recent interruption of trade between the two 
counties, she was left, by direction of the owner, in London. 

Obtaining permission to leave England, Capt. Townsend went 
over to France, and while at Paris, made the acquaintance of his 
celebrated countryman, Dr. Franklin, to whom he found means of 
making himself agreeable, and by whom he was introduced at 
court, and received other tokens of his friendship and regard. 

Having consumed suflicient time to see and examine the most 
remarkable curiosities in the French capital, he made arrange- 
ments to return to his own country, and the American commis- 
sioner favored him with the following certificate of protection : — 

" Passey, near Paris, June 27, 1778." 
** I certify to whom it may concern, that Captain Solomon Townsend, of New 
York, mariner, hath this day appeared voluntarily before me, and taken the oath 
of allegiance to the United States of America, according to the resolution of 
congress, thereby acknowledging himself a subject of the United States.** 

** B. Franklw." 

Captain Townsend, was also commissioned by Dr. Franklin, as 
a volunteer midshipman, in the continental navy, and for this pur- 
pose he procured his necessary equipments in Paris. He sailed 
soon after, in the Frigate Providence, for Boston, with Commo- 
dore Abraham Whipple. While on the passage a suspicious 


looking craft hove in sight and preparations were of course forth- 
with made for an engagement ; Captain Townsend being ordered 
to take charge of a division of guns. No engagement, however, 
took place, and the vessel reached Boston in November, 1778. 

Being unable from the condition of the country, personally to 
visit his family at Oyster Bay, he traversed the interior of New 
England, and crossing the river Hudson at Newburgh, reached 
the house of his cousin, Peter Townsend, son of the 4th Henry 
Townsend, at Chester, Orange county, proprietor of rfie celebrated 
Iron Works and estate of Stirling a few miles off. 

The wife of said Peter Townsend, was Hannah, eldest daugh- 
ter of William Hawxhurst, son of Sampson and Hannah Hawx- 
hurst, natives of Oyster Bay, the latter being ihe daughter of John, 
son of the first Henry Townsend.* 

Steel was first made by Mr. Townsend, at the Stirling Works, 
and in the German manner, in 1776. He also made the first 
anchor ever manufactured in this state in 1773 ; and here was con- 
structed in March and April, 1788, the immense chain, extended 
across the Hudson to prevent the British ships passing West 
Point. The links of this stupendous chain weighed about 140 lbs. 
each, and the whole one hundred and sixty-tons — made and de- 
livered in the short space of six weeks. 

After an abscence of seven years. Captain Townsend was en- 
abled by pre-concert to meet some of his family upon Shelter Is- 
land, but soon separated under the fearful apprehensions, tliey 
might never meet again. 

* Sampson Hawxhurst, father of William, was the son of Christopher, one 
of the early settlers and proprietors of Cedar Swamp, in the town of Oyster 
Bay, whose wife was Jane, daughter of Henry Ruddock, (or Penn-ruddock,) 
also an early settler at the same place. The said William, had by bis wife, 
Hannah Townsend, grand daughter of the first Henry, three daughters, Han-* 
oah, who married her said cousin Peter Townsend, Sairah and Ann, who mar- 
ried successively William Denning, merchant of New York, who was both state 
senator and member of congress at different periods. 

The said William Hawxhurst, was a man of much reach of mind and of great 
forecast and sagacity. It is also well known, that he frequently predicted aa 
event, which has since happened, the uniting of the great lakes with the Hud- 
son Rives, by a canal. 



Returning to Chester, he was in little time thereafier, united ii 
marriage with his cousin Anne, eldest daughter of, the said Peter 
Townsend, whom, in 1783, he brought with him to Oyster Bay, 
where the different members of his family were again assembled 
under the paternal roof. 

Like his father. Captain Townsend possessed strong intellectod 
powers, was ardent in all his pursuits, and of indomitable perse- 
verance. He soon after purchased the mountain estate, adjoining 
that of his father-in-law, which he named Augusta^ where he es- 
tablished very extensive iron works, anchory, forges, &c. furnish- 
ing thereby ample employment to numerous laborers and artizens, 
for many years. 

He continued, nevertheless, to reside in the city of New York, 
where he owned and superintended an extensive iron store. He 
also established a manufactory of bar iron on Peconic River in 
Suffolk county, a short distance above the village of Riverhead, 
which was carried on during his life. To give some idea of the ex- 
tent of his business at one period, it need only be stated, that the 
losses sustained by him, occasioned by mercantile failures alone, dur- 
ing the general embargo of 1808, exceeded $70,000, yet he relaxed 
not his exertions, but continued his manufacturing operations in 
their full extent, till arrested by death, March 27, 1811. 

He was chosen frequently to represent the city of New York, 
in the state legislature, and was a member of that body at the time 
of his decease. "^ 

His children were Hannah, who married her cousin Isaiah Town- 
send, Esq. now deceased, a wealthy, and highly respectable mer- 
chant of Albany. Anne, who married the Hon. Ethngham Law- 
rence, late first judge of Queens county, and an extensive practical 
farmer. Mary, who married Edward H. Nicoll, Esq. a merchant 
of high standing in New York. Phoebe, married to James Thome, 
Esq. formerly a merchant of Albany. Solomon, merchant of New 
York, who has several times represented the city in the legislature 
of the state, and Peter S. Townsend, M. D. a gentleman of much 
ability in his profession, and an author of distinguished reputa- 

Dr. Townsend has been frequently honored with important pub* 
lie trusts, and has published several valuable works. In 18112, 


he graduated at Columbia College, studied medicine with Dr. 
David Hosack, and graduated at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons of New York in 1816. In 1817, he, with his friend, 
Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill, Dr. Torrey and others, founded the 
Lyceum of Natural History, and he afterwards delivered- the 
anniversary discourse before the same society. In 1820, he 
was appointed by his excellency De Witt Clinton, health com- 
missioner of the city of New York ; he was thus ex officio one 
of the commissioners of the board of health, and was the au- 
thor of the celebrated report, published by the board, on the ex- 
citing subject of the Banker street fever, (so called,) which had 
been, by many eminent physicians, supposed to be yellow fever. 

The next year he visited the hospitals and medical schools of 
Europe, and in 1823 published his principal work, a history of the 
yellow fever, which prevailed at New York in 1822. Returning 
from his second residence in Europe, he was, in 182d, chosen a 
delegate to the first convention ever held to amend the charter of 
the city of New York, and successfully advocated the principle of 
making the powers and rights of the two boards equal in all re- 
spects, the magisterial duties of the aldermen only excepted. In 
1830, he was elected assistant alderman of the sixth ward, and as 
chairman of the common council on the subject, he drew up the 
published report, exhibiting the profligate waste of the public mo- 
ney at the quarantine ground, during the whole time of its exist- 
ence, and recommended to the legislature to< establish a distinct 
and separate hospital for sailors, which resulted in the founding of 
the Seamen's Retreat, of which Dr. Townsend was the first 
physician from 1831 to 1833. 

An account of the Life and Character of Captain John Underhill. 

On a farm lately owned by one of his descendants, called by 
him Killingworth, and by the Indians Matinecock, in the town of 
Oyster Bay, L. I., is the grave of this wonderful man, of whom so 
frequent mention is made in the early histories of New England 

Vol. II. 45 


and New York. " He was," says the Rev. Mr. Bacon, " one of 
the most dramatic persons in our early history." Having served 
as an officer in the British forces, in the low countries, in Ireland, 
and at Cadiz, he came from England to Massachusetts soon after 
the conmiencement of the colony, and was very generally employ- 
ed in such expeditions as required the most extraordinary courage, 
energy, and perseverance. 

He had an important command in the war against the Pequots 
in 1636, and on the 2d of Feb. 1637, he was sent to Saybrook 
with twenty men, to keep the fort there against the Dutch and In- 
dians, both of whom had manifested a design upon that place. He 
was a man of the most determined resolution, activity, and cou- 
rage ; and such was the rapidity of his movements and the subtil- 
ty of attack, that his enemies were almost always taken by sur- 
prise, and consequently defeated. 

He was one of the first deputies from Boston to the general 
court, and one of the earliest officers of the Ancient and Honora- 
ble Artillery Company. Most of the accounts of that interesting 
period, are full of the particulars of his chequered life, and few 
persons were more distinguished, or rendered more valuable 
service to the colonies, than this individual, especially in their 
wars and controversies with the savages. 

He was the personal ahd political friend of Sir Henry Vane, 
who, in 1637, at the age of twenty-six years, was appointed gover- 
nor of Massachusetts. Underbill was also an enthusiast in reli- 
gion, so far at least as appearances were concerned, yet was a 
debauchee in practice. Strange as it may seem, the church did not 
censure him so much for his irregularities, as for saying that he 
dated his conversion from the time he was smoking tobacco. He 
was eccentric in many respects, and in everything he did was apt 
to run into extremes. 

That he was in America as, early as 1632, is evident from the 
accounts of the treasurer of the Massachusetts colony, showing he 
received a pension of thirty pounds a year, for services rendered 
to the colony, in its contests with the Indians. Hutchinson says, 
he was one of the most forward of the Boston enthusiasts, and 
Hubbard declares, that in 1636 he was in high favor with the go- 
vernor, or, as he calls him, right tiorthy Master Vane. 


He went to England in 1638, where he was interrogated, 
and finally banished on account of his adherence to Mr. Wheel- 
wright, and the seduction of a female. While in England, he 
pubhshed a book, entitled " News from Am^ica^ or a New and 
Experimental Discoverie of New England ; containing a true re-- 
lation of warlike proceedings these two years past, with a figure 
of the Indian fort or palisado ; by John Underhill, a commander 
in the warrs there, ^^ 

In this singular production, he mentioned such places in New 
England, that had as yet few, or no inhabitants, but which, he says, 
" yielded a special accommodation to such as would plant there, 
namely, Queenapoick, Agu-wom, Hudson* s- River, Long-Island, 
Nahanticut, Martin's Vineyard, Pequet, Naransett Bay, Elisa- 
beth Islands, Puscataway, and Casko, with about one hundred 
Islands near thereto.** 

This curious book is now quite scarce, but is in all respects, 
singularly characteristic of its author. He gives therein, in his 
peculiar and quaint manner, an account of the frequent, and 
sometimes sanguinary conflicts, between the whites and In- 
dians. The war against the Block Islanders, was occasioned, 
he says, by their murder of Captain John Oldham, whom 
" they knocked upon the head, and martyred most barbarously, 
to the great grief of his poor distressed servants, which, by the 
providence of God, were saved. The blood of the innocent 
called (says he,) for vengeance ; God stirred up the heart of 
the honored governor. Master Henry Vane, and the rest of the 
worthy magistrates, to send a 100 well appointed soldiers, under 
the conduct of Captain John Hendicot, and in company with 
him, Captain John Underbill, Captain Nathan Turner, Captain 
William Jenningson, besides other inferior officers." 

In the engagement which followed. Underbill received an ar- 
row through his coat, and another against the helmet, upon his 
forehead, which said helmet he was advised by his wife to take, 
^* therefore, (says he,) let no man despise the advise and coun- 
cil of his wife, though she be a woman** " It were strange to 
nature^ (he continues,) to think a man should be bound to ful- 
fil the humour of a woman, what arms he should carry, but 
you know, (says he,) God will have it so, that a woman should 


overcome a man. Wliat with Delilah's flattery, and with her 
mournful tears, they must, and will have their desire/' 

The writer gives a flattering description of the country, and 
observes that *' Loiig Island is a place worth the naming, as af- 
fording many accommodations." 

The work, however, abounds with religious cant, which affords 
some indication of his assumed piety and deep hypocrisy. Win- 
throp, in his journal of Sept. 7, 1638, says, "that the next Lord's 
day, Captain John Underhill, having been privately dealt with, 
upon suspicion of incontinency with a neighbor's wife, and not 
hearkning to it, Was publicly questioned, and put under admoni- 

The matter was, says Winthrop, according to his explanation, 
** for that the woman being very young and beautiful, and withal 
of a jovial spirit and behavior, he did daily frequent her house, 
and was divers times found there alone with her, the door being 
locked on the inside, and confessed it was ill, because it had the 
appearance of evil in it ; but that the woman was in great trouble 
of mind and sore temptation, and that he resorted to her to com* 
fort her ; and that when the door was found locked upon them, 
they were in private prayer together." But his conduct, says the. 
historian, " was clearly condemned by the elders, who said he 
ought in such case, to have called in some brother or sister, and 
not to have locked the door." 

' Underhill afterwards resided at Dover, where he was made 
governor, but his conduct could not long be tolerated, on account 
of his great irregularity. He behaved very ungratefully toward 
the wife, who, he acknowledges, had by her precaution saved his 
life, in the afiair with the Indians ; " he afterwards confessed 
his adultery, with the young woman who had desired his prayers^ 
and in 1639, before a great assembly at Boston, upon a lecture 
day, and in the court house, sat upon the stool of repentance, 
with a white cap on his head, and with a great many deep sighs, 
a rueful countenance, and abundance of tears, owned his wicked 
way of life, his adultery and hypocrisy, with many expressions of 
sincere remorse, and besought the church to have compassion on 
him, and deliver him out of the hands of Satan." 

But the church considered him insincere, and cast him out of 


their communioil. In 1639, he soHcited to be received with a few 
families upon Long Island, and to enjoy the privileges of an inha- 
bitant of the Dutch government ; his request was granted by the 
governor upon condition, that he and his adherents should subscribe 
the oath of allegiance to the States-General and the Prince of 
Orange. It is probable that he dechned the terms offered. 

At a lecture day in Boston the same year, it being then court 
time, Underbill again made a public confession, both of his living 
in adultery with Fabers' wife, (upon suspicion whereof the church 
had before admonished him,) and attempting the like with another 
woman ; also for the injury he had done the church, and acknow- 
ledged the justice of the proceedings against him ; yet the church 
considered his acts so foul and scandalous, that they cast him 

In 1 640, he appeared during the court of assistants, and upon 
a lecture day, after sermon, the pastor called him forth, and de- 
claring the occasion of it, gave him leave to speak. " It was a 
spectacle," says Winthrop, " which caused many weeping eyes. 
He came," says he, " in his worst clothes, without a band, in a 
foul linen cap, pulled close to his eyes, and standing upon a form, 
he did, with many deep sighs and abundance of tears, lay open 
his wicked course, his adultery, his hypocrisy, his persecution of 
God's people here, and especially his pride and contempt of the 
magistrates. That he had been put divers times upon resolutions 
of destroying himself, had not the Lord in mercy prevented him, 
even when his sword was ready to have done the execution. In- 
deed he appeared," says the historian, " like a man worn out with 
sorrow, yet could find no peace, and therefore was now come to 
seek it in this ordinance of God. He spoke well," says he, " save 
that his blubbering, &c. interrupted him, and all along discovered 
a broken and melting heart, and gave good exhortations to others 
to take heed of such vanities and beginnings of evil as had occa- 
sioned his downfall ; and in the end, earnestly and humbly be- 
sought the church to have compassion on him, and to deliver him 
out of the hands of Satan. So accordingly he was received into 
the church again ; and after he came into the court, and made 
confession of his sin against them, he desired pardon, which the 
court freely granted him, so far as concerned their private judg- 


ment. But as to his adultery, they would not pardon that, for 
example sake, nor would they restore him to freedom, though they 
released his banishment. 

He confessed also, in the congregation, that though he was very 
familiar with that woman, and had gained her affections, yet she 
withstood him six months against all his solicitations, (which he 
thought no woman could have resisted,) before he could overcome 
her chastity ; but being once overcome, she was wholly at his 
will. To make his peace the more sound, he went to her hus- 
band, (being a cooper,) and fell upon his knees before him in the 
presence of the elders and others, confessed the wrong he had 
done him, and besought him to forgive him, which he did very 
freely, and in testimony thereof he sent the captain's wife a 

Underbill had been engaged with Captain Mason in an attack 
upon the Indian fort at Mystic, in which the fierce spirit of that 
warlike tribe was finally broken, by the loss of so many men, as 
were then destroyed ; even Saccacus was discouraged, and very 
soon those Indians, as a tribe, were extinguished. In 1641, hav- 
ing been chosen governor of Exeter and Dover, he was soon in 
difficulty with the church, of which he was a member. 

He was, after his arrival here, employed by the Dutch, and 
took command in the war with the Indians north of the Sound, 
and west of the Connecticut settlements. This contest lasted till 
1646. In Trumble's history, it is stated that Underbill destroyed 
three hundred Indians north of the Sound, and one hundred and 
twenty upon Long Island, who had crossed the Sound to ravage 
and destroy the Dutch plantations there. At the period of this 
military employment, he lived at Stamford, Ct., was a delegate 
from that town to the general court at New Haven, in 1 64:J, and 
was appointed an assistant justice. 

tn 1644 he came, with the Rev. Mr. Denton and others of his 
church, to Long Island, and soon after became a resident of Flush- 
ing, where he evinced the same restless temper as formerly, and 
was anxious for a military employment. 

On the refusal of the commissioners of the United Colonies to 
engage in the controversy between England and Holland, he ap- 
plied to Rhode Island, which, on the 17th of May, 1653, resolved 


to appoint a committee from each town, " for the ripening of mat- 
ters that concerned the Dutch," whom they styled enemies of that 
commonwealth, and agreed to furnish " two great guns, twenty 
men, and other aid." They also gave a commission to Underhill 
and William Dyre, " to go against the Dutch, or any enemies of 
the commonwealth of England." 

Under this authority, it is supposed he made an attack upon 
the Indians at Fort Neck, when he captured the fort and destroyed 
many of the natives. He was afterwards settled inOyster Bay, 
for in 1665 he was a delegate from that town to the meeting at 
Hempstead, by order of Governor Nicoll, and was by him made 
sheriff of the north riding on Long Island. The Dutch had been 
detected by him at a former period of corresponding with the In- 
dians for the destruction of the English, and in consequence of 
his disclosures in that respect, a guard of soldiers was sent from 
Manhattan to take him, but on his engaging to be faithful to the 
Dutch thereafter, he was set at Uberty, and allowed to depart even 
without reproof. . 

In 1667, the Matinecock Indians conveyed to him a large tract 
of their lands, a part of which, called Killingworth, remained in 
his family for near two hundred years. His death occurred in 
1672, and his will, made the year before, is sufficiently curious to 
deserve a place at the end of this article. 

His son took possession of the paternal estate, and died Dec. 
25, 1692; his will, bearing date the 15th of October preceding, 
mentions his wife Mary> who died in 1698, his sons John, Daniel, 
Jacob, Abraham and Samuel, and daughters Mary, Deborah, Sa- 
rah and Hannah. The last named John Underhill died May 28, 
1728, and his wife in Sept., 1713. 

In a small printed volume, called the " Algerine Captive," by 
Dr. Updike Underhill, claiming to be a descendant of the captain, 
it is asserted that his ancestor arrived with Governor Winthrop, 
and was immediately promoted to offices civil and military in Mas- 
sachusetts, but that in a few years his popularity had so far de- 
cayed, that he was disfranchised, and banished out ot that juris- 
diction. But the writer denies the charge of adultery, brought 
against his illustrious ancestor, and the fact of his ever having 
made the confession, related by Winthrop. • 


He also gives the following copy of a letter, sent by Underiiiit 
to his friend, Hansard Knowles. 

" Worthee and Beloved — Remembering my kind love to Mr. 
Hilton, I now send you a note of my tryalls at Boston. O ! thil 
I may come out of this and the lyke tryalls, as goold sevene tymes 
puryfied in the furnice. After the Rulers at Boston had fayled to 
fastenne, what Roger Harlakenden, was pleased to call the damn- 
ing errors of Anne Hutchinson upon me, I looked to be sent away 
in peace ; but Governor W'inlhrop sayd, I must abyde the exam- 
ining of the church ; accordingly on the thyrd daye of ye weeke 
I was convened before them. 

" Sir Henry Vane the Govenour, Dudley Haynes, with masters 
Cotton, Shepherd and Hugh Peters, present with others. They 
propounded that I was to be examined touching a certaine act of 
adultery, I had committed with one Mistris Miriam Wilbore, for 
carnally looking to lust after her, at the lecture in Boston, when 
Master Shepherd expounded. This Mistress Wilbore hath since 
been dealt with for coming to that lecture with a pair of wanton 
open worked gloves, slit at the thumbs and fingers, for the pur- 
pose of taking snuff. For as Master Cotton observed, for what 
end should those vain openings be, but for th^ intent of taking 
filthy snufi*? and he quoted Gregory Naziazen upon good works. 
Master Peters said that marriage was the occasion that the Devil 
took to cast his fiery darts, and lay his pitfalls of temptation, to 
catch frale flesh and bloode. She is to be furtlier dealt with for 
taken snuflf. How the use of the good cr.eature tobacco, can be 
an offence, I cannot see. Oh ! my beloved, how those proude 
pharisees labor about the minte and cumine. Govenor Winlhrop 
inquired of mee, if I confessed the matter ; I sayd I wished a 
copy of there charge. Sir Harry Vane said, * there was no neede 
of any coppie, %eeing I was guilty ; charges being made out 
where there was an uncertaintie, whether the accused was guiltie 
or not, and to lighten the accused into the nature of his crymc, 
here was no need.' Master Gotten said, * did yoa not look upon 
Mistress Wilbore ?' I confessed that I did. He then sayd, * then 
you are verelie guiltie brother Underbill ;' I sayd nay, I did not 
look at the woman lustfully. Master Peters sayd, ' why did you 
not look'at sister Newell, or sister Upham ?* I sayd verelie they 



are not desyrable women, as to temporal graces. Then Hugh 
Peters and all cryed, * it is enough, he hath confessed.' and so 
passed excommunication. I sayd where is the law by which you 
condemne mee? Winthrop sayd, 'there is a committee to 
draught laws ; I am sure brother Peters has made a law against 
this very sin. Master Cotton read from his bible ** whoso looketh 
on a woman to lust after her, hath already committed adulterie 
with her in his heart.' 

" Boston 28th, 4th mo. 1638, your fellow traveller in the vale of 
tears, " John Underhill." 

Copy of the Will. 

Killing worth y* Tth mo. called, y® 12th day on 'Long Island in y® north 
riding, under the sapream power of Charles y® Second, and under y^practince 
call (1) protection of James Duke of Yorke and Albina, and in y® year of 
y« King^s reigne, this my Last will and Testament, by my perfect understand- 
ing, do bequeath my soul unto ye Etarnal marcy, love, and Joye of my hea- 
venly Father, in ye death and marcys of my Saivour, my Redeemer, Christ 
Jesus, which show me by a saving faith I Etarnaly close withall, and do de- 
clare y« witness of the spirit, sealing to the premisses, to my everlasting joye 
and consolation, In the Holy Ghost my sole and comforter, and in y« faith 
aforesaid — I resign my body to y^ grave, and where it shall be decently En- 
tered — I bequeath my whole estate in possession of my wife Elizabeth Under- 
bill, during y® time of her widowhood ; but if she marry, then my brother 
John Bowne, Henry Townsend, Matthew Pryer, and my son John Underbill, 
I empower hereby that they see to y^ estate, that y^ children be not wronged, 
nor turned of, without some proportionable allowance, as y® estate will afibrd ; 
and that my son Nathaniel, remaining with his mother, untell twenty one 
years. I will that an inheritance of land and some meadow, as my said over- 
seers shall judge equal and right, be confirmed upon them, and his Linual heirs, 
and that no part of my lands be alienated from my present offspring. Signed, 
sealed as aforesaid ; In presence of Henry Rudick, Nathan Birdsall, y* 18th 
September 1671, day and date above written. 

Christopher Hawzhurst, P^ me John Underbill, 

William Simsoq, 

James Cock. 

Vol. XL- 46 


Of the Descendants ofJohnj William and Thomas Lawrence. 

These brothers were among the earliest settlers of the English 
towns, within the Dutch jurisdiction upon Long Island. They 
emigrated from England during the political troubles, that led to 
the dethronement and death of Charles I. 

They are said to have been related to Henry Lawrence, who 
' / with Lordl Say and Seal, Lord Brooke, Sir Arthur Hasselrig, 
/ Sir Richard Saltonstall, George Fenwick and Henry Darley, ob- 
/ tained a grant of the lands on Connecticut river, and in 1635, com- 
missioned John Winthrop, jun. to be governor over the same, in- 
tending to follow him to this country. One of his instructions 
was, " to provide able men for making fortifications and building 
houses at the river Connecticut, and the harbor adjoining, first for 
their own present accommodation, and then such houses, as may 
receive men of quality, which latter houses we would have to be 
builded within the fort." 

The prohibition to Cromwell and others, from emigrating to 
America in 1638, defeated their intentions, and Henry Lawrence, 
in order to avoid the ecclesiastical severity directed against him, 
retired to Holland, from whence he returned in M>41. He was a 
member of parliament from Westminster, Hertfordshire, and Col- 
chester borough in Essex, successively ; and after the establish- 
ment of the protectorate, was appointed president of the privy 
council, and a lord of the " other house." In corroboration of 
the relationship between him, and the above named brothers, we 
find on the seals appended to tlieir wills, now on file at New York, 
and on old plate, still possessed by their descendants, the same 
crest and arms^ as those upon the tomb of the lord president. In 
connection with this subject, we venture to introduce the follow- 
ing extract, from a curious pamphlet of 1660, entitled, "The 
mystery of the good old cause, briefly unfolded in a catalogue of 
the members of the late long parliament, that held office, both civil 
and military, contrary to the self-denying ordinance :" • 

** Henry Lawrence, a member of the long parliament, fell off at 
the murder of his majesty, for which the Protector, with great zeal 
declared, that * a neutral spirit was more to be abhorred than a 
cavalier spirit, that such men as he, were not fit to be used in silch 


a day as that, when God was cutting down kingship, root and 
branch.' Yet he came into play again, and contributed much to 
the setting up of the Protector, for which worthy service he was 
made and continued lord president of the Protector's council ; being 
also, one of the lords of the other house, and afterwards one of 
the honorable committee of safety." 

We have also met with the sermon preached on the death of the 
Protector, by George Lawrence, M. A. minister of St. Cross, near 
Winchester, and printed in 1658. It is a neat volume of 36 pages, 
quarto size, and is entitled " A good Prince bewailed by a good 
people ;" and in which, are inserted the heads of the Protector, and 
his son Richard. 

The three brothers first landed in Massachusetts, from whence 
they came to this province, then New Netherlands. 

John Lawrence, the eldest, was one of the six persons to whom 
the patent of Hempstead was granted by Governor Kieft in 1644. 
In the following year, he and his brother William, with sixteen 
others, obtained the patent of Flushing from the same governor, 
and were also among those to whom the confirmatory patent was 
issued by NicoU in 1666. Soon after the two Dutch patents 
were granted, John Lawrence removed from Flushing, where he 
had established his residence, to New Amsterdam, where he held - 
important public stations, both under the Dutch and English. In 
1663, he was deputed by Stuyvesant to the general court at Hart- 
ford, a commissioner on the part of New Netherlands, to adjust 
the boundaries between the Dutch and English, and other disput- 
ed matters. He was appointed alderman of New York on the 
first organization of the city, after its capture in 1664 ; was re- 
peatedly mayor and a member of the council much of the time 
between 1675 and 1698. At the time of his death in 1699, he 
was one of the judges of the supreme court, to which he had been 
appointed in 1692. His will, on file in New York, written in his 
own hand, states than he was then more than eighty years old. 

By his wife Susanna, who survived him, he had three sons and 
three daughters. 1. Joseph, who died before him, leaving a 
daughter, who died young ; 2. John, who married Sarah, widow 
of Thomas Willett, first mayor of New York, by whom he had 
no issue ; 3. Thomas, who died unmarried ; 4. Susanna, married 


tb 'Gabriele Mienville, one of the council of the province, and 
mayor of New York, and, after his death, to William Smith, one 
of the aldermen of the city. She survived both husbands, and had 
no issue. 5. Martha, who married Thomas Snawsell, alderman of 
New York, and died without issue ; and 6. Mary, who married 
William Whiltingham, a graduate of Harvard, in 1660, and great 
grandson of the Rev. William Whittingham, dean of Durham, a 
famous puritan. Mary, a daughter by this marriage, distinguished 
for her literary acquirements, and the gifts she bestowed upon 
Harvard and Yale Colleges, became the wife of Gordon Salton- 
stall, governor of Connecticut, and died in 1730. 

William Lawrence, first above named, came to New Nether- 
lands, about the same time with his brother John, and in 1645 
was associated with him as patentee of Flushing, where he resid- 
ed during life. His letters addressed to Stuyvesanl and his coun- 
cil, in 1662 and 1663, are ably written, evincing his energy and 
decision of character, and are evidently the production of a man of 
superior mind and liberal education. He resided upon Law- 
rence's or Tew's Neck, (so called,) of which he was the owner. 

He served in the magistracy of Flushing, under the Dutch ; 
while under the English, he held both civil and military offices 
upon Long Island. He died in 1680, and the inventory of his 
estate, on file in New York, shows that his sword, plate, and other 
personals alone, amounted to £4,432 sterling. 

He was twice married. By his first wife he left issue, William, 
John and Elizabeth. In 1664, he married for his second wife, 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Richard Smith, Esq. the patentee of 
Smithtown, and ancestor of the Bull Smiths, so called. By this mar- 
riage he had seven children, Mary, Thomas, who in 1692, married 
Mary Ferguson of Queens county, Joseph, Richard, who married 
in 1699, Charity, daughter of Thomas Clarke of Brookhaven, after- 
wards of New York city, and of Bucks county, Penn. by whom 
he had issue. Charity and Richard, in 1706 ; Samuel; Sarah, who 
married James Tillelt, and James. In April, 1681, Elizabeth, 
widow of the said William^ married Captain, afterwards Sir Philip 
Carteret, governor of New Jersey, to which province she removed 
and brought up her children by her first husband. 

Being a woman of more than ordinary endowments, and strength 


of intellect, she was entrusted with the afiairs of that colony in the 
absence of her husband in Europe. And in the titles to some of 
the acts of that period, it is stated that they were '* passed under 
the administration of Lady Elizabeth Carteret" 

Previous to her marriage with Carteret, she reserved to herself 
by an instrument in writing, the right of disposing of the lands 
conveyed to her by her first husband, among such of her children 
by him, as she should select. 

The one selected, was her second son, Joseph, to whom she 
conveyed an extensive tract, situated upon Little Neck Bay, in the 
town of Flushing. He became afterwards intimate with Lord 
Effingham, then commander of a British frigate, which anchored 
in the* Sound, near his mansion, 'where he frequently visited, 
and whose grandson, as a compliment to so polished a stranger, 
was named Effingham Lawrence. This person afterwards re- 
moved to and settled in London, where he married, and left issue, 
William Effingham, Effingham, Edward Billop and Catherine 
Mary, who, in 1816, married Sir John T.Jones, Bart, of Cranmer 
Hall, Norfolkshire, England, aid to the Duke of Wellington, by 
whom she had issue, Lawrence Willoughby, Herbert Walsingham 
and Emily Florence Jones. 

Major William Lawrence, eldest son of the first named Wil- 
liam, by his first wife, married in 1680, Deborah, youngest daugh- 
ter of the above named Richard Smith, by whom he had issue 
nine sons and three daughters, to wit : 1. William, who died be- 
fore his father and without issue ; 2. Richard, who married and 
left a son William, who married Charity Cornell, in 1740, and had 
issue, Catherine, born May 11, 1742, Violetta, born Feb. 15, 1743, 
William, born Jan. 16, 1745, Charles, born Feb. 1, 1748, Richard, 
bom Jan. 6, 1752, Daniel, born Jan. 8, 1755, Oliver, born in Nov. 
14, 1757 ; 3. Obediah, who died in 1732, by his wife, Sarah, he 
had issue, William, who was a physician, and settled at Oyster 
Bay, Deborah, Mary, Sarah, married in 1735 to Joseph Bowne, 
Samuel, Jordan and Obediah. ■ 

4. Daniel, who died in 1757, and had by his wife, Mary, Long- 
ford, Abraham, Mary, married to James Thome, and Mehetable, 
married to Ralph Hilton. 

5. Samuel, who by his wife, Mary, left issue, Thomas, Wil- 


liam, Augustine, Margaret, Abigail, Samuel, Deborah, married a 
Doughty, Elizabeth, married a Willett, and Mary, who married 
a Waters ; 6. Joshua, died abroad unmarried ; 7. Adam, who was 
high sheriflf of Queens county, under the colonial government, and 
left issue, viz : Deborah, who married Van Wyck, Sarah, mar- 
ried Hewlett, Catharine, married Plait, George, Daniel, a physic- 
ian, Stephen, Joseph, Clarke and Sarah, married a Rodman; 
8. Elizabeth, married John Willets ; 9. Caleb, died in the West 
Indies, in 1723; 10. Stephen, married in 1734, Amy, daughter of 
Samuel Bowne, and died in 1781, leaving issue, Somerset, bom 
in 1736, Launcelot, Deborah, Robert and Leonard, married Mar- 
garet Doughty, and whose son, Gilbert, now occupies the old fam- 
ily mansion, upon Lawrence's Neck. 

John Lawrence, second son of first William, by his first wife, 
died in 1714, and by his wife Elizabeth, left issue, William, John 
and Richard, who appear to have left Flushing early in life ; Ehz- 
abeth married a Ford ; Mary married a Briggs ; Deborah, Benja- 
min, Sarah and Charity. 

Elizabeth Lawrence, daughter of first William, by his first 
wife, married in Feb,, 1672, to Thomas Stevens of Newtown. 

Joseph Lawrence, second son of the first William and Eliza- 
beth Smith, his second wife, afterwards Lady Carteret, by his 
wife Mary, left issue, Richard, who, in 1717, married Hannah, 
daughter of Samuel and Mary Bowne ; Elisha, Thomas, (the two 
last removed early to New Jersey,) and Elizabeth, who married 
John Bowne, second, in 1714. Said Richard had issue, Mary, 
born in 1718; Elizabeth, born in 1719; Caleb, born in 1723; 
Hannah, born in 1726 ; Lydia, born in 1728 ; John, bom in 1731 ; 
Effingham, born in 1734; Norris, bom in 1737; and Joseph, 
born in 1741. The said Caleb left one son named Richard, who 
married Mary Lawrence, and had issue, William ; Caleb ; Mary 
Ann married a Colden ; Richard married a De Zeng ; Sarah mar- 
ried Richard De Zeng ; and Jane. The last named John Law- 
rence married Ann Burling, and had issue, Edward, who married 
Zipporah Lawrence; Hannah, A\ho married Jacob Schieffelin ; 
Effingham, who married Elizabeth Watson ; Mary, who married 
Effingham Embree ; Jane, who married Isaac Livesay ; Catha- 


rine ; Anna, who married Thomas Buckley ; and John B., who 
married Hannah Newbold. 

The children of Effingham Lawrence, who removed from the 
city of New York to Flushing, in 1794, and Elizabeth Watson, 
granddaughter of Eleanor, eldest daughter of Samuel Bowne 
and Mary Becket, are, Watson E. Ldwrence, who married Augus- 
ta M., daughter of John Nicoll, Esq.» of N§w Haven, son of Ed- 
ward, and grandson of WiUiam Nicoll, patentee of Islip ; Effing- 
ham W. Lawrence, one of the judges of Queens county, whose 
wife is Rebecca, daughter of Benjamin Prince, deceased ; John 
W. Lawrence, late member of assembly from Queens county, 
whose wife is Mary, daughter of the Hon. Walter Bowne, late 
mayor of the city of New York ; Mary W. Lawrence, who mar- 
ried James T. Talman ; and Anna W. Lawrence. 

The said Watson E. Lawrence, was for many years an active 
and efficient magistrate of Flushing, and was tendered the 
nomination of state senator, which he declined, having resolved 
to remove to the city of New York, where he has ever since 

Joseph Lawrence, above named, youngest son of Richard and 
Hannah Lawrence, and who represented the county of Queens 
in the assembly, in 1785, married Phebe, daughter of the fourth 
Henry Townsend, by whom he had issue, Elizabeth, married to 
Silas Titus ; Henry, who married Harriet, daughter of Comehus 
Van Wyck, and whose son, Cornelius W. Lawreilfce, has been 
mayor of New York, representative in congress, and is now pre- 
sident of the Bank of the State of New York. Phebe, married 
to Obadiah Townsend ; Lydia, married to Anthony Franklin ; 
Richard, who married Betsey Talman ; and Effingham, late first 
judge of Queens county, whose wife is Anne, daughter of the late 
Solomon Townsend, Esq. 

The descendants of the said William Lawrence, are to be found 
in England and in many of the United States. 

Thomas Lawrence, was the youngest of tffe three brothers, 
named at the head of this article. Li the year 1655, a list of the 
owners of land in the town of Newtown was made, for the pur- 
pose of laying certain taxes, and among them, Thomas and liis 
elder brothers, John and William, are mentioned ; and to the said 


Thomas and six other persons, was the patent for that town granted 
by Governor Nicoll, in 1666. By purchase from the Dutch set- 
tlers, he became proprietor of the whole of Hell Gate Neck, then 
divided into a number of cultivated farms, and extending along the 
East river from Hell Gate Cove to the Bowery Bay. In the pat- 
ent from Dongan in 1686, Thomas, William and John, sons-of the 
said Thomas, are nam^d as patentees. 

On receiving the news of the Revolution in England of 1668, 
and of the removal of Sir Edmund Andros as Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, the family of Thomas became decided actors in asseit- 
ing the principles which had prompted his departure from Eng- 
land. Many persons in Queens, however, as well as Sufiii^ 
county, were not disposed to second the popular feeling which 
had vacated the offices at the city of New York, and placc^d Lcis- 
ler at the head of affairs. Not discouraged at the lukewarmness 
of his neighbors, Thomas Lawrence, though far advanced in jrears, 
accepted the command of the forces of Queens county. William, 
one of his sons, was appointed one of the committee of safety, 
by whom the government of the colony was for a time assumed, 
and soon after, one of the council of the province ; an office which 
he subsequently held from 1702 to 1706, under a commission 
from Queen Anne. John Lawrence, another of the sons of 
Thomas, had the command of the troop of horse of the county 
assigned to him, with his brother Daniel as comet. John was 
soon afterwadds appointed high sheriff of the county, to which 
place he was also chosen in 1698. Among the meagre records 
which are left of Leisler's times, is the entry of an order to Major 
Thomas Lawrence, dated 29th July, 1690, "to press seventy 
men, horse and foot, as he shall think fit ; and horses and provi* 
sions ; and despatch them to Southold for the defence and protec- 
tion of their Majesties' subjects there." The misconception or 
obstinacy, whichever it was, that influenced Leisler in delaying to 
surrender the fort at New York to Governor Slaughter on his ar- 
rival, involved all The members of his council in the consequence 
of this omission ; and William Lawrence, with the rest of them, 
were seized and committed, on a charge of high treason. John 
Lawrence, his uncle, who, from the caution of age, or a disappro- 
tion of the violence of some of Leisler's proceedings, had never 


Countenanced his elevation, was appointed on the commission 
with Sir Thomas Robinson, Col. William Smith, and others, to 
try those political offenders. These proceedings do not appear, 
however, to have interrupted the mutual confidence and affection 
of the uncle and nephew. 

The descendants of Thomas Lawrence (being the Newtown 
branch of the family) are very numerous, residing in Connecticut, 
New York, New Jersey and other states of the Union. He died 
at Newtown, in July, 1703, leaving five sons, to wit — Thomas, 
William, John, Daniel, and Jonathan ; of whom John alone per- 
manently remained at Newtown, married Deborah, the daughter 
of Richard Wood hull, one of the patentees of Brookhavcn, and 
closed his Hfe, December 17, 1729, his wife surviving him about 
12 years. He left three sons, Thomas, John and Nathaniel. 
The first married Deborah, daughter of Thomas Woolsey, of 
Newtown, Jan. 5, 1730; the last married Susanna, daughter of 
Thomas Alsop, of the same place. May 23, 1728, but their respec- 
tive families afterwards removed from the town. John was born 
at Newtown, Sept. 9lh, 1695, and married, Dec. 8, 1720, Patience, 
daughter of Joseph Sacket, Esq. He was. a wealthy farmer, pos 
sessing great perseverance and intelligence, and served in the 
magistracy of the county for many years. He died May 7, 1765, 
leaving seven sons and one daughter ; two sons and one daughter 
having died in his lifetime. Jonathan Lawrence, his eighth son, 
was born at Newtown, October 4, 1737, and early engaged in 
mercantile pursuits, visiting Europe and the West Indies under 
the direction, and in the employ of his eldest brother John, an 
eminent merchant of New York, and connecting himself after- 
wards in commercial affairs, as a partner of the house of Watson, 
Murray, and Lawrence. His own gains, the property left him by 
his said brother John, his portion of the estate of his brother Na- 
thaniel, who died unmarried in the West Indies, and the patri- 
mony derived from his parent, enabled him to retire from business, 
when about thirty-four years of age. He purchased a residence 
at Hurlgate, which had belonged to his great-grandfather, 
Thomas Lawrence, (one of the three above named emigrating 
brothers,) intending to enjoy the ease which his pecuniary cir- 
cumstances seemed to secure to him. The agitating questions 

Vol. U. 47 


between the mother country and her colonies, soon, however, for- 
bade him to be inactive. In 1774 we find him a leading member 
of the political committees of Newtown ; his efforts and the influ- 
ence of his brothers and relatives there, contributed to redeem the 
town from the ill-timed loyalty which distinguished most of the 
other portions of the county. In 1775 he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the provincial congress that met at New York. In 1776 
he was again deputed to that body, and was afterwards elected to 
the convention of 1 776-7, which formed the first constitution of 
this state. He had previously, in 1772, received the commission 
of captain in the provincial militia from the royal government ; 
and on the organization of the militia by the provincial congress 
in 1775, he was appointed major of the brigade, composed of the 
militia of Queens and Suffolk, of which Nathaniel Woodhull, Esq. 
was at the same time appointed general.* He accompanied that 
brave officer in the expedition ordered by the convention in 1 776. 
to prevent the supplies of Long Island falling into the hands of 
the invaders, and was probably saved from participating the sad 
fate of his gallant commander, by having been dispatched by him 
to the convention at Harlaem for further orders ; and having been 
thereupon sent by that body to General Washington to endeavor 
to obtain the additional force that had been promised, from the 
army at Brooklyn. During the time spent in these military oper- 
ations, the battle of Long Island had been fought, much of the 
island had fallen under the control of the enemy, and stragglers 
from their ranks had spread over it, in search of booty. All per- 
sonal communication with his family being cut off, he could only 
trust to sending a letter secretly to advise them of his situation, 
and to direct their future course. The convention had adjourned 
from Harlaem, and sought a place of more safety for their deliber- 
ation, at Fishkill. His anxiety for his family was soon relieved 
by the presence of Mrs. Lawrence and his five children, accom- 
panied by her sister-in-law, the wife of Abraham Riker, Esq., a 
captain in the American army, who afterwards died in camp, at 
Valley Forge, in 1778. The house had, at a late hour of the 
night, been visited by soldiers clamorous for food and plunder. 
Amusing them with refreshments in the kitchen, the ladies, by the 
aid of some female servants, conveyed the children (the okiest 


aged 9 years, and the youngest a little more than one year) from 
their beds to a boat at the river side, secured a few articles of 
clothing, and a small chest containing some money, plate and other 
Taluablcs ; and embarking, under the guidance of a faithful slave, 
crossed the river amid the darkness, unmolested, to Great Barn 
Island, leaving the house and the rest of the property to the mercy 
of the invaders. At daylight, they obtained a boat on the opposite 
side of the island, and in it safely reached Harlaem ; thus ex- 
changing the plenty and comforts which a short time had blessed 
their home, for a state of poverty, and a more than seven years' exile. 
From this time Mr. Lawrence was the only attending mem- 
ber of the convention, from the county of Queens. On the 9lh of 
May, 1777, he, William Harper, and Matthew Cantine, were ap- 
pointed commissioners to superintend the manufacture of gun 
flints, sulphur, lead, and salt ; the want of which was severely 

felt, and which could not then be obtained from abroad. In the 


course of his duties, he visited the Oneida Indians, procured the 
holding of a council of their chiefs, made satisfactory experiments 
on the waters of some of the salt, springs in the western part of the 
state, and contracted with the Indians for such salt as they might 
be able to produce. Some veins of excellent lead-ore were also 
discovered, but not in sufficient quantity to justify the working of 
them. The supplies afterwards obtained from France and else- 
where superseded the necessity of further efforts on the part of 
the commissioners. On the adoption of the state constitution in 
1777, and the organization of the government, it became imprac- 
ticable for those parts of the southern district possessed by the 
enemy, to elect representatives to the legislature, and the conven- 
tion deemed it their duty, to appoint members of assembly for 
those counties ; tliey also choose Lewis Morris^ Pierre Van CorU 
landty John Morin Scatty Jonathan Lawrence, William Floj/d, 
William Smith, Isaac Roosevelt, John Jones, and Philip Living- 
stone, to be senators of the district, till others could be elected in 
their places, as prescribed by the ordinances of the convention. 
Mr. Lawrence served under this appointment during the remainder 
of the war. In 1778 he was appointed a commissioner to execute 
a law for completing the five continental battalions, raised under 
the directions of this state, the duties of which office he success- 


fully performed. On the arrival of Connt (TEstaing's squadnni 
off Sandy Hook, and in the hope of aiding an enterprise that might 
hasten the termination of the contest, Mr. Lawrence, with other 
volunteers, joined the fleet in the expedition against Rhode Island, 
embarking on the 20th of July from Black Point in New Jersey, 
He was assigned to the man-of-war L'Hector, of seventy-four 
guns, Captain Mories. The wind was unfavorable ; and on their 
arrival ofl* Newport, mnch delay ensued from the state of the 
weather and other circumstances ; and it was not till the 6th of 
August, 1778, that they were enabled to get into the harbor, 
which was effected under an incessant fire from Brenton*s Point, 
Fort Island, and other places. Most of the troops had been land- 
ed on the 9lh, when the fleet of Lord Howe, anchoring off the har- 
bor, a re-emb5irkation was ordered ; and the next day, the wind 
favoring, the French fleet cut their cables and stood out of port, 
exposed to an increased fire from the forts guarding the passage. 
Of the two men killed on board the Hector by this fire, one was 
dashed to pieces by a cannon ball at the side of Mr. Lawrence, 
who stood so near him as to be covered with his blood and the 
fragments of his body. Howe also cut his cables and proceeded 
to sea, and after much retreating on his part and maneuvering for 
the weather gage, which continued until the lllh, the fleets had 
been brought into such a position, as to render an engagement 
apparently inevitable, when a storm ensued, which shattered and 
dispersed the hostile ships, and induced them respectively to seek 
repairs in the ports of Boston and New York. In consequence 
of this result, General Sullivan had to withdraw the American 
forces from Rhode Island ; and Mr. Lawrence, after an absence 
of about six weeks, reached his residence at Rhinebeck. In Oc- 
tober following, he was chosen by the assembly to be the member 
of the council of appointment from the southern district, being the 
2d appointment to that station under the constitution. His term of 
office expired in Oct. 1779. In Feb. 1780, Mr. Lawrence, Isaac 
Sloulenburgh, of New York, and Stephen Ward, of Westchester, 
were appointed commissioners of forfeitures for the southern dis- 
trict of New York, and on the 15th of Aug. was made one of the 
commissioners of sequestration for Dutchess county. On the 15th 
of June, and on the 9th of Oct. 1780, acts were passed by the 


legislature for raising a sum in specie, the better to secure the 
redemption of the bills of the new emission, then contemplated by 
the continental congress, whose former emission would command 
but one-fortieth part in gold or silver, of their nominal amount. 
Mr. Lawrence was, immediately after the passage of the last men- 
tioned act, placed at the head of the commission for the soutliern 
and middle districts, and John Lansing, jun. (afterwards chancel- 
lor of the state,) at the head of the other commission. In the du- 
ties of this office, Mr. Lawrence was actively engaged in 1781. 
He was again a member of the council of appointment in 1782. 
In 1783, he opposed, though unsuccessfully, the passage of a bill 
declaring those described therein, who had adhered to the enemy, 
to have been aliens from the date of the declaration of independ- 
ence. This bill was clearly in violation of the provisional treaty 
of peace, and would, if adopted as a law, have produced endless 
confusion and difficulty on Long Island and elsewhere, beggaring 
numerous families who had purchased lands honafide^ from per- 
sons thus declared to have had no title to them, or who had been 
prevented, more by their fears than their preferences, from joining 
the patriotic party. Mr. Lawrence resisted it with great zeal, but 
his views being opposed by Scott and Schuyler, and others of the 
ablest members of the senate, he, Mr. Oothout and Smith, of 
Suffolk, stood alone on the final passage of the bill. It was carri- 
ed with still greater unanimity in the assembly. Having passed 
both houses less than ten days before their adjournment, the 
council of revision exercised its prerogative of retaining the bill 
until ihe first day of the ensuing session in 1784, when a new 
election for senators and assemblymen having taken place, and 
men's minds had time to cool, the objections of the council were 
acquiesced in by the senate, where it had originated, with but one 
dissenting voice, and the law was consequently rejected. 

Peace being concluded in September, 1783, Mr. Lawrence was 
enabled to visit his long deserted home. He found his land 
stripped of its timber and fences, his stock and furniture destroyed 
or removed, and his house, having been occupied by British offi- 
cers, greatly injured. During his long exile, he had not only ex- 
hausted those means which had been saved from the enemy, the 
gains which he had occasionally been enabled to make during its 


continuance, and numerous sums owing to him ; but had also con- 
tracted debu, which the sale of his lands and other resources would 
little more than repay. Having now, at the age of forty-seyen, a 
large family to support and educate, he resolved to recommence 
business in the city of New York, and endeavor to repair his 
ruined fortune. Though nearly destitute of pecuniary means, be 
found himself in good credit ; yet his mercantile pursuits were not 
productive of all the benefit he had anticipated. The lands be- 
longing to the state being offered for sale, he embarked somewhat 
largely in the purchase of them, and by resale from time to time, 
not only avoided the bankruptcy which befell other purchasers, 
but found himself in comfortable circumstances, with a consider- 
able surplus of land, unsold. His fortunes gradually improving 
until the time of his death, ^e was enabled to distribute a very con- 
siderable estate among his family. This result was aided by a 
well regulated economy, equally removed from wastefulness and 
parsimony. Although he declined again to be returned to the 
legislature, he was not an indifferent spectator of passing events. 
He took an active part in the re-election of Governor George Clin- 
ton ; and when the constitution had been ratified by the requisite 
number of states, he was anxious for the concurrence of this slate; 
, from which period he acted uniformly with the republican party 
of the Union. His death occurred in the city of New York, at the 
age of seventy-five, on the 4tli of September, 1812. He was twice 
married \ firsts to Judith, daughter of Nathaniel Fish, who died at 
the age of eighteen years, and by whom he had one son, Jonathan ; 
secondly^ to Ruth, daughter of Andrew Riker of Newtown, who 
survived him, and by whom he had issue, Judith, Margaret, Sam- 
uel, Andrew, Richard M., Abraham R., Joseph, John L., and 
William Thomas. One of these, Samuel Lawrence, lately de- 
ceased, has been both a representative in the assembly of this state 
and the congress of the United States ; and was one of the electors 
of president and vice president in 1816. 

The brothers of Major Jonathan Lawrence were all bom at 
Newtown, and those who survived till the period of the Revolution 
were zealous whigs. His only younger brother. Col. Daniel Law- 
rence, was, like himself, an exile from his home from 1776 to 
1783 ; and served as a member of assembly from Queens, under 


the ordinance of the convention of 17T7, from that year till the 
termination of the war. He married Miss Van Horn, a lady of a 
highly respectable family in the city of New York ; and died, leav- 
ing numerous descendants, in 1807, at the age of sixty-eight years. 
Samuel Lawrence, the brother next older than Jonathan, was a 
man of great probity and imperturbable courage, united with great 
goodness of heart. The early loss of his wife and only child, and 
the confinement and bodily injury which he was subjected to, dur- 
ing the possession of Long Island by the British troops, probably 
tended to increase the peculiarities, that remarkably distinguished 
his character. These political injuries left in him a deep rooted 
hostility towards the British government, which time had no effect 
in softening, and none of his prayers were more unfeigned, nor pro- 
bably more frequent, than those for its overthrow. He died in 
1810, at the age of 75, leaving no issue. 

Thomas Lawrence, the next eldest brother, was born in 1733, 
and died in his eighty- fourth year in 1816. About the age of twenty- 
five, he was appointed to the command of the ship Tartar of eigh- 
teen guns,- and made several cruises in her from New York during 
the old French war. His wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Nathan- 
iel Fish, Esq. of Newtown. Possessed of wealth, he settled on a 
farm on the shore of Flushing Bay. He was appointed, in 1784, 
one of the judges of Queens county ; and was distinguished for 
great decision of character, and by all the punctilious observances 
which characterize the eleves of the old school. He had a numer- 
ous family, most of whom he survived. His son, Nathaniel, bom 
1761, entered the North Carolina line of the regular American 
army as a lieutenant, after he had left Princeton College, and 
while under lawful age. He was made prisoner by the enemy, 
after behaving with great gallantry. In 1788 he was chosen from 
Queens to the convention which ratified the constitution of the 
United States. He also held the oflSce of attorney general of this 
state from December 24, 1792, to November 30, 1795 ; and repre- 
sented Queens county in the assembly in 1791, 2, 5 and 6 ; in 
which latter year he died, at the age of thirty-five. His wife was 
EUzabeth, daughter of Judge Berrien, and aunt of John McPher- 
Bon Berrien, late attorney general of the United States. His only 
child, Margaret, is the wife of PhilUp P. Lindsley, president of 


Nashville University. Eliza, one of the daughters of Thomaf 
Lawrence, married the late distinguished barrister, John Wells, 
Esq. of New York, deceased ; Sarah, married Major Richard Law- 
rence, and Mary, became the wife of Adrian Van Sinderen, Esq. 

William Lawrence, the next eldest brother, was, for many yean 
a magistrate of Queens county, and filled the station with usefnl- 
ness. On the capture of Long Island in 1776, part of his bouse 
at Newtown was made the head quarters of the British General 
Robertson, and himself and family were subjected to many of the 
exactions and vexations which others, who had rebel predelictionSy 
experienced from the invaders. He died in his sixty-fifth year, io 
1794. His eldest son, John, served as an officer on board the 
American frigate Confederacy, Capt. Harding, and died in 1816, 
at New York. His son, Richard, was an eminent merchant io 
New York, who, becoming blind, retired to Newtown, where he 
died. His son, William, died on his plantation in Demarara ; and 
Isaac, another son, was the late president of the United States Bank 
in New York. This gentleman died July 12, 1841, aged 74. Aa 
an example of unassuming wealth, and a kind hearted, liberal em* 
ployment of it, Mr. Lawrence's name long stood eminent in the 
community and will be long remembered. He was bom Feb. 8, 
1768, at the family residence, Newtown, educated at Princeton, 
and was destined for the church ; but a feebleness of constitution 
obliged him to lay aside his original intentions and adopt a more 
active life. Entering upon commerce in New York, he became 
one of our most prosperous merchants. In 1817, he was selected 
as presideiit of the New York branch of the late Bank of the Uni- 
ted States, which office he held till the expiration of its charter in 

The late Hon. James Lent, who died during his attendance in 
congress in 1 833, was a grandson of the said William Lawrence. 

Richard Lawrence, the next eldest brother, born in 1725, died 
in 1781. He held a commission as captain of horse, in the militia 
of Queens county, and after falling into the hands of the royalists 
was sent to the provost, at New York, where he was for a long 
time confined, there contracting an illness which terminated his 
life. The devotedness to their cause which pervaded the body of 
whigs, is illustrated by the closing scene of this gentleman. The 


capture of Cornwallis occurred but a short time before his decease, 
and while languisliing on his sick bed, the news of the capitula- 
tion was communicated to him. Assuring himself of the truth, he 
declared his readiness to die, now that the ultimate triumph of his 
country was secured. He left no issue. 

Nathaniel Lawrence, the next eldest brother, died at St. Eus- 
tatia in the West Indies, unmarried, in the year 1761, aged 34. 
He was settled, and successfully engaged in trade at that place. 

Joseph Lawrence, the next eldest brother, died at Newtown, 
1793, aged 70. He married Patience, aunt of the late Bishop 
Moore «f New York, and was universally respected. His son 
Richard, who went to Edinburgh to complete his medical educa- 
tion, died after his return without issue. His sister, Anna, mar- 
ried Samuel Riker, Esq., who served Queens county in the as- 
sembly in 1784, and was also a representative in congress several 
years. He was the father of Hon. Richard Rikcr, late recorder 
of New York, and his brother, John L. Riker ; also of Jane, 
widow of the late Dr. William James Macneven. 

John Lawrence, the eldest brothej^left Newtown for New York 
at an early age, and became one of the most eminent merchants 
of that day. In 1759 he married Catherine, daughter of the Hon. 
Phillip Livingston, and sister of Governor W^illiam Livingston 
of New Jersey. He had no issue by this marriage, and he dis- 
tributed his property among his brothers, after making ample pro- 
vision for his widow. He died in 1764. The celebrated Whit- 
field, then in this country, pronounced his funeral sermon. The 
following obituary notice of the deceased, is found in the " New 
York Gazette, or Weekly Post Boy," of Aug. 9, 1764. 

" On Sunday night about 1 1 o'clock, departed this life, aAer a tedious illness, 
which he hore with becoming resignation, John Lawrence^ Esq. alderman of 
the Dock Ward, of this city, which office he filled with equal dignity and 
steadiness. On Monday his corpse was carried from his house in Dock street, 
attended by the different clergy, and a numerous train of relations and friends, 
who sympathized with each other in the loss of so worthy a relation, friend 
and acquaintance, to the Presbyterian meeting-bouse, where at a short notice, 
a nnost excellent discourse was given by Mr. Whitfield, who seemed to be par- 
ticalarly affected himself, a friendship having long subsisted between them." 
His body was deposited in the family vault of the right Honorable the Earl of 
Stirling in the yard of Trinity Church. 

Vol. II. 48 


Of the Descendants of Lyon Gardiner. 

On perusing our article relating to the town of Easthampton, in 
a former part of this work, it will be seen that Lyon Gardiner 
came from Holland to Saybrook, by the way of London, in Nov. 
1635, where he commanded the garrison during the most perilous 
times of Indian hostility, and of threatened invasion from the Dutch. 

In 1639 he took possession of the island, since called by his 
name, on which he resided till 1655, when he removed to the vil- 
lage of Easthampton, where he continued till his decease in 1663. 
His widow survived him till 1665, by whom he had issue* David, 
Mary and Elizabeth. 

He devised his whole estate to his wife, who afterwards gave 
the island to her son David, and the real estate at Easthampton to 
her daughter Mary and to Elizabeth Howell, only child of her 
deceased daughter, Elizabeth. The said Mary was bom at Say- 
brook, Aug. 30, 1638, married Jeremiah Conkling of Easthamp- 
ton, and died June 15, 1726. The other daughter, Elizabeth, 
being the first child born of English parents within the present 
bounds of the state of New York, Sept. 14, 1641, married Arthur 
Howell of Southampton, and died in 1642, leaving the said Eliza- 
beth her only issue. 

David Gardiner, second proprietor of the island, and the first 
white child bom within the colony of Connecticut, (1636,) was 
educated in England, where he married Mary Lerringham, widow, 
June 4, 1657, of the parish of St. Margaret, London. He died 
suddenly at Hartford, Conn., July 10, 1689, leaving issue John, 
David, Lyon and Elizabeth. 

The last named son, settled in Easthampton, where he was ac- 
cidentally shot by one of his companions, while hunting deer 
near Three Mile Harbor, leaving issue Lyon and Giles, the last 
of whom died without issue. The former died in 1781, and left 
issue John, Lyon and Jeremiah. Of these, Lyon died without 
issue ; John died in 1780, leaving a son, John, who inherited his 
estate, and who, in 1795, rcipoved to Moriches, in the town of 
Brookhavcn, where he died in 1800, leaving sons John D. Gardiner, 
Abraham H. Gardiner, and Aaron E. Gardiner ; tlie first of whom 
is a clergyman residing at Sag Harbor, the second, who has been 


sheriff of the county of Suffolk, and representative in the assem- 
bly, resides at the same place, and the last, a physician, settled in 
Essex county, N. Y. 

John Gardiner, son of David, and third proprietor of the island, 
was born April 19, 1661, and married first, Mary, daughter of 
William King of Southold, she died July 4, 1707, he married 
secondly, Sarah Cojj, widow, of New London ; thirdly, Elizabeth 
Allen, widow, of Middletown, Conn., and fourthly, Ehzabelh 
Osborn, widow, of Easthampton, Oct. 4, 1733. 

His death was occasioned by a fall from his horse, at Groton, 
Conn., June 25, 1738, and his widow died May 15, 1746. He 
left issue, David, Samuel, John, Joseph and Jonathan. 

David Gardiner, the eldest son of John, and fourth proprietor 
of the island, was born Jan. 3d, 1691, first married Rachel Schel- 
linger of Easthampton, April 15, 1713, and for his second wife, 
married Mahetible Burroughs of Saybrook. He died July 4, 
1751, leaving issue, John, Abraham, Samuel, David, Mary, 
Abigail and Hannah ; two of whom, John, and David, graduated 
at Yale in 1738, after which the said David and Samuel settled 
at Southold. The former died March 12, 1748, leaving issue, 
John and Lyon, both of whom left issue. 

One of the sons of the last named John, was the late Dr. John 
Gardiner of Southold, whose son, Baldwin Gardiner, is a mer- 
chant in the city of New York ; Gerard Gardiner, a brother of 
the Doctor, was the father of Augustus and Harry Gardiner, 
now or late of Bell Port, Long Island. 

Mary, eldest daughter of David Gardiner, fourth proprietor, 
married her cousin Samuel Gardiner, and her sister Hannah mar- 
ried Dr. Lathrop of Norwich, Conn. 

John Gardiner, eldest son of David, and fifth proprietor of the 
island, married Elizabeth, daughter of Matthew Mulford of East- 
hampton, May 26, 1737, and for his second wife, Deborah Avery 
of Pomphret, Conn. His death happened May 19, 1764, and his 
widow became second wife to Maj. General Israel Putnam, a dis- 
tinguished revolutionary officer, who died in 1790. She died at 
his head quarters in the highlands, in 1777, and was interred in 
the family vault of the well known Col. Beverly Robinson. 

Abraham Gardiner, second son of the last named David, better 


known as Col. Gardiner, was bom Feb. 19, 1721, and married 
June 12, 1745, Mary, daughter of Nathaniel Smith of Moriches, 
Long Idand, where she was bom Oct. 3d, 1725. He died uni- 
versally esteemed and regretted Oct. 25, 1782, and his widow 
May 19, 1807. Their issue were Mary, Rachel, Phebe, Nathi- 
niel and Abraham. The first of these was bom Oct. 6, 1746, 
married Judge Isaac Thompson of Islip, Juijp 4, 1772, and died 
April 21, 1786, leavitig issue, Jonathan and Abraham G. Thomp- 

Her sister Rachel, bom Jan. 22, 1751, married Col. David Mul- 
ford of Easthampton. Phebe, born Jan. 5, 1756, died unmarried 
Sept. 18, 1775. Nathaniel, bom Jan. 10, 1759, was a physician, 
and married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Dering, Esq., of 
Shelter Island, by whom he had issue, Mary, Robert S. and Eli- 
zabeth. The last only survives, and is the wife of Capt. Reubea 
Bmmley of New York. 

Abraham, the youngest son of Col. Gardiner, born Jan. 25, 
1763, married Phebe Dayton of Easthampton, and had issue, 
Abraham, David, Samuel S. and Mary, who married Philip Van 
Wyck of Sing Sing, N. Y. 

The said David and Samuel S. were bred to the bar ; the first 
has been state senator, and the latter was one of the clerks of the 
convention in 1821, which framed the present state constitution. 

The said John Gardiner, fifth proprietor, had issue David, 
Mary, John, Elizabeth, Jerusha, Hannah, and Septimus, the last 
of whom entered the American army under his stepfather. Major 
Gen. Putnam, and died in 1777. John, the second son, married 
Joanna Conklin, and settled at Eaton's Neck, where he died, leav- 
ing issue John, Jonathan, and Matthew, the last of whom died 
Aug. 3, 1831. 

The said Mary, last named, married Mr. Blake, and, after his 
death, married the Rev. Stephen Johnson of I^yme, Conn. Her 
sister Jerusha married Lewis Osborne, and Hannah became the 
wife of Samuel Williams, of Brooklyn, Conn. 

David Gardiner, eldest son of John, and sixth proprietor of the 
island, was born Oct. 8, 1738, and married Jerusha, daughter of 
the Rev. Samuel Buell, Dec. 15, 1766. His death occurred 
Sept. 8, 1774, after which his widow married Mr. Isaac Conkliog, 


and was the mother of Dr. Isaac Conkling. The said David left 
sons John Lyon and David. The latter, born Feb. 29, 1772, mar- 
ried a daughter of James Havens, of Shelter Island, and settled at 
Flushing, L. I., v«^here he died April 6, 1815, leaving three sons, 
David, John L. and Charles. 

John L. Gardiner, son of David, and seventh proprietor of the 
island, was born Nov. 8, 1770, married Sarah, daughter of John 
Griswold, Esq., of Lyme, Conn., March 4,«1803, and died Nov. 
22, 1816, leaving issue David Johnson, Sarah Diodate, Mary 
Brainard, John Griswold, and Samuel Buell. 

The said David Johnson Gardiner, eighth proprietor of the is- 
land, was born Aug. 16, 1804, and died unmarried and intestate, 
Dec. 18, 1829. His brother, John Griswold Gardiner, bom Sept. 
9, 1812, having purchased the interests of the other proprietors, is 
now sole owner and ninth proprietor of this valuable domain, it 
having been in the family two hundred and seven years, an average 
of twenty-three years to each proprietor. 

His sister, Mary Brainard, was born Dec. 4, 1809, and died of 
a lung complaint at Columbia, South Carolina, Feb. 22, 1833, un- 
married ; Sarah Diodate, born Nov. 1, 1807, married David 
Thompson, Esq., cashier of the Bank of America, N. Y. ; and 
Samuel Buell, born April 6, 1815, married Mary Gardiner 
Thompson, daughter of Jonathan Thompson, Esq., late collector 
of the customs in the city of New York, and now president of the 
Manhattan Company, and resides in the old family mamon at East- 

Of the Descendants of the Rev, John Youngs y mentioned at page 

395, Vol L 

The descendants of this venerable minister of Christ, are nu- 
merous both on Long Island and in other parts of the state, as 
well as in Connecticut ; of whom, however, no very satisfactory 
account has been obtained, except as hereinafter mentioned. It is 
known that Mr. Youngs had sons John, Thomas, Gideon, and 


Benjamin, and several daughters, of whose marriages nothing cer- 
tain is now known. 

His eldest son John was a man of education and talent, and held 
important offices, both civil and military ; he is most commonly 
designated upon the ancient records as colonel, and frequently ai 
sheriff Youngs. One of the sons of Col. Youngs was Zenibbabel, 
the father of John, whose son, Thomas Youngs, Esq., died at 
Southold, Feb. 19, 1193. 

The last named left issue four sons and four daughters, the 
eldest of whom was Thomas, whost^ issue were Thomas, Joshua, 
John, Lydia, married to the Rev. Ezra King ; Rhoda, Franklin, 
Ezra, late minister of Cutchogue, and Jacob. 

Gideon Youngs, third son of the Rev. John Youngs, was bom 
in 1638, the same year of his father's arrival in America, and be- 
came the owner of a large and valuable real estate in Southold, 
among which was an island, called Gideon's Island, which, by 
the accumulation of sand and other materials, is now connected 
with the main land of Oyster Ponds. On this may still be dis- 
cerned the remains of an ancient fort erected doubtless by the In- 
dians. This gentleman died Dec. 1, 1699, leaving sons Gideon 
and Jonathan. The latter died Feb. 23, 1707. The second son 
of the former was also named Gideon, and had issue Henry, Reu- 
ben, Silas, Abimal, Gideon, and Walter, the four first of whom, in 
the year 1731, removed to and settled in or near Goshen, Orange 
c6unty, N. Y., where their posterity still remain, some of whom 
still occupy the very lands originally possessed by their ancestors. 
Gideon, the second, commonly called Lieutenant Youngs, died in 
1749, at the age of 76 years. The last named Gideon, by Eunice 
his first wife, had a son Ezekiel ; she died May 6, 1725, and her 
son died May 13, J 727. By his second wife, Miss Racket, he 
had issue Gideon, 4th, and daughters Michael, married to Natha- 
niel Tuthill, and Experience, married to Nathaniel King ; she was 
born in 1731, and died in the 98th year of her age, in 1827. Her 
son Nathaniel, possesses a portion of the estate of Gideon 
Youngs, the 1st, being of the seventh generation. 

The said Henry Youngs, who settled in Orange county, left 
issue Henry and Birdseye ; the first of whom married Abigail, 
daughter of Barnabas Horton, grandson of the person whose epi- 


taph is copied at page 393, vol. i., and left issue Henry and 
Eunice ; his death occurred in 1767^ and that of his widow in 1769. 

Henry Youngs, son of said Henry and Abigail, remained on the 
farm of his father at Goshen, and married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Capt. Phineas Rumsey, of Orange county, and left issue Henry, 
Hiram, Oliver, Mary, Julian, and Eunice. He died in 1803, but 
his widow still survives. 

The last named Henry and his brother Hiram have been for 
many years settled as merchants in the city of New York, and 
have been greatly successful in business. The said Birdseye 
Youngs married a daughter of Maj. Strong, who was murdered by 
llie British, in the Revolution. His eldest son, BirJseyc, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Capt. Phineas Heard, and died in 1841, 
leaving two daughters. 

Thomas Youngs, second son of the Rev. John Youngs, was 
born in England 1627, and came with his father to New England 
in 1638, and to Southold in 1640, where he married Rebecca, 
daughter of Thomas Mapes, and removed to Oyster Bay in 1654. 
By his first wife he had daughters, but no son. His second wile 
was Sarah, daughter of John Frost, whom he married in 1658, 
and had issue Thomas and Hannah. He died 1689. His son 
Thomas, bom in 1660, inherited the paternal estate, and married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Samuel Weekes, one of the early settlers 
of Oyster Bay, by whom he had issue Samuel, Jacob, Richard, 
Jonas, and several daughters. His death took place in 1720, and 
his tombstone, on which the inscription is still legible, may be 
seen in the family cemetery. His eldest son, Samuel, born in 
1680, married Penelope Allen, by whom he had issue Thomas, 
Daniel and Roxana ; by his second wife, Sarah Patten, widow of 
Nantucket, he had no issue. He carried on the business of farm- 
ing and rope making, and the place where he conducted the latter, 
is still known as ** Ropemakers' Hollow." He died in 1750. 
His son Thomas was bom in 1716, and married Mary, daughter 
of Thomas Caldwell, by whom he had no issue. He was a lead- 
ing man in the episcopal church, and did much toward the erec- 
tion of a place of worship for that denomination, on or near the 
site of the present Oyster Bay Academy, which land is known 
still as the church lot. 


His brother Daniel, born 1718, married Hannah, daughter of 
Peter Undcrhill ; issue, Daniel, Samuel, and Penelope. His 
second wife was Hannah, daughter of the Rev. Benjamin Wool- 
sey, and widow of Samuel McCoun, by whom he had no child. 
He was an extensive agriculturist, and a man of great respecta- 
bility. He died 1784. His sister Roxana married George Town- 
send, and had issue Samuel, John, Thomas, Richard, George, 
Temperance, Mary and Phebe. The last named Daniel was bom 
Jan. 21, 1748, and married Susan, daughter of Timothy Kelsey 
of Huntington, by whom he had issue Hannah, Keziah, Samuel 
and Daniel. He was a militia captain in the Revolution, and af- 
terwards held various public oflSces in the town. His death hap- 
pened in Nov., 1809. ilis widow still survives, over the age of 90 
years. She has a very distinct recollection of General Washing- 
ton, whom she had the pleasure to entertain at her house, during 
his tour through Long Island in 1789. 

Samuel Youngs, brother of the last named Daniel, was bora 
Nov. 5, 1753, and married Rebecca, daughter of John Brush of 
Huntington, by whom he had issue Elizabeth, Thomas, John, 
Penelope, Mary, Harry, Daniel, Hannah and Frances. He, loo, 
was an extensive practical farmer, and a highly intelligent and 
useful man. He represented the county in the assembly in 1794, 
and died Nov. 2, 1797. His sister Penelope married Nathaniel 
Williams of Huntington, by whom she had one son, Richard 
Montgomery Williams, afterwards judge of Wayne county, and 
resided at Palmyra. 

Hannah, eldest daughter of the said David and Susan Youngs, 
married Joseph Townsend, Feb., 1786 ; issue Judith, Daniel and 
Mary Ann. Her sister, Keziah, is the wife of Major William 
Jones of Cold Spring, L. I., whom she married Oct. 14, 1790; 
issue Samuel W., David W., Cornelia, (who married Gen. Thomas 
Floyd Jones,) Eleanor, wife of Wilham Sidney Smith, Esq.,) 
Hannah, (wife of the Rev. Samuel Seabury,) and Daniel Y. The 
said Samuel W. Jones, a lawyer, resides at Schenectady, of wliich 
county he has been first judge. 

Samuel Youngs, son of said Daniel and Susan, bom April 1, 
1777, married Hannah, daughter of John Fleet, Feb., 1800, and 


had issue Margery, wife of the Hon. Elbert H. Jones. By his 
second wife Phebe, daughter of James Reynolds, whom he mar- 
ried Feb., 1815; he had issue David and Hannah. Daniel Youngs, 
brother of the last named Samuel, was born Dec. 13, 1783, and 
married Maria, daughter of John Baker, by whom he had issue 
Daniel, William, Thomas and Susan. 

Elizabeth Youngs, daughter of the aforesaid Samuel and Re- 
becca, born Jan. 23, 1773, married Wright Coles, and had issue 
Samuel, Hannah, Elias, John, Mary and WiUiam. She died Oct., 

Thomas Youngs, brother of the said last named Elizabeth, was 
bom April 10, 1775, and married Catherine, daughter of Dr. 
Christian Tobias of Dutchess county, N. Y., and had issue Re- 
becca, Samuel, Thomas, Henry, Daniel and Alfred. He was 
captain of a cavalry company, during the late war with Great 
Britain, which office he resigned, on his company being changed 
into horse artillery. He died Dec. 3, 1815. His sister Penelope, 
bom 1782, married John Ludlum, and had issue Elizabeth, 
Thomas, Mary, Samuel, Adeline and Frances. She died Jan. 30, 
1824. Her brother, Daniel Youngs, born Jan. 6, 1791,, married 
Catherine, widow of the last named Thomas Youngs, and had 
issue Catherine, Artna and Edward. He died Sept 29, 1830. 
The second daughter married in July, 1840, William Sidney 
McCoun, Esq., son of the vice-chancellor of New York. 

Samuel Youngs, son of the said Thomas and Catherine Tobias, 
has been a colonel of militia, supervisor of the town of Oyster 
Bay, and is now a member of the house of assembly, from his 
native county of Queens. 

Of the Family of John Bowne, 

The earliest information concerning this gentleman and his 
descendants, is gathered from his written journal, wherein he says, 
that he was bora at Matlock in Derbyshire, England, March 
9, 1627; that his father, Thomas Bowne, was baptized at that 

Vol. n. 49 



place May 25, 1595, himself March 29, 1627, and his sister 
Dorothy Aug. 14, 1631. 

It appears that all of them left England in 1649, and arrived 
at Boston the same year. His first visit to Flushing was on 
the 15th of June, 1651, in company with his brother-in-law, 
Edward Farrington. 

The next account is, that he was married to Hannah, daughter 
of Robert Field, at Flushing, May 7, 1656, and in 1661 built the 
house there, which we have elsewhere noticed, and which has 
been till recently, occupied constantly by some one of his descend- 
ants. His wife became intimate with some of the people called 
Quakers, who at that period, were obliged from necessity to hold 
their meetings privately in the woods, and other remote places. 
She became attached to the society, and was received as a mem- 
ber amongst them. 

Her husband, mostly from motives of curiosity, attended their 
meetings, and was so powerfully struck with the beauty and sim- 
plicity of their worship, that he invited them to his house, sooa 
after which he also became a member of their society ; " not 
merely (as he observes,) from kindness and affection to his wife, 
but his judgment also was convinced of the truth of the princi- 
ples they held forth," for in a Hltle time his' faith was put to the 
test, and he had to partake, in a large degree, of the sufferings to 
which others of his faith and profession were exposed ; and his 
persecutions, imprisonment, banishment and severe privations for 
the truth's sake, and the testimony of a good conscience, were 
such as most persons would shrink from, in this our day of ease 
and quiet enjoyment. 

It will be seen by reference to page 77 of this volume, that 
John Bowne had a severe sentence passed against him, on the 14th 
of Sept., 1 662, and the governor finally proceeded to such extre- 
mities, that Bowne was actually transported to Europe, to be tried 
for heresy, and his disregard of the orders and placards of the 
governor and council. On his arrival in Holland, in the summer 
of 1663, he addressed the following epistle to his wife : 

Most dear and tender wife — 

In the truth of our God I dearly salute thee, and unto thee doth my 
love and life flow forth exceedingly. But my dearest desire for thee is, thai 


tbou mayest be preserved faithful to the Lord, and may grow and prosper in 
his living truth. So my dear heart, be bold for the Lord, and let nothing dis- 
courage thee, fur He is a sure reward to all those who truly and sincerely give 
up all, fur His truth's sake, the truth of which I believe thou canst truly wit- 
ness with me : and this I can in verity say, that in all my trials, I find the 
Lord to be ray sure helper, my Rock and my Defence. He hath brought me 
Co be content with what He is pleased to direct me in, &c. 

I manifested my case to the West India Company, by sending in a writing 
which they read, and accordingly appointed a committee upon it ; but it being 
feasting time, and they who are great not regarding those who are little, we 
were delayed a hearing for fourteen days ; but when we came before them, 
they were not disposed to take offence at our manners or the like, neither one 
word against me in any particular, nor one word tending the approval of any 
thing that was done against me, but freely, and with a joint consent, promised 
without any scruple, that the next day, at the tenth hour, my goods should be 
delivered to me, and the next day when we came there, orders were given to 
the keeper of the guard house to that purpose, but he, with others of the un- 
derling officers, consulted together and asked me if I had paid my passage 
money, and the Company (tho* ordered by the governor,) not willing to pay 
money on such an account, they do not only detain my goods, but also deny 
roe a passage home, except upon such gross and unreasonable conditions, 
(which I would rather lay down my life than yield unto,) which may ' appear 
by those writings which I think to send, and if I do, would not have them pub- 
lished until I come. Neither the papers nor any copies, to pass from thy 
hands, thereabouts,^ &c. Stc. 

So my dear Lamb, my having been up all this night to write, and having no 

more time I must and do conclude in tender love to thee and my dear children, 

io which Love, the Lord God of my life preserve and keep you all. Amen. 

Thy dear Husband, 

John Bownk. 
Amsterdam, this 9th of 6th mo. ) 
called June, 1663. • > 

P. S. Dear George Fox and many more friends desire their dear love and 
fender salutations to all Friends. 

We find a copy of an address from John Bowne to the West 
India Company, Amsterdam, which is as follows : 

Friends : — ^The paper drawn up for me to subscribe I have perused and 
weighed, and do find the same not according to the engagement to me through 
one of your members, namely, that he or yuu would do therein by me as you 
would be done unto, and not otherwise. For which of you, being taken by 
force from your wife and family (without just cause) would be bound from re- 
turning to them, unless upon terms to act contrary to your conscience and deny 
yoar faith and religion, yet this (in effect) do you require of me and not less. 



But truly I cannot think that you did In sober earnest eTer think I would tab- 
scribe to any such thing. It being the very cause for which I rather choie 
freely to suffer want of the company of my dear wife and children, imprison- 
ment of my person, the ruin of my estate in my absence there, and the loss 
of my goods here, than to yield or consent unto such an unreasonable act as 
you would thereby enjoin me unto. For which I am persuaded yoa will not 
only be Judged in the sight of God, but by good and godly men. Rather to 
have mocked at the oppressions of the oppressed, and added afflictiooa to the 
afflicted, than herein to have done unto me as you in the like case woold be 
done unto, which the Royal Law of our God requires. 

I have with patience and moderation waited several weeks expecting justice 
from you, but behold an addition to my oppression in the measure I receive, 
wherefore I have this now to request for you, that the Lord will not lay this 
to your charge, but give you Eyes to see and Hearts to do justice, that yoa 
may find mercy with the Lord in the day of Judgment. 

John Bowni. 

Mr. Bowne, it seems was twice married after the death of his 
first wife, namely, to Hannah Bickerstaff and Mary Cock. By 
an entry in a book of records kept by the Friends at Flushing, it 
is ascertained that he died about the age of sixty-eight years, oa 
the 20th of 10th month, 1695, and it is further said of him, that "he 
did expose himself, his house and estate to the service of truth, 
and had constant meetings at his house near about forty years ; 
he also suffered very much for the truth's sake." His children 
were John, born in 1657, and died in 1673; Elizabeth, bom in 
1658, marrried Samuel Titus, and died in 1691 ; Abigail, born in 
1662, and married Richard Willets ; Hannah, bom in 1665, and 
married Benjamin Field; Samuel, bom in 1667, married Mary 
Becket in 1691, Hannah Smith in 1709, and Grace Cowperthwaite 
in 1735. He died in 1745. Dorothy, born in 1669, and married 
Henry Franklin; Martha, born in 1673, and married Joseph 
Thome ; Sarah, John and Thomas, the three last of whom died 
young; John second, bom in 1686, and married^ Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of the first Joseph Lawrence, in 1714 ; Ruth, who died young, 
and Amy, who married Richard Hallett in 1717. 

Samuel Bowne, the sixth child of John Bowne, was a minister 
among the Friends, and was married to Mary Becket at the meet- 
ing-house, at the falls of the Delaware, Aug. 4, 1691 ; she was an 
Enghsh lady, and came over with William Penn in 16b2. Their 


children were Samuel, born in 1691, and married Sarah Franklin ; 
Thomas, born in 1694, and married Hannah Underbill ; Eleanor, 
bom in 1695, and married Isaac Homer; Hannah, born in 1696, 
and married Richard Lawrence ; John, born in 1697, and married 
Dinah Underhill; Mary, bom in 169w, and married John Keese ; 
Robert, born in 1700, and married Margaret Lathrop. 

The children of said Samuel, by his third wife, Hannah Smith, 

• were Sarah, born in 1710, and married William Burling; Joseph, 

born in 1711, and married Sarah Lawrence ; Amy, born in 1715, 

and married Stephen Lawrence, and Benjamin, born in 1718, and 

married Mary Rodman. 

The children of said Samuel Bowne 2d, and Sarah Franklin, 
were William, born in 1719, and married Elizabeth Willett; 
Samuel, born in 1721, and married Abigail Burling ; Mary, bora . 
in 1723, and married John Farrington ; Amy, born in 1724, and 
married George Embree ; Sarah, born in 1726, and married Wil- 
liam Tilus ; James, who married Caroline Rodman, and William, 
who married Elizabeth Willett, and had a son, Willett Bowne, 
whose wife was Hannah Hicks. 

Thomas Bowne and Hannah Bowne, above nan&ed, had one son, 
Daniel, who married Sarah Stringham. 

The children of John 3d, who inherited the old family mansion, 
and Dinah Underhill his wife, were Thomas, born in 1739 ; Mary, 
bom in 1741, and married Israel Pearsall ; John 4th, born in 1742, 
and married Ann Field; Robert 2d, born in 1744, and married 
Elizabeth Hartshomc. 

Sarah Bowne, had by her husband, William Burling, whom she 
married in 1729, issue, Joseph, born in 1732; Hannah, bom in 
1734 ; Sarah, bom in 1736, and Rebecca, born in 1838. 

The children of James Bowne and Caroline Rodman, were Ca- 
therine, who married John Murray, jun. ; Walter, late mayor of 
New York, who married Elizabeth Southgate ; Elizabeth, who 
married George Townsend ; John R. who married Grace Sands • 
Mary, who married John King, and Caroline. 

The children of Daniel Bowne and Sarah Stringham, were Ann, 
born in 1753, and died in 1783; Mary, born in 1754, and'married 
Walter Franklin ; Thomas, born in 1758, and Sarah, born in 1763. 

The children of Mary Bowne and Walter Franklin, were Mary, 


bom in 1T75, married Feb. 10, 1796, his late Excellency De Witt 
CiiiUon, and died in ISIS ; Sarah, born in 1777, married John L. 
Norton, and died in 1742, and Hannah, bom in 1780, who became 
the wife of George Clinton, jun. brother of De Wilt Clinton. 

The children of Willett Bowne and Hannah Hicks, were Charles, 
Phillip, James, Samuel, John, Hannah, Benjamin and Scott. 

The children of Robert Bowne and Elizabeth Hartshome, were 
Mary, married to Benjamin G. Minturn ; Robert H. who married , 
Hannah Shipley and Sarah Hartshome ; John L. who married 
Eliza H!owland ; Sarah, who married William Minturn ; Hannah, 
who married Benjamin S. CoHins, and Jane, who married Reuben 

The children of John Bowne 4th, and Ann Field, were Mary, 
born in 1784, and married the late Samuel Parsons,* and whose 
son, James, now occupies the old Bowne house, built in 1661; 
Ann, bom in 1785 ; Eliza, bom in 1787, and Catharine, bom in 
1789, and died in 1830. 

The children of Walter Bowne and Elizabeth Southgate, are 
Walter, who married Eliza Rapelye and Mary, the wife John W. 
Lawrence, Esq^of Flushing. 

Of the Descendants of the Hon. Matthias Nicoll, first English 

Secretary of the Colony. 

This gentleman was descended of an ancient and honorable 
family at Islippe, Northamptonshire, England, and was, by pro- 
fession, a lawyer. His father was a clergyman of the est<iblished 
church. He came to New Amsterdam (now New York) about 
the year 1660, where he entered upon the practice of the law. 
On the reduction of the province in 1664, and the organization of 
the new government, under the Duke of York, he was appointed 
by Col. Richard NicoU, secretary of the colony, and was autho- 
rized, ex officio, to preside with the justices of the different ridings, 
in the court of sessions. In 1672 he was chosen mayor of New 
York, as successor of Thomas Willet, and after the act of 1683, 
for remodelling the courts, he was appointed one of the judges of 


the supreme court, in which capacity he officiated for the last 
lime, in Queens county, Sept. 12, 1687. He died at his residence 
on Cow Neck, (now Plandome,) Dec. 22, 1687, where he and 
Abigail, his wife, are buried. He was a man of superior abilities, 
and of the strictest integrity. His purchases 'upon Cow Neck, as 
well as upon Great Neck, were extensive, the former of which he 
conveyed to his only son William. His daughter Margaret, bom 
May 30, 1662, married Richard Floyd, second, of Setauket, May 
12, 1686, and died Feb. 1, 1718. She was the grandmother of 
the late General William Floyd, who subscribed the declaration 
of American independence. 

William NicoU, commonly called the Patentee, was born in 
England, 1657, and was educated for the bar. In 1677 he ao- 
corapanied Sir Edmund Andros to England, and on arriving there, 
joined a regiment of troops, then embarking for Flanders, and 
spent some time in the army. Ill health compelled his return 
home in two years after. The journal of his adventures on the 
occasion mentioned, is still existing, and is a great curiosity. He 
now entered upon his profession, and acquired a high reputation 
at the bar of New York. In 1683 he was apgpinted clerk of 
Queens county, and held the office till June 20, 1188, discharging 
its duties the last year by his deputy, Andrew Gibb, who was ap- 
pointed his successor. He purchased a considerable tract of land 
upon Madnan's Neck, called by the Indians Wallage, and now 
Great Neck. His purchase in Islip, Suffolk county, was made in 
1683, and was confirmed by patent, as before mentioned, Sept. 
20, 1697, including his subsequent purchases from the Indians. 
In 1 693 he married Ann, daughter of Jeremiah, and widow of her 
cousin, Killian Van Rensellaer, (who died 1687,) eldest son t of 
Johannes, heir at law of Killian Van Rensellaer, first proprietor of 
the manors of Rensellaerwyck and Claverack. 

Mr. NicoU was the friend of liberty, and sided with the Revolu- 
tion, in favor of William and Mary, but was decidedly opposed 
to the measures of Leisler and his adherents ; in consequence of 
which, he was imprisoned with others, his associates, who had the 
couVage and honesty to avow their opinions, in relation to public 
affairs. But on the arrival of Slaughter, in March, 1691, he lib- 
erated Nicoll and other state prisoners. On the 23d of the same 



392 ATFESpiX. 

month, Mr. Nicoll was called to the council, and in 1695, was 
sent to England by the assembly, to urge the crown to enforce the 
contributions allotted to the other colonies, for defence of the 
country against the French, which fell with unequal weight upon 
this colony. He was allowed, for his services on this occasion, 
£1000. On his passage out, he was captured by a French pri- 
Tateer, and it became necessary to destroy his papers, to prevent 
their falling into the hands of the enemy, who, however, robbed 
him of X350 in money. Being carried into St. Malo, and im- 
prisoned, he was, after some months, exchanged, and arrived in 
England. In 1698 he was suspended from the council by Lord 
Bclomont, who seems to have adopted the views and feelings of 
the Leislerians, and exerted his official influence against his oppo- 
nents. In 1701 he was elected a member of the assembly frcMn 
Suffolk, but being at the time a non-resident of the county, his 
seat was vacated Aug. 26, 1701. The assembly was, soon after, 
dissolved, and to avoid a similar result, Mr. Nicoll fixed his future 
residence permanently upon Great Neck, in Suffolk, which be- 
came thereafter the principal seat of the family. In 1702 he was 
again elected ^ the assembly and by the house its speaker. 
From which time, he was regularly elected a member of eveiy 
succeeding assembly till his death, and was also re-elected speak- 
er. In 1718 he resigned the speaker's chair, on account of his 
health, which seems to have prevented his attendance for the few 
last years of his life. 

He was a member of assembly twenty-one years in succession, 
and speaker sixteen years of the time. On the 30th of March, 
1691, he was employed with James Emmot and George Faiia- 
well, as king's council, to conduct the prosecution against Leisler 
and his associates ; and he was also one of the council employed 
by Nicholas Bayard in March, 1702, in his defence against a po- 
litical prosecution instituted by Nanfan, the lieutenant-governor, 
and pursued with all the violence and bitterness of party rancor, 
for circulating and signing petitions to the king and parliament, in 
which the abuses of power by his Honor and his friends were 
enumerated : a report of which case is published in the state tri- 
als of that year. He was also one of the counsel employed in 
the defence of Francis McKemie, a presbyterian clergyoian, in 


June, 1707, who was indicted for preaching ; which was brought 
about by the bigotry of the governor, Lord Cornbury : a nar- 
rative of which is contained in a pamphlet pubUshed in New York 
in 1755. 

Mr. NicoU served in the assembly, at a period when the colony 
was divided into bitter parties, and when a variety of interest- 
ing questions arose between the governor and the assembly, af- 
fecting their rights and in defence of the latter. On all great occa- 
sions, he was with the assembly, and was- uniformly attached to 
the principles of freedom. Governor Dongan, who was styled 
Lord of the Manor of Martin's Vineyard, Dec. 19, 1685, appoint- 
ed Mr. Nicoll steward thereof, during his pleasure. In 1707, 
Giles Sylvester devised all his lands upon Shelter Island to him, 
and made him his executor, which, with his previous purchases, 
made him the owner of four-fifths of said island. He died at the 
age of 66, in 1723, leaving sons, Benjamin, William and Van 
Rensselaer, and daughters, Mary, Catharine and Frances. Hi» 
wife died in 1715. Mary married John Watts of New York, and 
had issue Robert and John. Catharine married Jonathan Havens 
of Shelter Island, was the mother of Nicoll, and grandmother 
of the Hon. Jonathan Nicoll Havens ; and Frances married Ed- 
ward Holland of New York. 

Benjamin Nicoll, eldest son of the patentee, was bom 1694, 
and inherited the Islip estate. His wife was Charity, daughter of 
Richard Floyd 2d, and of course his own cousin. She was bom 
April 6, 1692, and married in 1714. Mr. Nicoll died 1724, at 
the age of 33 years, leaving sons, William and Benjamin ; and 
his widow married Sept. 26, 1725, the Rev. Dr. Samuel Johnson 
of Stratford, Conn., afterwards president of King's (now Colum- 
bia) College, N. Y., by whom she had also two sons, William and 
Samuel William, the latter of whom was the first president of 
Columbia College. Her death took place at the age of 66, June 
5, 1758. Her two eldest sons were educated under the direction 
of their step-father, and both graduated at Yale College in 1734. 

To William Nicoll, second son of the patentee, was devised 
one-fourth of Shelter Island, including Sachem's Neck and the 
lands adjoining ; to his third son. Van Rensselaer, all the land 

Vol. II. 50 


and personal estate at or near Albany, which belonged to his mo- 
ther. He married Miss Salisbury, and was the father of Francis 
Nicoll, formerly of Albany, whose wife was Martha Van Rensse- 
laer. Of the last named WiUiam, commonly called speaker 
Nicoll, who died a bachelor in 1768, notice has been taken under 
the article Shelter Island. 

WilHam Nicoll 3dj and son of Benjamin, known as lawyer or 
clerk Nicoll, was born Oct. 7, 1715, and married Joanna, daugh- 
ter of Captain Samuel De Honneur. He was bred to the law, 
and was in 1750 appointed clerk of Suffolk, which office he held 
till his death, March 1, 1780. 

During the last four years of his life, the administration of jus- 
tice upon Long Island was suspended by the war, and his office 
afforded no profit. His last entry upon the records, bears date 
Nov. 8, 1776. He was an active member of assembly, when 
elected in March, 1768, to supply the place of his uncle, speaker 
Nicoll. That assembly being dissolved Jan. 2, 1769, he was 
again chosen in March following, with Colonel Nathaniel Wood- 
hull, for Suffolk. In 1774 he was appointed a commissioner with 
John Watts, William Smith and Robert R. Livingston, to meet 
those on the part of Massachusetts, for settling the boundary line 
between the two colonies, and whose decision was approved by 
Governors Tryon and Hutchinson. He was also concerned in 
petitions addressed by the assembly to the king, the memorial to 
the lords, and remonstrance to the commons, April 25, 1775.* 

This last assembly of the colony government, continued till su- 
perseded by the provincial congress or convention in May, 1775. 
During this period, the disputes between the mother country and 
her colonies arrived at a crisis. The time for action had come, 
and the all important question, whether the colonists were to be the 
vassals of the British king and parliament, or freemen, was to be 
decided, if it must, by the sword, the " ultima ratio^^ of nations. 
The approach of a conflict so apparently unequal, and in which 
the result was so uncertain, staggered many who were at heart 
warmly in favor of independence. The occasion was momentous, 
and evidently required a strong moral courage, sustained and in- 
vigorated by all the zeal and energy of the most ardent patriotism. 
Col. WoodhuU was ready for the crisis, and met it without dis- 


may, but Mr. NicoU was less determined and active. If he was 
decided in his opposition to the arbitrary measures of parliament, 
he yet wanted the boldness and unflinching energy of his grand- 
father and uncle, either of whom, judging from their conduct on 
other occasions, involving similar principles, would have been at 
the head of opposition- It is, however, but justice to the cha- 
racter of Mr. Nicoll to say, that ct this critical juncture in public 
affairs, having been attacked with paralysis, he had become ener- 
vated by disease, which rendered him in a great measure, unfit to 
assume an active part in those stirring scenes, which required the 
energy and elasticity of middle age. He was well known to have 
openly and boldly expressed his opinion, that America must and 
would be independent, and if health had permitted, it is most 
likely that he would have been found foremost, in the great and 
leading measures adopted by the colonies.